1Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jul 30: 2930-9
PMID12087179
TitleOn the epigenetic regulation of the human reelin promoter.
AbstractReln mRNA and protein levels are reduced by approximately 50% in various cortical structures of post-mortem brain from patients diagnosed with schizophrenia or bipolar illness with psychosis. To study mechanisms responsible for this down-regulation, we have analyzed the promoter of the human reelin gene. We show that the reelin promoter directs expression of a reporter construct in multiple human cell types: neuroblastoma cells (SHSY5Y), neuronal precursor cells (NT2), differentiated neurons (hNT) and hepatoma cells (HepG2). Deletion constructs confirmed the presence of multiple elements regulating Reln expression, although the promoter activity is promiscuous, i.e. activity did not correlate with expression of the endogenous gene as reflected in terms of reelin mRNA levels. Co-transfection of the -514 bp human reelin promoter with either Sp1 or TBR1 demonstrated that these transcription factors activate reporter expression by 6- and 8.5-fold, respectively. Within 400 bp of the RNA start site there are 100 potential CpG targets for DNA methylation. Retinoic acid (RA)-induced differentiation of NT2 cells to hNT neurons was accompanied by increased reelin expression and by the appearance of three DNase I hypersensitive sites 5' to the RNA start site. RA-induced differentiation was also associated with demethylation of the reelin promoter. To test if methylation silenced reelin expression, we methylated the promoter in vitro prior to transfection. In addition, we treated NT2 cells with the methylation inhibitor aza-2'-deoxycytidine and observed a 60-fold increase in reelin mRNA levels. The histone deacetylase inhibitors trichostatin A (TSA) and valproic acid also induced expression of the endogenous reelin promoter, although TSA was considerably more potent. These findings indicate that one determinant responsible for regulating reelin expression is the methylation status of the promoter. Our data also raise the interesting possibility that the down-regulation of reelin expression documented in psychiatric patients might be the consequence of inappropriate promoter hypermethylation.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenics
2Biol. Psychiatry 2003 Jan 53: 39-47
PMID12513943
TitleMRNA expression patterns and distribution of white matter neurons in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of depressed patients differ from those in schizophrenia patients.
Abstractschizophrenia, bipolar illness, and major depressive disorder have distinct presentations, but share some common symptoms. Hence, some common cellular and molecular abnormalities may be identifiable in these disorders.
We examined cell-specific markers in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of brains from 18 patients with bipolar or major depressive disorder, and 18 matched controls, using in situ hybridization histochemistry and staining for nicotinamide-dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH). The distribution of NADPH-positive interstitial cells of the white matter and the expression of the mRNA for the 67 KD form of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD(67)) had previously been shown to be altered in prefrontal cortex of schizophrenics. Other markers identifying glutamatergic neuronal populations were alpha-type II calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase (CAMKII-alpha), brain derived neurotrophic factor, (BDNF) and the putative transcription factor, T-brain-1 (TBR1).
Expression of GAD67 and the distribution of NADPH-positive cells in the white matter were not significantly altered in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of depressed subjects. Expression of CAMKII-alpha and TBR1 mRNAs was significantly increased in bipolar patients but not in major depressed patients, and there was a trend toward reduced BDNF expression in both groups. Abnormal patterns of gene expression and neuronal distribution in schizophrenics are markedly different from those in depressed patients.
The findings that TBR1 and CAMKII-alpha expression is increased only in bipolar patients suggests abnormalities of specific genes related to a major cortical cell type and its connectivity.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenics
3Biol. Psychiatry 2003 Jan 53: 39-47
PMID12513943
TitleMRNA expression patterns and distribution of white matter neurons in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of depressed patients differ from those in schizophrenia patients.
Abstractschizophrenia, bipolar illness, and major depressive disorder have distinct presentations, but share some common symptoms. Hence, some common cellular and molecular abnormalities may be identifiable in these disorders.
We examined cell-specific markers in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of brains from 18 patients with bipolar or major depressive disorder, and 18 matched controls, using in situ hybridization histochemistry and staining for nicotinamide-dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH). The distribution of NADPH-positive interstitial cells of the white matter and the expression of the mRNA for the 67 KD form of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD(67)) had previously been shown to be altered in prefrontal cortex of schizophrenics. Other markers identifying glutamatergic neuronal populations were alpha-type II calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase (CAMKII-alpha), brain derived neurotrophic factor, (BDNF) and the putative transcription factor, T-brain-1 (TBR1).
Expression of GAD67 and the distribution of NADPH-positive cells in the white matter were not significantly altered in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of depressed subjects. Expression of CAMKII-alpha and TBR1 mRNAs was significantly increased in bipolar patients but not in major depressed patients, and there was a trend toward reduced BDNF expression in both groups. Abnormal patterns of gene expression and neuronal distribution in schizophrenics are markedly different from those in depressed patients.
The findings that TBR1 and CAMKII-alpha expression is increased only in bipolar patients suggests abnormalities of specific genes related to a major cortical cell type and its connectivity.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenics
4Front Neuroanat 2009 -1 3: 7
PMID19543540
TitleNeurons in the white matter of the adult human neocortex.
AbstractThe white matter (WM) of the adult human neocortex contains the so-called "interstitial neurons". They are most numerous in the superficial WM underlying the cortical gyri, and decrease in density toward the deep WM. They are morphologically heterogeneous. A subgroup of interstitial neurons display pyramidal-cell like morphologies, characterized by a polarized dendritic tree with a dominant apical dendrite, and covered with a variable number of dendritic spines. In addition, a large contingent of interstitial neurons can be classified as interneurons based on their neurochemical profile as well as on morphological criteria. WM- interneurons have multipolar or bipolar shapes and express GABA and a variety of other neuronal markers, such as calbindin and calretinin, the extracellular matrix protein reelin, or neuropeptide Y, somatostatin, and nitric oxide synthase. The heterogeneity of interstitial neurons may be relevant for the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease and schizophrenia. Interstitial neurons are most prominent in human brain, and only rudimentary in the brain of non-primate mammals. These evolutionary differences have precluded adequate experimental work on this cell population, which is usually considered as a relict of the subplate, a transient compartment proper of development and without a known function in the adult brain. The primate-specific prominence of the subplate in late fetal stages points to an important role in the establishment of interstitial neurons. Neurons in the adult WM may be actively involved in coordinating inter-areal connectivity and regulation of blood flow. Further studies in primates will be needed to elucidate the developmental history, adult components and activities of this large neuronal system.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenics
5Stem Cell Reports 2014 Mar 2: 295-310
PMID24672753
TitleModeling hippocampal neurogenesis using human pluripotent stem cells.
AbstractThe availability of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) offers the opportunity to generate lineage-specific cells to investigate mechanisms of human diseases specific to brain regions. Here, we report a differentiation paradigm for hPSCs that enriches for hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) granule neurons. This differentiation paradigm recapitulates the expression patterns of key developmental genes during hippocampal neurogenesis, exhibits characteristics of neuronal network maturation, and produces PROX1+ neurons that functionally integrate into the DG. Because hippocampal neurogenesis has been implicated in schizophrenia (SCZD), we applied our protocol to SCZD patient-derived human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). We found deficits in the generation of DG granule neurons from SCZD hiPSC-derived hippocampal NPCs with lowered levels of NEUROD1, PROX1, and TBR1, reduced neuronal activity, and reduced levels of spontaneous neurotransmitter release. Our approach offers important insights into the neurodevelopmental aspects of SCZD and may be a promising tool for drug screening and personalized medicine.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenics
6J. Anat. 2016 Mar 228: 452-63
PMID26612825
TitleDistinct expression patterns for type II topoisomerases IIA and IIB in the early foetal human telencephalon.
AbstractTOP2A and TOP2B are type II topoisomerase enzymes that have important but distinct roles in DNA replication and RNA transcription. Recently, TOP2B has been implicated in the transcription of long genes in particular that play crucial roles in neural development and are susceptible to mutations contributing to neurodevelopmental conditions such as autism and schizophrenia. This study maps their expression in the early foetal human telencephalon between 9 and 12 post-conceptional weeks. TOP2A immunoreactivity was restricted to cell nuclei of the proliferative layers of the cortex and ganglionic eminences (GE), including the ventricular zone and subventricular zone (SVZ) closely matching expression of the proliferation marker KI67. Comparison with sections immunolabelled for NKX2.1, a medial GE (MGE) marker, and PAX6, a cortical progenitor cell and lateral GE (LGE) marker, revealed that TOP2A-expressing cells were more abundant in MGE than the LGE. In the cortex, TOP2B is expressed in cell nuclei in both proliferative (SVZ) and post-mitotic compartments (intermediate zone and cortical plate) as revealed by comparison with immunostaining for PAX6 and the post-mitotic neuron marker TBR1. However, co-expression with KI67 was rare. In the GE, TOP2B was also expressed by proliferative and post-mitotic compartments. In situ hybridisation studies confirmed these patterns of expression, except that TOP2A mRNA is restricted to cells in the G2/M phase of division. Thus, during early development, TOP2A is likely to have a role in cell proliferation, whereas TOP2B is expressed in post-mitotic cells and may be important in controlling expression of long genes even at this early stage.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenics