1Eur. J. Neurosci. 2005 Feb 21: 1070-6
PMID15787711
TitlePDE10A inhibition reverses subchronic PCP-induced deficits in attentional set-shifting in rats.
AbstractPersistent suppression of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor function produces enduring structural changes in neocortical and limbic regions in a pattern similar to changes reported in schizophrenia. This similarity suggests that chronic NMDA receptor antagonism in animals may represent a useful model of neurobiological and related cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. schizophrenia is associated with impairments in frontal lobe-dependent cognitive functions, including working memory and attentional shifting. Deficits in attention and executive function have not been well characterized in animal models of schizophrenia using chronic NMDA receptor antagonist administration. We investigated whether subchronic systemic administration of the NMDA receptor antagonist phencyclidine (PCP) to rats followed by a drug washout period would produce enduring cognitive deficits on an attentional set-shifting task. The task is functionally analogous to a sensitive test of frontal function in humans and non-human primates. Subchronic PCP administration selectively impaired extradimensional shift learning without affecting other discrimination or reversal tasks. Moreover, acute treatment with the PDE10A inhibitor papaverine immediately prior to testing attenuated the PCP-induced deficits in extradimensional shift learning across a range of doses. These data suggest that subchronic PCP administration may model effectively some of the cognitive deficits that are observed in schizophrenia, and that PDE10A inhibition may be an effective therapeutic route to improve executive function deficits associated with schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
2Curr Opin Investig Drugs 2007 Jan 8: 54-9
PMID17263185
TitlePhosphodiesterase 10A inhibitors: a novel approach to the treatment of the symptoms of schizophrenia.
AbstractA disruption of corticostriatal signaling is believed to underlie the psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia and also contribute to many of the cognitive deficits associated with this disorder. Phosphodiesterase (PDE)10A is a dual substrate PDE highly expressed in striatal medium spiny neurons. Biochemical and behavioral studies indicate that the inhibition of PDE10A enhances striatal output by increasing activity in the cGMP and cAMP signaling pathways. PDE10A inhibitors reduce exploratory activity and antagonize the stimulant response to both amphetamine and N-methyl-d-aspartate antagonists such as phencyclidine. Consistent with their potential as antipsychotic agents, PDE10A inhibitors are potent antagonists of conditioned avoidance responding. The presence of PDE10A in both striatal output pathways may reduce the incidence and severity of dopamine D2 receptor antagonist-like side effects, including extrapyramidal symptoms. In addition, by enhancing corticostriatal signaling, PDE10A inhibitors have the potential to improve some of the cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
3Expert Opin Drug Discov 2007 Jul 2: 1001-9
PMID23484819
TitlePhosphodiesterase 10A inhibitors as a novel therapeutic approach for schizophrenia.
AbstractPhosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) is a recently identified member of the cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase family. PDE10A is notable in that it has a relatively restricted distribution: PDE10A mRNA and protein are expressed primarily in the dopaminoreceptive medium spiny neurons of the striatum. Potent and selective PDE10A inhibitors have recently been described in the scientific literature and their in vivo effects suggest the potential uses of PDE10A inhibitors in CNS disorders, particularly schizophrenia. This article provides a brief overview of the presently available scientific literature as well as recent meeting presentations.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
4J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 2008 May 325: 681-90
PMID18287214
TitlePreclinical characterization of selective phosphodiesterase 10A inhibitors: a new therapeutic approach to the treatment of schizophrenia.
AbstractWe have recently proposed the hypothesis that inhibition of the cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) 10A may represent a new pharmacological approach to the treatment of schizophrenia (Curr Opin Invest Drug 8:54-59, 2007). PDE10A is highly expressed in the medium spiny neurons of the mammalian striatum (Brain Res 985:113-126, 2003; J Histochem Cytochem 54:1205-1213, 2006; Neuroscience 139:597-607, 2006), where the enzyme is hypothesized to regulate both cAMP and cGMP signaling cascades to impact early signal processing in the corticostriatothalamic circuit (Neuropharmacology 51:374-385, 2006; Neuropharmacology 51:386-396, 2006). Our current understanding of the physiological role of PDE10A and the therapeutic utility of PDE10A inhibitors derives in part from studies with papaverine, the only pharmacological tool for this target extensively profiled to date. However, this agent has significant limitations in this regard, namely, relatively poor potency and selectivity and a very short exposure half-life after systemic administration. In the present report, we describe the discovery of a new class of PDE10A inhibitors exemplified by TP-10 (2-{4-[-pyridin-4-yl-1-(2,2,2-trifluoro-ethyl)-1H-pyrazol-3-yl]-phenoxymethyl}-quinoline succinic acid), an agent with greatly improved potency, selectivity, and pharmaceutical properties. These new pharmacological tools enabled studies that provide further evidence that inhibition of PDE10A represents an important new target for the treatment of schizophrenia and related disorders of basal ganglia function.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
5Bioorg. Med. Chem. 2008 Apr 16: 3675-86
PMID18299198
TitleCoMFA and HQSAR studies on 6,7-dimethoxy-4-pyrrolidylquinazoline derivatives as phosphodiesterase10A inhibitors.
AbstractPhosphodiesterase10A (PDE10A) is an important enzyme with diverse biological actions in intracellular signaling systems, making it an emerging target for diseases such as schizophrenia, Huntington's disease, and diabetes mellitus. The objective of the current 3D QSAR study is to uncover some of the structural parameters which govern PDE10A inhibitory activity over PDE3A/B. Thus, comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and hologram quantitative structure-activity relationship (HQSAR) studies were carried out on recently reported 6,7-dimethoxy-4-pyrrolidylquinazoline derivatives as PDE10A inhibitors. The best CoMFA model using atom-fit alignment approach with the bound conformation of compound 21 as the template yielded the steric parameter as a major contributor (nearly 70%) to the observed variations in biological activity. The best CoMFA model produced statistically significant results, with the cross-validated (r(cv)(2)) and conventional correlation (r(ncv)(2)) coefficients being 0.557 and 0.991, respectively, for the 21 training set compounds. Validation of the model by external set of six compounds yielded a high (0.919) predictive value. The CoMFA models of PDE10A and PDE3A/B activity were compared in order to address the selectivity issue of these inhibitors. The best HQSAR model for PDE10A was obtained with an r(cv)(2) of 0.704 and r(ncv)(2) of 0.902 using atoms, bonds, connections, chirality, donor, and acceptor as fragment distinction and default fragment size of 4-7 with three components for the 21 compounds. The HQSAR model predicted the external test-set of compounds well since a good agreement between the experimental and predicted values was verified. Taken together, the present QSAR models were found to accurately predict the PDE10A inhibitory activity of the test-set compounds and to yield reliable clues for further optimization of the quinazoline derivatives in the dataset.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
6Psychopharmacology (Berl.) 2009 May 203: 723-35
PMID19066855
TitleEvaluating the antipsychotic profile of the preferential PDE10A inhibitor, papaverine.
AbstractPrepulse inhibition (PPI) is an operational measure of sensorimotor gating that is deficient in schizophrenia patients. In rats, PPI deficits induced by dopamine (DA) agonists are reversed by antipsychotics. Inhibition of the striatum-rich phosphodiesterase (PDE)10A may represent a novel antipsychotic mechanism. Previous studies were controversial, showing antipsychotic-like profiles in measures of PPI for the preferential PDE10A inhibitor papaverine (PAP) but not the novel PDE10A inhibitor TP-10.
The aim of the study was to evaluate the antipsychotic profile of PAP in rats using PPI.
PPI deficits were induced in rats by apomorphine (APO; 0.1, 0.5 mg/kg) or D: -amphetamine (AMPH; 4 mg/kg). PAP (3, 10, 30 mg/kg) or haloperidol (HAL; 0.1 mg/kg) was tested against these agonists in Sprague-Dawley (SD) or Wistar (WI) rats. Prepulse intervals ranged from 10 to 120 ms. Further tests evaluated the effects of PAP on spontaneous locomotion, AMPH (1 mg/kg)-induced hyperlocomotion, and core body temperature (T degrees ).
HAL reversed APO-induced PPI deficits but PAP failed to reverse APO- and AMPH-induced PPI deficits at all doses, strains, pretreatment times, and prepulse intervals. PAP (30 mg/kg) significantly reduced AMPH hyperlocomotion in SD rats, and a similar pattern was detected in WI rats. This PAP dose also strongly reduced spontaneous locomotion and T degrees in SD rats.
Our study does not support an antipsychotic-like profile of PAP in dopaminergic PPI models.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
7J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 2009 Nov 331: 574-90
PMID19661377
TitlePhosphodiesterase 10A inhibitor activity in preclinical models of the positive, cognitive, and negative symptoms of schizophrenia.
AbstractFollowing several recent reports that suggest that dual cAMP and cGMP phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) inhibitors may present a novel mechanism to treat positive symptoms of schizophrenia, we sought to extend the preclinical characterization of two such compounds, papaverine [1-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-6,7-dimethoxyisoquinoline] and MP-10 [2-{[4-(1-methyl-4-pyridin-4-yl-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)phenoxy]methyl}quinoline], in a variety of in vivo and in vitro assays. Both of these compounds were active in a range of antipsychotic models, antagonizing apomorphine-induced climbing in mice, inhibiting conditioned avoidance responding in both rats and mice, and blocking N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist-induced deficits in prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle response in rats, while improving baseline sensory gating in mice, all of which strengthen previously reported observations. These compounds also demonstrated activity in several assays intended to probe negative symptoms and cognitive deficits, two disease domains that are underserved by current treatments, with both compounds showing an ability to increase sociality in BALB/cJ mice in the social approach/social avoidance assay, enhance social odor recognition in mice and, in the case of papaverine, improve novel object recognition in rats. Biochemical characterization of these compounds has shown that PDE10A inhibitors modulate both the dopamine D1-direct and D2-indirect striatal pathways and regulate the phosphorylation status of a panel of glutamate receptor subunits in the striatum. It is striking that PDE10A inhibition increased the phosphorylation of the (+/-)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-proprionic acid receptor GluR1 subunit at residue serine 845 at the cell surface. Together, our results suggest that PDE10A inhibitors alleviate both dopaminergic and glutamatergic dysfunction thought to underlie schizophrenia, which may contribute to the broad-spectrum efficacy.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
8Expert Opin Ther Pat 2009 Dec 19: 1715-25
PMID19939189
TitlePatented PDE10A inhibitors: novel compounds since 2007.
AbstractPDE10A inhibition has generated much excitement as a potential novel mechanism for the treatment of the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. PDE10A is only '10 years old' as a drug discovery target since it was first discovered in 1999, and thus PDE10A is an example of the modern drug discovery paradigm demonstrating the highly increased speed by which novel targets can be validated, hits identified, lead-optimization performed and compounds progressed into clinical trials. At least one PDE10A inhibitor compound has been progressed to clinical Phase II for the treatment of schizophrenia. And preclinical evidence suggests that a PDE10A inhibitor could provide antipsychotic, pro-cognitive and negative symptom efficacy in the same dose range.
The review surveys advances in the medicinal chemistry of PDE10A through the patent literature since 2007. The article is supplemented with selected publications from the scientific literature.
Readers will gain an up to date overview of all patents published in the PDE10A field within the last 2 years and be able to judge about the structure-activity relationship and drugability of most progressed PDE10A compounds.
PDE10A inhibitors will possibly be involved in the treatment of schizophrenia. The field is rapidly approaching a clinical validation of PDE10A inhibitors.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
9J. Med. Chem. 2009 Aug 52: 5188-96
PMID19630403
TitleDiscovery of a novel class of phosphodiesterase 10A inhibitors and identification of clinical candidate 2-[4-(1-methyl-4-pyridin-4-yl-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)-phenoxymethyl]-quinoline (PF-2545920) for the treatment of schizophrenia.
AbstractBy utilizing structure-based drug design (SBDD) knowledge, a novel class of phosphodiesterase (PDE) 10A inhibitors was identified. The structure-based drug design efforts identified a unique "selectivity pocket" for PDE10A inhibitors, and interactions within this pocket allowed the design of highly selective and potent PDE10A inhibitors. Further optimization of brain penetration and drug-like properties led to the discovery of 2-[4-(1-methyl-4-pyridin-4-yl-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)-phenoxymethyl]-quinoline (PF-2545920). This PDE10A inhibitor is the first reported clinical entry for this mechanism in the treatment of schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
10Curr Opin Drug Discov Devel 2009 Jul 12: 458-67
PMID19562642
TitlePDE10A inhibitors: an assessment of the current CNS drug discovery landscape.
AbstractPDE10A is a dual substrate PDE that is highly expressed in medium spiny neurons of the striatal complex. The inhibition of PDE10A produces effects that modulate basal ganglia function in ways that suggest a particular therapeutic utility in the treatment of psychosis in schizophrenia. Significant understanding of PDE10A at the molecular level has helped to guide efforts in inhibitor design, and many different inhibitor classes have now been discovered. At least one PDE10A inhibitor has been advanced into clinical trials to begin to test the hypothesis that such agents may be useful in the treatment of psychosis.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
11J. Neurochem. 2009 May 109: 766-75
PMID19236563
TitlePhosphodiesterase 10A inhibition modulates the sensitivity of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system to D-amphetamine: involvement of the D1-regulated feedback control of midbrain dopamine neurons.
AbstractPhosphodiesterase (PDE) 10A is highly expressed in medium spiny neurons of the striatum, at the confluence of the corticostriatal glutamatergic and the midbrain dopaminergic pathways, both believed to be involved in the physiopathology of schizophrenia. There is a growing body of evidence suggesting that targeting PDE10A may be beneficial for the treatment of positive symptoms in schizophrenia. The aim of the present study was to investigate how PDE10A inhibition modulates mesolimbic dopaminergic neurotransmission. We found that the selective PDE10A inhibitor, MP-10, blocked D-amphetamine-induced hyperactivity as well as D-amphetamine-induced dopamine efflux in the nucleus accumbens in a dose-dependent manner. We further investigated the mechanism by which PDE10A inhibition affects dopaminergic neurotransmission. We report that MP-10 potentiated the effect of a high but not a low dose of D-amphetamine on the mean firing rate of dopaminergic neurons recorded from the ventral tegmental area. Similarly, the effect of a high, but not a low dose of D-amphetamine, was completely reversed by the selective D(1) antagonist, SCH23390. These data suggest that the D(1)-regulated feedback control of midbrain dopamine neurons is a critical pathway involved in the modulation of the response of mesolimbic dopamine neurons to D-amphetamine by PDE10A inhibition.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
12J. Med. Chem. 2010 Jun 53: 4399-411
PMID20450197
TitleDiscovery of imidazo[1,5-a]pyrido[3,2-e]pyrazines as a new class of phosphodiesterase 10A inhibitiors.
AbstractNovel imidazo[1,5-a]pyrido[3,2-e]pyrazines have been synthesized and characterized as both potent and selective phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) inhibitors. For in vitro characterization, inhibition of PDE10A mediated cAMP hydrolysis was used and a QSAR model was established to analyze substitution effects. The outcome of this analysis was complemented by the crystal structure of PDE10A in complex with compound 49. Qualitatively new interactions between inhibitor and binding site were found, contrasting with previously published crystal structures of papaverine-like inhibitors. In accordance with the known antipsychotic potential of PDE10A inhibitors, MK-801 induced stereotypy and hyperactivity in rats were reversed by selected compounds. Thus, a promising compound class has been identified for the treatment of schizophrenia that could circumvent side effects connected with current therapies.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
13Neuropharmacology 2010 Feb 58: 444-51
PMID19765598
TitleAlterations in gene regulation following inhibition of the striatum-enriched phosphodiesterase, PDE10A.
AbstractPDE10A is a member of the phosphodiesterase superfamily highly enriched within medium spiny neurons (MSN) in mammalian striatum. We have used inhibitors of PDE10A and quantitative measures of mRNA to demonstrate that PDE10A controls striatal gene expression by regulating MSN cyclic nucleotide signaling pathways. Acute treatment with PDE10A inhibitors produces rapid and transient transcription of the immediate early gene cfos in rat striatum. Although inhibition of PDE10A causes accumulation of both cAMP and cGMP, the increase in striatal cfos expression appears to depend on changes in cAMP, since the increase is present in mice deficient in nNOS which fail to increase cGMP in response to PDE10A inhibition. Consistent with its expression in a majority of striatal MSN, PDE10A inhibition significantly induces expression of both substance P and enkephalin, neuropeptide markers for the direct and indirect striatal output pathways, respectively. These findings support the hypothesis that PDE10A modulates signal transduction in both striatal output pathways and suggest that PDE10A inhibitors may offer a unique approach to the treatment of schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
14J. Neurosci. 2010 Jul 30: 9027-37
PMID20610737
TitleInterplay of palmitoylation and phosphorylation in the trafficking and localization of phosphodiesterase 10A: implications for the treatment of schizophrenia.
AbstractPhosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) is a striatum-enriched, dual-specific cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase that has gained considerable attention as a potential therapeutic target for psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. As such, a PDE10A-selective inhibitor compound, MP-10, has recently entered clinical testing. Since little is known about the cellular regulation of PDE10A, we sought to elucidate the mechanisms that govern its subcellular localization in striatal medium spiny neurons. Previous reports suggest that PDE10A is primarily membrane bound and is transported throughout medium spiny neuron axons and dendrites. Moreover, it has been shown in PC12 cells that the localization of the major splice form, PDE10A2, may be regulated by protein kinase A phosphorylation at threonine 16 (Thr-16). Using an antibody that specifically recognizes phosphorylated Thr-16 (pThr-16) of PDE10A2, we provide evidence that phosphorylation at Thr-16 is critical for the regulation of PDE10A subcellular localization in vivo. Furthermore, we demonstrate in primary mouse striatal neuron cultures that PDE10A membrane association and transport throughout dendritic processes requires palmitoylation of cysteine 11 (Cys-11) of PDE10A2, likely by the palmitoyl acyltransferases DHHC-7 and -19. Finally, we show that Thr-16 phosphorylation regulates PDE10A trafficking and localization by preventing palmitoylation of Cys-11 rather than by interfering with palmitate-lipid interactions. These data support a model whereby PDE10A trafficking and localization can be regulated in response to local fluctuations in cAMP levels. Given this, we propose that excessive striatal dopamine release, as occurs in schizophrenia, might exert differential effects on the regulation of PDE10A localization in the two striatal output pathways.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
15Biochem. Soc. Trans. 2010 Apr 38: 445-51
PMID20298200
TitleConfirmed rare copy number variants implicate novel genes in schizophrenia.
AbstractUnderstanding how cognitive processes including learning, memory, decision making and ideation are encoded by the genome is a key question in biology. Identification of sets of genes underlying human mental disorders is a path towards this objective. schizophrenia is a common disease with cognitive symptoms, high heritability and complex genetics. We have identified genes involved with schizophrenia by measuring differences in DNA copy number across the entire genome in 91 schizophrenia cases and 92 controls in the Scottish population. Our data reproduce rare and common variants observed in public domain data from >3000 schizophrenia cases, confirming known disease loci as well as identifying novel loci. We found copy number variants in PDE10A (phosphodiesterase 10A), CYFIP1 [cytoplasmic FMR1 (Fragile X mental retardation 1)-interacting protein 1], K(+) channel genes KCNE1 and KCNE2, the Down's syndrome critical region 1 gene RCAN1 (regulator of calcineurin 1), cell-recognition protein CHL1 (cell adhesion molecule with homology with L1CAM), the transcription factor SP4 (specificity protein 4) and histone deacetylase HDAC9, among others (see http://www.genes2cognition.org/SCZ-CNV). Integrating the function of these many genes into a coherent model of schizophrenia and cognition is a major unanswered challenge.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
16Transl Psychiatry 2011 -1 1: e9
PMID22832404
TitleConvergent functional genomics of anxiety disorders: translational identification of genes, biomarkers, pathways and mechanisms.
AbstractAnxiety disorders are prevalent and disabling yet understudied from a genetic standpoint, compared with other major psychiatric disorders such as bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. The fact that they are more common, diverse and perceived as embedded in normal life may explain this relative oversight. In addition, as for other psychiatric disorders, there are technical challenges related to the identification and validation of candidate genes and peripheral biomarkers. Human studies, particularly genetic ones, are susceptible to the issue of being underpowered, because of genetic heterogeneity, the effect of variable environmental exposure on gene expression, and difficulty of accrual of large, well phenotyped cohorts. Animal model gene expression studies, in a genetically homogeneous and experimentally tractable setting, can avoid artifacts and provide sensitivity of detection. Subsequent translational integration of the animal model datasets with human genetic and gene expression datasets can ensure cross-validatory power and specificity for illness. We have used a pharmacogenomic mouse model (involving treatments with an anxiogenic drug--yohimbine, and an anti-anxiety drug--diazepam) as a discovery engine for identification of anxiety candidate genes as well as potential blood biomarkers. Gene expression changes in key brain regions for anxiety (prefrontal cortex, amygdala and hippocampus) and blood were analyzed using a convergent functional genomics (CFG) approach, which integrates our new data with published human and animal model data, as a translational strategy of cross-matching and prioritizing findings. Our work identifies top candidate genes (such as FOS, GABBR1, NR4A2, DRD1, ADORA2A, QKI, RGS2, PTGDS, HSPA1B, DYNLL2, CCKBR and DBP), brain-blood biomarkers (such as FOS, QKI and HSPA1B), pathways (such as cAMP signaling) and mechanisms for anxiety disorders--notably signal transduction and reactivity to environment, with a prominent role for the hippocampus. Overall, this work complements our previous similar work (on bipolar mood disorders and schizophrenia) conducted over the last decade. It concludes our programmatic first pass mapping of the genomic landscape of the triad of major psychiatric disorder domains using CFG, and permitted us to uncover the significant genetic overlap between anxiety and these other major psychiatric disorders, notably the under-appreciated overlap with schizophrenia. PDE10A, TAC1 and other genes uncovered by our work provide a molecular basis for the frequently observed clinical co-morbidity and interdependence between anxiety and other major psychiatric disorders, and suggest schizo-anxiety as a possible new nosological domain.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
17Curr. Pharm. Des. 2011 -1 17: 137-50
PMID21355834
TitlePDE10A inhibitors: novel therapeutic drugs for schizophrenia.
AbstractDisturbances of the basal ganglia processes is heavily involved in schizophrenia. Phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) is a basal ganglia specific hydrolase, which plays an essential role in regulating cAMP/PKA and cGMP/PKG signalling cascades by controlling the magnitude, duration and cellular location of cAMP/cGMP elevation. Biochemical and behavioral data indicate that PDE10A inhibition activates cAMP/PKA signalling in the basal ganglia, leading to the potentiation of dopamine D? receptor signalling, and concomitant inhibition of dopamine D? receptor signalling. Preclinical evidence in a range of animal models suggests that a PDE10A inhibitor could provide efficacy on positive, cognitive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia and PDE10A inhibitors are currently being evaluated in clinical trials for the treatment of schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
18Neuropharmacology 2011 Dec 61: 1275-81
PMID21816164
TitleThe PDE10A inhibitor, papaverine, differentially activates ERK in male and female rat striatal slices.
AbstractThe phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) is highly expressed within dopaminoreceptive medium spiny neurons (MSNs) of the striatum, which are implicated in various neurodegenerative diseases and psychiatric disorders, such as Huntington's disease and schizophrenia. With its dual action on cAMP and cGMP, PDE10A has been proposed to affect several signaling cascades in the corticostriatothalamic circuits. In particular, papaverine, a selective PDE10A inhibitor has been shown to activate/phosphorylate ERK in striatum. We used acute rat striatal slices to further characterize the effects of papaverine on ERK activation/phosphorylation in D1- and D2-responsive striatal neurons. Incubation of striatal slices from male rats with papaverine increased the levels of phospho-ERK1/2 (p-ERK), an effect enhanced with a D1 agonist or a D2 antagonist, but decreased with a D1 receptor antagonist or a D2 receptor agonist. Papaverine-induced increase in p-ERK was localized in striatal neurons receiving D1-enriched presynaptic terminals, as well as in postsynaptic D2-enriched neurons in striatal slices. Interestingly, papaverine had almost no stimulatory effects on ERK1/2 phosphorylation in slices prepared from female rats. In striatal slices prepared from ovariectomized female rats, papaverine treatment stimulated ERK1/2 phosphorylation to levels similar to those in slices from male rats. Moreover, estrogen was found to regulate the levels of D2 but not D1 receptors in striatum. These results indicate that circulating levels of female hormones, and in particular estrogen, regulate the effects of PDE10A inhibition on ERK1/2 phosphorylation in medium spiny neurons, an effect possibly linked to estrogen's regulation of D2 receptors. Considering the variety of events modulated by ERK1/2 activity, these findings suggest that sex difference needs to be taken into consideration for the further investigation of the effects of PDE10A inhibitors.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
19Brain Res. 2011 Mar 1377: 32-40
PMID21211516
TitlePotentiation of NGF-induced neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells by papaverine: role played by PLC-?, IP3 receptors.
AbstractPapaverine, an inhibitor of phosphodiesterase (PDE) 10A, is gaining attention for its potential in the treatment of neuropsychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the putative neuroprotective/neurotrophic actions of papaverine remain unclear. Thus, we investigated the effects of papaverine on nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells. Papaverine potentiated NGF-induced neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. In contrast, the selective PDE10A inhibitor MP-10 had no effect on NGF-induced neurite outgrowth. The potentiation of NGF-induced neurite outgrowth by papaverine was blocked by the PLC-? inhibitor U73122. Furthermore, papaverine's potentiation of NGF-induced neurite outgrowth was also blocked by the co-administration of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) receptor antagonists (xestospongin C and 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB)) and by reduced expression of IP(3) receptor gene (i.e., itpr1 and itpr3) by siRNA. Our findings suggest that papaverine could potentiate NGF-induced neurite outgrowth, and that activation of PLC-? and IP(3) receptors might be involved in the mechanism underlying papaverine's potentiation of neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
20J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 2011 Oct 339: 210-7
PMID21742809
TitlePatterns of brain glucose metabolism induced by phosphodiesterase 10A inhibitors in the mouse: a potential translational biomarker.
AbstractPhosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) inhibitors have recently been proposed as a new therapy for schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to enhance our understanding of the role of PDE10A inhibitors and potentially identify a clinically useful mechanistic/functional biomarker by using 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) autoradiography. PDE10A inhibitors papaverine (10 and 40 mg/kg), 6,7-dimethoxy-4-[(3R)-3-(2-quinoxalinyloxy)-1-pyrrolidinyl]quinazoline (PQ-10), (0.16-10 mg/kg), and 2-[{4-(1-methyl-4-pyridin-4-yl-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)phenoxy}methyl]quinoline (MP-10) (0.16-40 mg/kg) induced region-specific hypermetabolism in the globus pallidus and lateral habenula of C57BL/6 mice. Studies with MP-10 revealed a dose-dependent relative increase in globus pallidus activation, whereas a bell-shaped curve was observed for the lateral habenula. Although the relative increase in 2-DG uptake in the lateral habenula was also characteristic of the D(2) antagonist haloperidol (0.01-0.63 mg/kg), relative 2-DG changes were absent in the globus pallidus. This observation probably is explained by the interaction of PDE10A inhibitors with the D(1) direct pathway as suggested by experiments in combination with the D(1) agonist ()-6-chloro-7,8-dihydroxy-3-allyl-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepine hydrobromide (SKF-82958) (0.16 mg/kg). The absence of an effect of MP-10 (2.5 mg/kg) on relative glucose metabolism in the globus pallidus and lateral habenula of PDE10A knockout mice confirmed the specificity of the signal induced by PDE10A inhibitors. These studies substantiate the regulatory role of PDE10A in the basal ganglia circuit and as such support the potential of PDE10A inhibitors for treating psychiatric disorders. Moreover, we could differentiate PDE10A inhibitors from haloperidol based on specific patterns of hypermetabolism probably caused by its combined action at both direct and indirect dopaminergic pathways. Finally, these specific changes in brain glucose metabolism may act as a translational biomarker for target engagement in future clinical studies.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
21Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2011 Jul 21: 4155-9
PMID21696955
TitleN-Acylhydrazones as inhibitors of PDE10A.
AbstractCyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are represented by a large superfamily of enzymes. A series of hydrazone-based inhibitors was synthesized and shown to be novel, potent, and selective against PDE10A. Optimized compounds of this class were efficacious in animal models of schizophrenia and may be useful for the treatment of this disease.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
22J. Med. Chem. 2011 Jul 54: 4536-47
PMID21650160
TitleUse of structure-based design to discover a potent, selective, in vivo active phosphodiesterase 10A inhibitor lead series for the treatment of schizophrenia.
AbstractUtilizing structure-based virtual library design and scoring, a novel chimeric series of phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) inhibitors was discovered by synergizing binding site interactions and ADME properties of two chemotypes. Virtual libraries were docked and scored for potential binding ability, followed by visual inspection to prioritize analogs for parallel and directed synthesis. The process yielded highly potent and selective compounds such as 16. New X-ray cocrystal structures enabled rational design of substituents that resulted in the successful optimization of physical properties to produce in vivo activity and to modulate microsomal clearance and permeability.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
23Cell 2012 Apr 149: 525-37
PMID22521361
TitleSequencing chromosomal abnormalities reveals neurodevelopmental loci that confer risk across diagnostic boundaries.
AbstractBalanced chromosomal abnormalities (BCAs) represent a relatively untapped reservoir of single-gene disruptions in neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). We sequenced BCAs in patients with autism or related NDDs, revealing disruption of 33 loci in four general categories: (1) genes previously associated with abnormal neurodevelopment (e.g., AUTS2, FOXP1, and CDKL5), (2) single-gene contributors to microdeletion syndromes (MBD5, SATB2, EHMT1, and SNURF-SNRPN), (3) novel risk loci (e.g., CHD8, KIRREL3, and ZNF507), and (4) genes associated with later-onset psychiatric disorders (e.g., TCF4, ZNF804A, PDE10A, GRIN2B, and ANK3). We also discovered among neurodevelopmental cases a profoundly increased burden of copy-number variants from these 33 loci anda significant enrichment of polygenic risk alleles from genome-wide association studies of autism and schizophrenia. Our findings suggest a polygenic risk model of autism and reveal that some neurodevelopmental genes are sensitive to perturbation by multiple mutational mechanisms, leading to variable phenotypic outcomes that manifest at different life stages.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
24Neuropharmacology 2012 Mar 62: 1182-90
PMID21856317
TitleSelective phosphodiesterase inhibitors improve performance on the ED/ID cognitive task in rats.
AbstractA number of selective phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors have been demonstrated to improve learning in several rodent models of cognition. Given that schizophrenia is associated with impairments in frontal lobe-dependent cognitive functions (e.g., working memory and cognitive flexibility), we examined whether PDE inhibitors would attenuate cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia. Persistent suppression of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor function produces enduring structural changes in neocortical and limbic regions in a pattern similar to changes reported in schizophrenia. This similarity suggests that subchronic treatment with NMDA receptor antagonists (e.g., phencyclidine, PCP) may represent a useful preclinical model of neurobiological and related cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia. We treated male Long-Evans rats with subchronic PCP (5 mg/kg, ip, BID, 7 d) or saline and then examined the effects of acute treatment with selected doses of PDE inhibitors that have been demonstrated to regulate both intracellular levels of cAMP and/or cGMP, and to improve cognitive function. We used an extradimensional-intradimensional (ED/ID) test of cognitive flexibility similar to those used in humans and non-human primates for assessing executive function. Subchronic treatment with PCP produced a selective impairment on ED shift (EDS) performance without significant impairment on any other discrimination problem when compared to saline-treated control animals. Selected doses of the four PDEIs evaluated (PDE2: BAY 60-7550; PDE4: rolipram; PDE5: sildenafil; PDE10A: papaverine) were able to significantly attenuate this cognitive deficit in EDS performance. This suggests that this rodent model of executive function was sensitive to pro-cognitive effects of intracellular effects resulting from PDE inhibition. Together, these data suggest that inhibition of PDE activity may represent valuable therapeutic targets to improve cognition associated with neuropsychiatric disorders that feature cognitive dysfunction as a key symptom.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
25Psychopharmacology (Berl.) 2012 May 221: 249-59
PMID22147257
TitleEffect of PDE10A inhibitors on MK-801-induced immobility in the forced swim test.
AbstractNegative symptoms of schizophrenia are insufficiently treated by current antipsychotics. However, research is limited by the lack of validated models. Clinical data indicate that phencyclidine (PCP) abuse may induce symptoms resembling negative symptoms in humans. Based on that, Noda et al. proposed a model of PCP-induced increase of immobility in the forced swim test in mice as a model of depression-like negative symptoms of schizophrenia.
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) inhibition in this model which was modified by using MK-801 instead of PCP.
Increase of immobility in the forced swim test was induced by repeated MK-801 treatment followed by a 2-day washout in mice. The effect of haloperidol, clozapine, risperidone and PDE10A inhibitors was evaluated in this model, on open-field activity and acute MK-801-induced hyperactivity.
Repeated MK-801 treatment significantly increased immobility in the forced swim test without affecting open-field activity. It induced hypersensitivity to the dopamine D1 agonist A-68930, suggesting a hypofunction of the D1 pathway. The increase of immobility is reversed by clozapine and PDE10A inhibitors, but not by haloperidol. Clozapine and the PDE10A inhibitors did not enhance activity at effective doses.
The possibility to substitute PCP by MK-801 in this model indicates that the effect is mediated by their common mechanism of NMDA antagonism. PDE10A inhibitors similar to clozapine significantly antagonize the increase of immobility, suggesting a therapeutic potential for the treatment of negative symptoms. However, further validation of the model is necessary.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
26Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2012 Sep 22: 5595-9
PMID22841436
TitleNovel 2-methoxyacylhydrazones as potent, selective PDE10A inhibitors with activity in animal models of schizophrenia.
AbstractA series of 2-methoxyacylhydrazones were optimized to yield compounds with high affinity for PDE10A. Several compounds demonstrated efficacy in animal models of schizophrenia, including conditioned avoidance response and a pro-psychotic phencyclidine hyperactivity model.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
27Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2012 Apr 22: 2585-9
PMID22377514
TitleThe SAR development of dihydroimidazoisoquinoline derivatives as phosphodiesterase 10A inhibitors for the treatment of schizophrenia.
AbstractThe identification of potent and orally active dihydroimidazoisoquinolines as PDE 10A inhibitors is reported. The SAR development led to the discovery of compound 35 as a potent, selective, and orally active PDE10A inhibitor. Compound 35 inhibited MK-801-induced hyperactivity at 3mg/kg and displayed a 10-fold separation between the minimal effective doses for inhibition of MK-801-induced hyperactivity and hypolocomotion in rats.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
28Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2012 Jan 22: 1019-22
PMID22222034
TitleThe discovery of potent, selective, and orally active pyrazoloquinolines as PDE10A inhibitors for the treatment of Schizophrenia.
AbstractHigh-throughput screening identified a series of pyrazoloquinolines as PDE10A inhibitors. The SAR development led to the discovery of compound 27 as a potent, selective, and orally active PDE10A inhibitor. Compound 27 inhibits MK-801 induced hyperactivity at 3mg/kg with an ED(50) of 4mg/kg and displays a ?6-fold separation between the ED(50) for inhibition of MK-801 induced hyperactivity and hypolocomotion in rats.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
29Mol Biosyst 2013 Mar 9: 386-97
PMID23354020
TitleInhibition mechanism exploration of quinoline derivatives as PDE10A inhibitors by in silico analysis.
AbstractAs a potential target for the treatment of schizophrenia, the dual cAMP/cGMP hydrolyzing enzyme PDE10A has attracted a significant amount of attention. In the present work, the inhibition mechanism of 116 structurally diverse quinoline derivatives as PDE10A inhibitors was explored by 3D-QSAR, molecular docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The QSAR models based on the training set containing 88 molecules were established by using comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA). The resultant optimum CoMSIA model showed strong predictability with a Q(2) of 0.497, an R(ncv)(2) of 0.964 and an R(pre)(2) of 0.885. Furthermore, there was good consistency between the CoMSIA model, docking and MD results. Our findings are: (1) bulky substituents at the 8-position and ring D increase the biological activity. (2) The areas around the 14-position and ring D are the electrostatic and hydrophobic sensitive regions. (3) H-bonds, ?-? stacking interactions and hydrophobic contacts are crucial in determining the binding affinity to PDE10A. (4) The six-membered heterocyclic group at ring D, especially a heterobenzene ring, containing the atom as an H-bond acceptor at the 18-position is essential to water-mediated H-bond networks and favorable in enhancing the inhibitory potency. These models and the derived information may help to provide better understanding of the interaction mechanism of PDE10A inhibitors and to facilitate lead optimization and novel inhibitors' design.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
30Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging 2013 Jan 40: 254-61
PMID23160998
TitleHuman biodistribution and dosimetry of 18F-JNJ42259152, a radioligand for phosphodiesterase 10A imaging.
AbstractPhosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) is a cAMP/cGMP-hydrolysing enzyme with a central role in striatal signalling and implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders such as Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia and addiction. We have developed a novel PDE10A PET ligand, (18)F-JNJ42259152, and describe here its human dynamic biodistribution, safety and dosimetry.
Six male subjects (age range 23-67 years) underwent ten dynamic whole-body PET/CT scans over 6 h after bolus injection of 175.5 9.4 MBq (18)F-JNJ42259152. Source organs were delineated on PET/CT and individual organ doses and effective dose were determined using the OLINDA software.
F-JNJ42259152 was readily taken up by the brain and showed exclusive retention in the brain, especially in the striatum with good washout starting after 20 min. The tracer was cleared through both the hepatobiliary and the urinary routes. No defluorination was observed. Organ absorbed doses were largest for the gallbladder (239 ?Sv/MBq) and upper large intestine (138 ?Sv/MBq). The mean effective dose was 24.9 4.1 ?Sv/MBq. No adverse events were encountered.
In humans, (18)F-JNJ42259152 has an appropriate distribution, brain kinetics and safety. The estimated effective dose was within WHO class IIb with low interindividual variability. Therefore, the tracer is suitable for further kinetic evaluation in humans.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
31Bioorg. Med. Chem. 2013 Dec 21: 7612-23
PMID24238902
TitleDesign and synthesis of novel benzimidazole derivatives as phosphodiesterase 10A inhibitors with reduced CYP1A2 inhibition.
AbstractA novel class of phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) inhibitors with reduced CYP1A2 inhibition were designed and synthesized starting from 2-{[(1-phenyl-1H-benzimidazol-6-yl)oxy]methyl}quinoline (1). Introduction of an isopropyl group at the 2-position and a methoxy group at the 5-position of the benzimidazole ring of lead compound 1 resulted in the identification of 2-{[(2-isopropyl-5-methoxy-1-phenyl-1H-benzimidazol-6-yl)oxy]methyl}quinoline (25b), which exhibited potent PDE10A inhibitory activity with reduced CYP1A2 inhibitory activity compared to compound 1.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
32Neuropharmacology 2013 Jan 64: 215-23
PMID22750078
TitleThe novel phosphodiesterase 10A inhibitor THPP-1 has antipsychotic-like effects in rat and improves cognition in rat and rhesus monkey.
AbstractPhosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) is a novel target for the treatment of schizophrenia that may address multiple symptomatic domains associated with this disorder. PDE10A is highly expressed in the brain and functions to metabolically inactivate the important second messengers cAMP and cGMP. Here we describe effects of a potent and orally bioavailable PDE10A inhibitor [2-(6-chloropyridin-3-yl)-4-(2-methoxyethoxy)-7,8-dihydropyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidin-6(5H)-yl](imidazo[1,5-a]pyridin-1-yl)methanone] (THPP-1) on striatal signaling pathways, in behavioral tests that predict antipsychotic potential, and assays that measure episodic-like memory in rat and executive function in rhesus monkey. THPP-1 exhibits nanomolar potency on the PDE10A enzyme, demonstrates excellent pharmacokinetic properties in multiple preclinical animal species, and is selective for PDE10A over other PDE families of enzymes. THPP-1 significantly increased phosphorylation of proteins in the striatum involved in synaptic plasticity, including the a-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-proprionic acid receptor (AMPA) GluR1 subunit, extracellular receptor kinase (ERK), and cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB). THPP-1 produced dose-dependent effects in preclinical assays predictive of antipsychotic activity including attenuation of MK-801-induced psychomotor activation and condition avoidance responding in rats. At similar plasma exposures, THPP-1 significantly increased object recognition memory in rat and attenuated a ketamine-induced deficit in the object retrieval detour task in rhesus monkey. These findings suggest that PDE10A inhibitors have the potential to impact multiple symptomatic domains of schizophrenia including positive symptoms and cognitive impairment. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Cognitive Enhancers'.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
33Neuropharmacology 2013 Dec 75: 437-44
PMID23973318
TitleSelective inhibition of phosphodiesterase 10A impairs appetitive and aversive conditioning and incentive salience attribution.
AbstractThe pharmacological effect of the selective PDE10A inhibitor 2-[4-(1-methyl-4-pyridin-4-yl-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)-phenoxymethyl]-quinoline succinic acid (MP-10) on aversively and appetitively motivated behavior in C57BL/6J mice was examined. MP-10 dose-dependently impaired performance on a highly demanding reward schedule during appetitive conditioning. The compound further affected cue-based, but not contextual aversive conditioning. Finally, dose-dependent impaired performance in an instrumentally conditioned reinforcement (ICR) task was found. This suggests that the observed behavioral effects of MP-10 can be at least partially ascribed to impaired incentive salience attribution. MP-10 administration dose-dependently enhanced striatal expression of the immediate early gene Zif268, which suggest that MP-10 affects the studied motivated behaviors by enhancing PDE10A-regulated striatal signaling. Striatal signaling thus appears to be crucial in processes that control reward-motivated behavior in general, and incentive salience attribution in particular. Continued research will prove valuable towards a better understanding of psychopathologies that affect reward-motivated behaviors, such as drug addiction and schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
34Bioorg. Med. Chem. 2013 Oct 21: 6053-62
PMID23978358
TitleN-Methylanilide and N-methylbenzamide derivatives as phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) inhibitors.
AbstractPDE10A is a recently identified phosphodiesterase with a quite remarkable localization since the protein is abundant only in brain tissue. Based on this unique localization, research has focused extensively on using PDE10A modulators as a novel therapeutic approach for dysfunction in the basal ganglia circuit including Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, schizophrenia, addiction and obsessive compulsive disorder. Medicinal chemistry efforts identified the N-methyl-N-[4-(quinolin-2-ylmethoxy)-phenyl]-isonicotinamide (8) as a nanomolar PDE10A inhibitor. A subsequent Lead-optimization program identified analogous N-methylanilides and their corresponding N-methylbenzamides (29) as potent PDE10A inhibitors, concurrently some interesting and unexpected binding modes were identified.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
35Neuroimage 2013 Nov 82: 13-22
PMID23664955
TitlePreclinical evaluation of [(18)F]JNJ42259152 as a PET tracer for PDE10A.
AbstractPhosphodiesterase-10A (PDE10A) is implicated in several neuropsychiatric disorders involving basal ganglia neurotransmission, such as schizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive disorder and Huntington's disease. To confirm target engagement and exposure-occupancy relationships of clinical candidates for treatment, and to further explore the in vivo biology of PDE10A, non-invasive imaging using a specific PET ligand is warranted. Recently we have reported the in vivo evaluation of [(18)F]JNJ41510417 which showed specific binding to PDE10A in rat striatum, but with relatively slow kinetics. A chemically related derivative JNJ42259152 was found to have a similar in vivo occupancy, but lower lipophilicity and lower PDE10A in vitro inhibitory activity compared to JNJ41510417. (18)F-labeled JNJ42259152 was therefore evaluated as a potential PDE10A PET radiotracer. Baseline PET in rats and monkey showed specific retention in the PDE10A-rich striatum, and fast wash-out, with a good contrast to non-specific binding, in other brain regions. Pretreatment and chase experiments in rats with the selective PDE10A inhibitor MP-10 showed that tracer binding was specific and reversible. Absence of specific binding in PDE10A knock-out (KO) mice further confirmed PDE10A specificity. In vivo radiometabolite analysis using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) showed presence of polar radiometabolites in rat plasma and brain. In vivo imaging in rat and monkey further showed faster brain kinetics, and higher striatum-to-cerebellum ratios for [(18)F]JNJ42259152 compared to [(18)F]JNJ41510417. The arterial input function corrected for radiometabolites was determined in rats and basic kinetic modeling was established. For a 60-min acquisition time interval, striatal binding potential of the intact tracer referenced to the cerebellum showed good correlation with corresponding binding potential values of a Simplified Reference Tissue Model and referenced Logan Plot, the latter using a population averaged reference tissue-to-plasma clearance rate and offering the possibility to generate representative parametric binding potential images. In conclusion we can state that in vivo imaging in PDE10A KO mice, rats and monkey demonstrates that [(18)F]JNJ42259152 provides a PDE10A-specific signal in the striatum with good pharmacokinetic properties. Although presence of a polar radiometabolite in rat brain yielded a systematic but reproducible underestimation of the striatal BPND, a Logan reference tissue model approach using 60 min acquisition data is appropriate for quantification.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
36Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2013 Dec 23: 6747-54
PMID24231362
TitleDiscovery of benzo[d]imidazo[5,1-b]thiazole as a new class of phosphodiesterase 10A inhibitors.
AbstractThe design, synthesis and structure activity relationship studies of a series of compounds from benzo[d]imidazo[5,1-b]thiazole scaffold as phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) inhibitors are discussed. Several potent analogs with heteroaromatic substitutions (9a-d) were identified. The anticipated binding mode of these analogs was confirmed by performing the in silico docking experiments. Later, the heteroaromatics were substituted with saturated heteroalkyl groups which provided a tool compound 9e with excellent PDE10A activity, PDE selectivity, CNS penetrability and with favorable pharmacokinetic profile in rats. Furthermore, the compound 9e was shown to be efficacious in the MK-801 induced psychosis model and in the CAR model of psychosis.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
37Expert Opin Ther Pat 2013 Jan 23: 31-45
PMID23210904
TitlePhosphodiesterase 10A inhibitors: a 2009 - 2012 patent update.
AbstractInhibitors of the phosphodiesterase enzyme PDE10A have been the target for extensive investigations and huge drug discovery research efforts during the recent years. Although PDE10A with its 13 years history is a relatively newly discovered target, it has been paradigmatic for the new generation of 'high efficiency drug discovery'. Several companies now have clinical programs aiming at validating the clinical potential of PDE10A inhibitors. The majority of companies have been focusing on the treatment of schizophrenia since preclinical evidence suggests that a PDE10A inhibitor could provide antipsychotic, pro-cognitive and negative symptom efficacy.
This article highlights and reviews research advances published in the patent literature since mid-2009 until mid-2012. The article is supplemented with selected publications from the scientific literature, emphasizing the possible involvement of PDE10A inhibitors in the treatment of schizophrenia.
Several compounds from various companies are currently undergoing clinical testing, dominated by compounds in clinical Phase I. Focus is mainly on CNS diseases and schizophrenia is the leading target indication.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
38J. Nucl. Med. 2013 Aug 54: 1285-93
PMID23843566
TitleQuantification of 18F-JNJ-42259152, a novel phosphodiesterase 10A PET tracer: kinetic modeling and test-retest study in human brain.
AbstractPhosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) plays a central role in striatal signaling and is implicated in several neuropsychiatric disorders, such as movement disorders and schizophrenia. We performed initial brain kinetic modeling of the novel PDE10A tracer (18)F-JNJ-42259152 (2-[[4-[1-(2-(18)F-fluoroethyl)-4-(4-pyridinyl)-1H-pyrazol-3-yl]phenoxy]methyl]-3,5-dimethyl-pyridine) and studied test-retest reproducibility in healthy volunteers.
Twelve healthy volunteers (5 men, 7 women; age range, 42-77 y) were scanned dynamically up to 135 min after bolus injection of 172.5 10.3 MBq of (18)F-JNJ42259152. Four volunteers (2 men, 2 women) underwent retest scanning, with a mean interscan interval of 37 d. Input functions and tracer parent fractions were determined using arterial sampling and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Volumes of interest for the putamen, caudate nucleus, ventral striatum, substantia nigra, thalamus, frontal cortex, and cerebellum were delineated using individual volumetric T1 MR imaging scans. One-tissue (1T) and 2-tissue (2T) models were evaluated to calculate total distribution volume (VT). Simplified models were also tested to calculate binding potential (BPND), including the simplified reference tissue model (SRTM) and multilinear reference tissue model, using the frontal cortex as the optimal reference tissue. The stability of VT and BPND was assessed down to a 60-min scan time.
The average intact tracer half-life in blood was 90 min. The 2T model VT values for the putamen, caudate nucleus, ventral striatum, substantia nigra, thalamus, frontal cortex, and cerebellum were 1.54 0.37, 0.90 0.24, 0.64 0.18, 0.42 0.09, 0.35 0.09, 0.30 0.07, and 0.36 0.12, respectively. The 1T model provided significantly lower VT values, which were well correlated to the 2T VT. SRTM BPND values referenced to the frontal cortex were 3.45 0.43, 1.78 0.35, 1.10 0.31, and 0.44 0.09 for the respective target regions putamen, caudate nucleus, ventral striatum, and substantia nigra, with similar values for the multilinear reference tissue model. Good correlations were found for the target regions putamen, caudate nucleus, ventral striatum, and substantia nigra between the 2T-compartment model BPND and the SRTM BPND (r = 0.57, 0.82, 0.70, and 0.64, respectively). SRTM BPND using a 90- and 60-min acquisition interval showed low bias. Test-retest variability was 5%-19% for 2T VT and 5%-12% for BPND SRTM.
Kinetic modeling of (18)F-JNJ-42259152 shows that PDE10A activity can be reliably quantified and simplified using a reference tissue model with the frontal cortex as reference and a 60-min acquisition period.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
39J. Med. Chem. 2014 Nov 57: 9627-43
PMID25384088
TitleDiscovery of 1-[2-fluoro-4-(1H-pyrazol-1-yl)phenyl]-5-methoxy-3-(1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)pyridazin-4(1H)-one (TAK-063), a highly potent, selective, and orally active phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) inhibitor.
AbstractA novel series of pyridazinone-based phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) inhibitors were synthesized. Our optimization efforts using structure-based drug design (SBDD) techniques on the basis of the X-ray crystal structure of PDE10A in complex with hit compound 1 (IC50 = 23 nM; 110-fold selectivity over other PDEs) led to the identification of 1-[2-fluoro-4-(1H-pyrazol-1-yl)phenyl]-5-methoxy-3-(1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)pyridazin-4(1H)-one (27h). Compound 27h has potent inhibitory activity (IC50 = 0.30 nM), excellent selectivity (>15000-fold selectivity over other PDEs), and favorable pharmacokinetics, including high brain penetration, in mice. Oral administration of compound 27h to mice elevated striatal 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and 3',5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) levels at 0.3 mg/kg and showed potent suppression of phencyclidine (PCP)-induced hyperlocomotion at a minimum effective dose (MED) of 0.3 mg/kg. Compound 27h (TAK-063) is currently being evaluated in clinical trials for the treatment of schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
40Behav. Brain Res. 2014 Jul 268: 48-54
PMID24698799
TitleGenetic deletion of PDE10A selectively impairs incentive salience attribution and decreases medium spiny neuron excitability.
AbstractThe striatum is the main input structure to the basal ganglia and consists mainly out of medium spiny neurons. The numerous spines on their dendrites render them capable of integrating cortical glutamatergic inputs with a motivational dopaminergic signal that originates in the midbrain. This integrative function is thought to underly attribution of incentive salience, a process that is severely disrupted in schizophrenic patients. Phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) is located mainly to the striatal medium spiny neurons and hydrolyses cAMP and cGMP, key determinants of MSN signaling. We show here that genetic depletion of PDE10A critically mediates attribution of salience to reward-predicting cues, evident in impaired performance in PDE10A knockout mice in an instrumentally conditioned reinforcement task. We furthermore report modest impairment of latent inhibition in PDE10A knockout mice, and unaltered prepulse inhibition. We suggest that the lack of effect on PPI is due to the pre-attentional nature of this task. Finally, we performed whole-cell patch clamp recordings and confirm suggested changes in intrinsic membrane excitability. A decrease in spontaneous firing in striatal medium spiny neurons was found. These data show that PDE10A plays a pivotal role in striatal signaling and striatum-mediated salience attribution.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
41Behav. Brain Res. 2014 Jul 268: 48-54
PMID24698799
TitleGenetic deletion of PDE10A selectively impairs incentive salience attribution and decreases medium spiny neuron excitability.
AbstractThe striatum is the main input structure to the basal ganglia and consists mainly out of medium spiny neurons. The numerous spines on their dendrites render them capable of integrating cortical glutamatergic inputs with a motivational dopaminergic signal that originates in the midbrain. This integrative function is thought to underly attribution of incentive salience, a process that is severely disrupted in schizophrenic patients. Phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) is located mainly to the striatal medium spiny neurons and hydrolyses cAMP and cGMP, key determinants of MSN signaling. We show here that genetic depletion of PDE10A critically mediates attribution of salience to reward-predicting cues, evident in impaired performance in PDE10A knockout mice in an instrumentally conditioned reinforcement task. We furthermore report modest impairment of latent inhibition in PDE10A knockout mice, and unaltered prepulse inhibition. We suggest that the lack of effect on PPI is due to the pre-attentional nature of this task. Finally, we performed whole-cell patch clamp recordings and confirm suggested changes in intrinsic membrane excitability. A decrease in spontaneous firing in striatal medium spiny neurons was found. These data show that PDE10A plays a pivotal role in striatal signaling and striatum-mediated salience attribution.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
42ACS Chem. Biol. 2014 Dec 9: 2823-32
PMID25295858
TitleChemoproteomics demonstrates target engagement and exquisite selectivity of the clinical phosphodiesterase 10A inhibitor MP-10 in its native environment.
AbstractPhosphodiesterases (PDEs) regulate the levels of the second messengers cAMP and cGMP and are important drug targets. PDE10A is highly enriched in medium spiny neurons of the striatum and is an attractive drug target for the treatment of basal ganglia diseases like schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, or Huntington's disease. Here we describe the design, synthesis, and application of a variety of chemical biology probes, based on the first clinically tested PDE10A inhibitor MP-10, which were used to characterize the chemoproteomic profile of the clinical candidate in its native environment. A clickable photoaffinity probe was used to measure target engagement of MP-10 and revealed differences between whole cell and membrane preparations. Moreover, our results illustrate the importance of the linker design in the creation of functional probes. Biotinylated affinity probes allowed identification of drug-interaction partners in rodent and human tissue and quantitative mass spectrometry analysis revealed highly specific binding of MP-10 to PDE10A with virtually no off-target binding. The profiling of PDE10A chemical biology probes described herein illustrates a strategy by which high affinity inhibitors can be converted into probes for determining selectivity and target engagement of drug candidates in complex biological matrices from native sources.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
43Bioorg. Med. Chem. 2014 Jul 22: 3515-26
PMID24837154
TitleNovel benzimidazole derivatives as phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) inhibitors with improved metabolic stability.
AbstractIn this study, we report the identification of potent benzimidazoles as PDE10A inhibitors. We first identified imidazopyridine 1 as a high-throughput screening hit compound from an in-house library. Next, optimization of the imidazopyridine moiety to improve inhibitory activity gave imidazopyridinone 10b. Following further structure-activity relationship development by reducing lipophilicity and introducing substituents, we acquired 35, which exhibited both improved metabolic stability and reduced CYP3A4 time-dependent inhibition.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
44Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2014 Aug 24: 3238-42
PMID24980052
TitleDesign, synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of novel polycyclic heteroarene ethers as PDE10A inhibitors: part II.
AbstractWe report the design and synthesis of novel pyrrolo[3,2-b]quinoline containing heteroarene ethers as PDE10A inhibitors with good to excellent potency, selectivity and metabolic stability. Further optimization of this primary series resulted in the identification of 1-methyl-3-(4-{[3-(pyridine-4-yl)pyrazin-2-yl]oxy}phenyl)-1H-pyrrolo[3,2-b]pyridine 13a with good hPDE10A potency (IC50: 6.3 nM), excellent selectivity over other related PDEs and desirable physicochemical properties. The compound exhibited high peripheral and adequate brain levels upon oral dosing in rodents. The compound also showed excellent efficacy in multiple preclinical animal models related to psychiatric disorders, particularly schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
45Diabetes 2014 Jan 63: 300-11
PMID24101672
TitleGenetic deletion and pharmacological inhibition of phosphodiesterase 10A protects mice from diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance.
AbstractPhosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) is a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of schizophrenia. Here we report a novel role of PDE10A in the regulation of caloric intake and energy homeostasis. PDE10A-deficient mice are resistant to diet-induced obesity (DIO) and associated metabolic disturbances. Inhibition of weight gain is due to hypophagia after mice are fed a highly palatable diet rich in fats and sugar but not a standard diet. PDE10A deficiency produces a decrease in caloric intake without affecting meal frequency, daytime versus nighttime feeding behavior, or locomotor activity. We tested THPP-6, a small molecule PDE10A inhibitor, in DIO mice. THPP-6 treatment resulted in decreased food intake, body weight loss, and reduced adiposity at doses that produced antipsychotic efficacy in behavioral models. We show that PDE10A inhibition increased whole-body energy expenditure in DIO mice fed a Western-style diet, achieving weight loss and reducing adiposity beyond the extent seen with food restriction alone. Therefore, chronic THPP-6 treatment conferred improved insulin sensitivity and reversed hyperinsulinemia. These data demonstrate that PDE10A inhibition represents a novel antipsychotic target that may have additional metabolic benefits over current medications for schizophrenia by suppressing food intake, alleviating weight gain, and reducing the risk for the development of diabetes.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
46ACS Med Chem Lett 2014 Jun 5: 700-5
PMID24944747
TitleDiscovery of Novel Imidazo[4,5-b]pyridines as Potent and Selective Inhibitors of Phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A).
AbstractWe report the discovery of novel imidazo[4,5-b]pyridines as potent and selective inhibitors of PDE10A. The investigation began with our recently disclosed ketobenzimidazole 1, which exhibited single digit nanomolar PDE10A activity but poor oral bioavailability. To improve oral bioavailability, we turned to novel scaffold imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine 2, which not only retained nanomolar PDE10A activity but was also devoid of the morpholine metabolic liability. Structure-activity relationship studies were conducted systematically to examine how various regions of the molecule impacted potency. X-ray cocrystal structures of compounds 7 and 24 in human PDE10A helped to elucidate the key bonding interactions. Five of the most potent and structurally diverse imidazo[4,5-b]pyridines (4, 7, 12b, 24a, and 24b) with PDE10A IC50 values ranging from 0.8 to 6.7 nM were advanced into receptor occupancy studies. Four of them (4, 12b, 24a, and 24b) achieved 55-74% RO at 10 mg/kg po.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
47Bioorg. Med. Chem. 2014 Dec 22: 6570-85
PMID25456383
TitleSynthesis and preliminary biological evaluation of potent and selective 2-(3-alkoxy-1-azetidinyl) quinolines as novel PDE10A inhibitors with improved solubility.
AbstractWe report the discovery of a novel series of 2-(3-alkoxy-1-azetidinyl) quinolines as potent and selective PDE10A inhibitors. Structure-activity studies improved the solubility (pH 7.4) and maintained high PDE10A activity compared to initial lead compound 3, with select compounds demonstrating good oral bioavailability. X-ray crystallographic studies revealed two distinct binding modes to the catalytic site of the PDE10A enzyme. An ex vivo receptor occupancy assay in rats demonstrated that this series of compounds covered the target within the striatum.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
48J. Med. Chem. 2014 May 57: 4196-212
PMID24758746
TitleDiscovery of a potent, selective, and orally active phosphodiesterase 10A inhibitor for the potential treatment of schizophrenia.
AbstractWe report the discovery of a series of imidazo[1,2-a]pyrazine derivatives as novel inhibitors of phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A). In a high-throughput screening campaign we identified the imidazopyrazine derivative 1, a PDE10A inhibitor with limited selectivity versus the other phosphodiesterases (PDEs). Subsequent investigation of 1 and replacement of the trimethoxyphenyl group by a (methoxyethyl)pyrazole moiety maintained PDE10A inhibition but enhanced selectivity against the other PDEs. Systematic examination and analysis of structure-activity and structure-property relationships resulted in the discovery of 2, an in vitro potent and selective inhibitor of PDE10A with high striatal occupancy of PDE10A, promising in vivo efficacy in different rodent behavioral models of schizophrenia, and a good pharmacokinetic profile in rats.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
49Curr. Med. Chem. 2014 Apr 21: 1171-87
PMID24372206
TitlePhosphodiesterase 10 inhibitors: new disease modifying drugs for Parkinson's disease?
AbstractPhosphodiesterases (PDEs), as key regulators of cyclic nucleotides, and their inhibitors have been emerged as new pharmacological targets and promising drug candidates for many diseases, including central nervous system pathologies. The high level of PDE10A expression in the striatal medium spiny neurons suggests a prominent function role for the isoenzyme. Basal ganglia dysfunction is associated with neuropsychiatric disorders and until recently the development of PDE10A inhibitors has been focused on schizophrenia. Currently, the pharmaceutical research on PDE10A inhibitors is moving to show the modulation of other functions associated with the basal ganglia such the motor control. Thus, PDE10A inhibitors may be important pharmacological agents for neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases. Recent data supporting new clues for PDE10A as therapeutic target together with a concise review of the chemical structures of its inhibitors are provided here. The goal of this manuscript is to provide new ideas for assistant pharmacologist and medicinal chemists in the search for PDE10A inhibitors as new disease modifying drugs for Parkinson's disease.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
50Mol. Divers. 2014 Aug 18: 655-71
PMID24789056
TitleStructural findings of cinnolines as anti-schizophrenic PDE10A inhibitors through comparative chemometric modeling.
Abstractschizophrenia is a complex psychiatric disorder associated with the distortion of striatopallidal neurotransmission of central nervous system. Phosphodiesterase10A (PDE10A) enzyme plays crucial role in cellular signaling pathways in schizophrenia. Inhibition of this enzyme may facilitate better treatment of this disease. 2D-QSAR, HQSAR, pharmacophore mapping, molecular docking, and 3D-QSAR analyses were performed on 81 cinnoline derivatives having PDE10A inhibitory activity. 2D-QSAR models were developed by multiple linear regression and partial least square analyses using both atom based and whole molecular descriptors. The best model, having considerable internal (q(2) = 0.812) and external (R(2)(pred) = 0.691) predictabilities, demonstrated importance of atom-based topological and whole molecular E-state as well as 3D topological indices. The best HQSAR model was also found to be statistically significant (q(2) = 0.664, R(2)(pred) = 0.513) and it highlighted some important structural features. PHASE-based pharmacophore hypothesis showed the importance of three hydrogen bond acceptor and one each of ring aromatic and hydrophobic features for higher activity. 3D-QSAR CoMFA and CoMSIA models were generated on two different types of alignment procedures-(1) pharmacophore (PHASE) based and (2) docking (GLIDE) based. GLIDE-based alignment produced better results for both CoMFA (Q(2) = 0.578; R(2)(pred) = 0.841) and CoMSIA (Q(2) = 0.610; R(2)(pred) = 0.824) methods. Molecular dynamics (MDs) simulations were performed for two ligand-receptor complexes and these simulations explored some crucial factors for higher activity. These findings of MD simulations were consistent with the interpretations obtained from other methods of analyses. The current study may help in designing new PDE10A inhibitors of this class.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
51Mol. Divers. 2014 Aug 18: 655-71
PMID24789056
TitleStructural findings of cinnolines as anti-schizophrenic PDE10A inhibitors through comparative chemometric modeling.
Abstractschizophrenia is a complex psychiatric disorder associated with the distortion of striatopallidal neurotransmission of central nervous system. Phosphodiesterase10A (PDE10A) enzyme plays crucial role in cellular signaling pathways in schizophrenia. Inhibition of this enzyme may facilitate better treatment of this disease. 2D-QSAR, HQSAR, pharmacophore mapping, molecular docking, and 3D-QSAR analyses were performed on 81 cinnoline derivatives having PDE10A inhibitory activity. 2D-QSAR models were developed by multiple linear regression and partial least square analyses using both atom based and whole molecular descriptors. The best model, having considerable internal (q(2) = 0.812) and external (R(2)(pred) = 0.691) predictabilities, demonstrated importance of atom-based topological and whole molecular E-state as well as 3D topological indices. The best HQSAR model was also found to be statistically significant (q(2) = 0.664, R(2)(pred) = 0.513) and it highlighted some important structural features. PHASE-based pharmacophore hypothesis showed the importance of three hydrogen bond acceptor and one each of ring aromatic and hydrophobic features for higher activity. 3D-QSAR CoMFA and CoMSIA models were generated on two different types of alignment procedures-(1) pharmacophore (PHASE) based and (2) docking (GLIDE) based. GLIDE-based alignment produced better results for both CoMFA (Q(2) = 0.578; R(2)(pred) = 0.841) and CoMSIA (Q(2) = 0.610; R(2)(pred) = 0.824) methods. Molecular dynamics (MDs) simulations were performed for two ligand-receptor complexes and these simulations explored some crucial factors for higher activity. These findings of MD simulations were consistent with the interpretations obtained from other methods of analyses. The current study may help in designing new PDE10A inhibitors of this class.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
52Transl Psychiatry 2014 -1 4: e376
PMID24690597
TitleEffect of chronic antipsychotic treatment on striatal phosphodiesterase 10A levels: a [C]MP-10 PET rodent imaging study with ex vivo confirmation.
AbstractA number of phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10) inhibitors are about to undergo clinical evaluation for their efficacy in treating schizophrenia. As phosphodiesterases are in the same signalling pathway as dopamine D2 receptors, it is possible that prior antipsychotic treatment could influence these enzyme systems in patients. Chronic, in contrast to acute, antipsychotic treatment has been reported to increase brain PDE10A levels in rodents. The aim of this study was to confirm these findings in a manner that can be translated to human imaging studies to understand its consequences. Positron emission tomography (PET) scanning was used to evaluate PDE10A enzyme availability, after chronic haloperidol administration, using a specific PDE10A ligand ([(11)C]MP-10). The binding of [(11)C]MP-10 in the striatum and the cerebellum was measured in rodents and a simplified reference tissue model (SRTM) with cerebellum as the reference region was used to determine the binding potential (BPND). In rats treated chronically with haloperidol (2 mg kg(-1) per day), there was no significant difference in PDE10A levels compared with the vehicle-treated group (BPNDs.d.: 3.57 0.64 versus 2.86 0.71). Following PET scans, ex vivo analysis of striatal brain tissue for PDE10A mRNA (PDE10A) and PDE10A enzyme activity showed no significant difference. Similarly, the PDE10A protein content determined by western blot analysis was similar between the two groups, contrary to an earlier finding. The results of the study indicate that prior exposure to antipsychotic medication in rodents does not alter PDE10A levels.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
53Neuropharmacology 2014 Feb 77: 257-67
PMID24490227
TitlePhosphodiesterase 10A inhibitor MP-10 effects in primates: comparison with risperidone and mechanistic implications.
AbstractPhosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) is highly expressed in striatal medium spiny neurons of both the direct and indirect output pathways. Similar to dopamine D? receptor antagonists acting on indirect pathway neurons, PDE10A inhibitors have shown behavioral effects in rodent models that predict antipsychotic efficacy. These findings have supported the clinical investigation of PDE10A inhibitors as a new treatment for schizophrenia. However, PDE10A inhibitors and D? antagonists differ in effects on direct pathway and other neurons of the basal ganglia, indicating that these two drug classes may have divergent antipsychotic efficacy and side effect profile. In the present study, we compare the behavioral effects of the selective PDE10A inhibitor MP-10 to those of the clinical standard D? antagonist risperidone in rhesus monkeys using a standardized motor disability scale for parkinsonian primates and a newly designed "Drug Effects on Nervous System" scale to assess non-motor effects. Behavioral effects of MP-10 correlated with its plasma levels and its regulation of metabolic activity in striatal and cortical regions as measured by FDG-PET imaging. While MP-10 and risperidone broadly impacted similar behavioral domains in the primate, their effects had a different underlying basis. MP-10-treated animals retained the ability to respond but did not engage tasks, whereas risperidone-treated animals retained the motivation to respond but were unable to perform the intended actions. These findings are discussed in light of what is currently known about the modulation of striatal circuitry by these two classes of compounds, and provide insight into interpreting emerging clinical data with PDE10A inhibitors for the treatment of psychotic symptoms.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
54Psychopharmacology (Berl.) 2014 May 231: 2189-97
PMID24363077
TitleInhibition of phosphodiesterase 10A has differential effects on dopamine D1 and D2 receptor modulation of sensorimotor gating.
AbstractInhibitors of phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A), an enzyme highly expressed in medium spiny neurons of the mammalian striatum, enhance activity in direct (dopamine D1 receptor-expressing) and indirect (D2 receptor-expressing striatal output) pathways. The ability of such agents to act to potentiate D1 receptor signaling while inhibiting D2 receptor signaling suggest that PDE10A inhibitors may have a unique antipsychotic-like behavioral profile differentiated from the D2 receptor antagonist-specific antipsychotics currently used in the treatment of schizophrenia.
To evaluate the functional consequences of PDE10A inhibitor modulation of D1 and D2 receptor pathway signaling, we compared the effects of a PDE10A inhibitor (TP-10) on D1 and D2 receptor agonist-induced disruptions in prepulse inhibition (PPI), a measure of sensorimotor gating disrupted in patients with schizophrenia.
Our results indicate that, in rats: (1) PDE10A inhibition (TP-10, 0.32-10.0mg/kg) has no effect on PPI disruption resulting from the mixed D1/D2 receptor agonist apomorphine (0.5mg/kg), confirming previous report; (2) Yet, TP-10 blocked the PPI disruption induced by the D2 receptor agonist quinpirole (0.5mg/kg); and attenuated apomorphine-induced disruptions in PPI in the presence of the D1 receptor antagonist SCH23390 (0.005mg/kg).
These findings indicate that TP-10 cannot block dopamine agonist-induced deficits in PPI in the presence of D1 activation and suggest that the effect of PDE10A inhibition on D1 signaling may be counterproductive in some models of antipsychotic activity. These findings, and the contribution of TP-10 effects in the direct pathway on sensorimotor gating in particular, may have implications for the potential antipsychotic efficacy of PDE10A inhibitors.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
55Curr. Pharm. Des. 2015 -1 21: 378-88
PMID25159072
TitleEmerging biology of PDE10A.
AbstractCyclic AMP and cyclic GMP are essential second messengers that regulate multiple signaling pathways in virtually all cell types. Their accumulation in cells is finely regulated by cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs), the only enzymes that can degrade these signaling molecules and thus provide exquisite control over intracellular signaling processes. One PDE family, PDE10A, is highly enriched in the brain and its unique expression profile in specific brain regions of interest, in particular to antipsychotic treatment, has made it an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of schizophrenia. However, after a Phase II trial failure of a selective PDE10A inhibitor for the treatment of schizophrenia, it has encouraged the field to reexamine the role of this enzyme in the brain, and the possible CNS disorders in which PDE10A inhibition could be therapeutic. We will review the localization of PDE10A, both within the brain and the neuron and discuss how its role in regulating cAMP and cGMP accumulation modulates intracellular signaling pathways. Since this cellular signaling has best been documented in the striatum, we will focus our discussion of PDE10A in the context of disorders that affect the basal ganglia, including psychiatric disorders such as bipolar disorder and autism spectrum disorders and the movement disorders, including Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
56Curr. Pharm. Des. 2015 -1 21: 3813-28
PMID26044976
TitleTreatment of Cognitive Impairment in Schizophrenia: Potential Value of Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors in Prefrontal Dysfunction.
AbstractNo pharmacological treatment is available to date that shows satisfactory effects on cognitive symptoms in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. Phosphodiesterase inhibitors (PDE-Is) improve neurotransmitter signaling by interfering in intracellular second messenger cascades. By preventing the breakdown of cAMP and/or cGMP, central neurotransmitter activity is maintained. Different PDE families exist with distinct characteristics among which substrate specificity and regional distribution. Preclinical data is promising especially with regard to inhibition of PDE2, PDE4, PDE5 and PDE10. In addition, cognitive improvement has been reported in both elderly and/or non-impaired young human subjects after PDE1 or PDE4 inhibition. Moreover, some of these studies show effects on cognitive domains relevant to schizophrenia, in particular memory. The current review incorporates an overview of the distinct molecular characteristics of the different PDE families and their relationship to the neurobiological mechanisms related to cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia. So far, procognitive effects of only three types of PDE-Is have been assessed in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia inhibiting PDE3, PDE5 and PDE10. However, the limited data available do not allow to draw firm conclusions on the value of PDE-Is as cognitive enhancers in schizophrenia yet. The field is still in its infancy, but nevertheless different PDE-Is seem promising as candidate to optimise neural communication in the prefrontal cortex favouring cognitive functioning in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, in particular dual inhibitors including PDE1-Is, PDE3-Is and PDE10A-Is.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
57J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 2015 Mar 352: 471-9
PMID25525190
TitleIn vivo pharmacological characterization of TAK-063, a potent and selective phosphodiesterase 10A inhibitor with antipsychotic-like activity in rodents.
AbstractPhosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) is a cAMP/cGMP phosphodiesterase highly expressed in medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in the striatum. We evaluated the in vivo pharmacological profile of a potent and selective PDE10A inhibitor, TAK-063 (1-[2-fluoro-4-(1H-pyrazol-1-yl)phenyl]-5-methoxy-3-(1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)-pyridazin-4(1H)-one). TAK-063 at 0.3 and 1 mg/kg p.o., increased cAMP and cGMP levels in the rodent striatum and upregulated phosphorylation levels of key substrates of cAMP- and cGMP-dependent protein kinases. TAK-063 at 0.3 and 1 mg/kg p.o., strongly suppressed MK-801 [(5R,10S)-(+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine]-induced hyperlocomotion, which is often used as a predictive model for antipsychotic-like activity in rodents. Upregulation of striatal cAMP/cGMP levels and the antipsychotic-like effect of TAK-063 were not attenuated after 15 days of pretreatment with TAK-063 in mice. The potential side effect profile of TAK-063 was assessed in rats using the clinical antipsychotics haloperidol, olanzapine, and aripiprazole as controls. TAK-063 did not affect plasma prolactin or glucose levels at doses up to 3 mg/kg p.o. At 3 mg/kg p.o., TAK-063 elicited a weak cataleptic response compared with haloperidol and olanzapine. Evaluation of pathway-specific markers (substance P mRNA for the direct pathway and enkephalin mRNA for the indirect pathway) revealed that TAK-063 activated both the direct and indirect pathways of MSNs. These findings suggest that TAK-063 represents a promising drug for the treatment of schizophrenia with potential for superior safety and tolerability profiles.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
58Nucl. Med. Biol. 2015 Feb 42: 146-54
PMID25451212
TitleCharacterization of the binding properties of T-773 as a PET radioligand for phosphodiesterase 10A.
AbstractPhosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) is a dual-substrate PDE that hydrolyzes both cAMP and cGMP and is selectively expressed in striatal medium spiny neurons. Recent studies have suggested that PDE10A inhibition is a novel approach for the treatment of disorders such as schizophrenia and Huntington's disease. A positron emission tomography (PET) occupancy study can provide useful information for the development of PDE10A inhibitors. We discovered T-773 as a candidate PET radioligand for PDE10A and investigated its properties by in vitro autoradiography and a PET study in a monkey.
Profiling of T-773 as a PET radioligand for PDE10A was conducted by in vitro enzyme inhibitory assay, in vitro autoradiography, and PET study in a monkey.
T-773 showed a high binding affinity and selectivity for human recombinant PDE10A2 in vitro; the IC50 value in an enzyme inhibitory assay was 0.77nmol/L, and selectivity over other PDEs was more than 2500-fold. In autoradiography studies using mouse, rat, monkey, or human brain sections, radiolabeled T-773 selectively accumulated in the striatum. This selective accumulation was not observed in the brain sections of PDE10A-KO mice. The binding of [(3)H]T-773 to PDE10A in rat brain sections was competitively inhibited by MP-10, a selective PDE10A inhibitor. In rat brain sections, [(3)H]T-773 bound to a single high affinity site of PDE10A with Kd values of 12.22.2 and 4.71.2nmol/L in the caudate-putamen and nucleus accumbens, respectively. In a monkey PET study, [(11)C]T-773 showed good brain penetration and striatum-selective accumulation.
These results suggest that [(11)C]T-773 is a potential PET radioligand for PDE10A.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
59Bioorg. Med. Chem. 2015 Jan 23: 297-313
PMID25515954
TitleSynthesis, SAR study, and biological evaluation of novel quinoline derivatives as phosphodiesterase 10A inhibitors with reduced CYP3A4 inhibition.
AbstractA novel class of phosphodiesterase 10A inhibitors with potent PDE10A inhibitory activity and reduced CYP3A4 inhibition was designed and synthesized starting from 2-[4-({[1-methyl-4-(pyridin-4-yl)-1H-pyrazol-3-yl]oxy}methyl)phenyl]quinoline (1). Replacement of pyridine ring of 1 with N-methyl pyridone ring drastically improved CYP3A4 inhibition, and further optimization of these quinoline analogues identified 1-methyl-5-(1-methyl-3-{[4-(quinolin-2-yl)phenoxy]methyl}-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)pyridin-2(1H)-one (42b), which showed potent PDE10A inhibitory activity and a good CYP3A4 inhibition profile. A PET study with (11)C-labeled 42b indicated that 42b exhibited good brain penetration and specifically accumulated in the rodent striatum. Further, oral administration of 42b dose-dependently attenuated phencyclidine-induced hyperlocomotion in mice with an ED50 value of 2.0mg/kg and improved visual-recognition memory impairment at 0.1 and 0.3mg/kg in mice novel object recognition test.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
60Bioorg. Med. Chem. 2015 Nov 23: 7138-49
PMID26494583
TitleDesign and synthesis of a novel 2-oxindole scaffold as a highly potent and brain-penetrant phosphodiesterase 10A inhibitor.
AbstractHighly potent and brain-penetrant phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) inhibitors based on the 2-oxindole scaffold were designed and synthesized. (2-Oxo-1,3-oxazolidin-3-yl)phenyl derivative 1 showed the high P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux (efflux ratio (ER)=6.2) despite the potent PDE10A inhibitory activity (IC50=0.94 nM). We performed an optimization study to improve both the P-gp efflux ratio and PDE10A inhibitory activity by utilizing structure-based drug design (SBDD) techniques based on the X-ray crystal structure with PDE10A. Finally, 1-(cyclopropylmethyl)-4-fluoro-5-[5-methoxy-4-oxo-3-(1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)pyridazin-1(4H)-yl]-3,3-dimethyl-1,3-dihydro-2H-indol-2-one (19e) was identified with improved P-gp efflux (ER=1.4) and an excellent PDE10A inhibitory activity (IC50=0.080 nM). Compound 19e also exhibited satisfactory brain penetration, and suppressed PCP-induced hyperlocomotion with a minimum effective dose of 0.3mg/kg by oral administration in mice.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
61Neuropharmacology 2015 Dec 99: 379-86
PMID26256420
TitlePhosphodiesterase 10A inhibitor, MP-10 (PF-2545920), produces greater induction of c-Fos in dopamine D2 neurons than in D1 neurons in the neostriatum.
AbstractStudies described here tested the hypothesis that phosphodiesterase 10A inhibition by a selective antagonist, MP-10, activates the dopamine D2 receptor expressing medium spiny neurons to a greater extent than the D1 receptor expressing neurons. We used regional pattern of c-Fos induction in the neostriatal subregions of rodents and direct assessment of D1-positive and -negative neurons in the DRd1a-tdTomato mice for the purpose. MP-10 (1, 3, 10 or 30mg/kg, PO) dose-dependently increased c-Fos immunopositive nuclei in all regions of neostriatum. However, the effect was statistically greater in the dorsolateral striatum, a region known to be activated preferentially by the D2 antagonism, than the D1-activated dorsomedial striatum. The D2 antagonist, haloperidol (0.3, 1, or 3mg/kg, PO) produced an identical, regional pattern of c-Fos induction favoring the dorsolateral striatum of the rat. In contrast, the D1 agonist, SKF82958 (0.5, 1, or 2mg/kg, PO), induced greater expression of c-Fos in the dorsomedial striatum. The C57Bl/6 mouse also showed regionally preferential c-Fos activation by haloperidol (2mg/kg, IP) and SKF82858 (3mg/kg, IP). In the Drd1a-tdTomato mice, MP-10 (3 or 10mg/kg, IP) increased c-Fos immunoreactivity in both types of neurons, the induction was greater in the D1-negative neurons. Taken together, both the regional pattern of c-Fos induction in the striatal sub-regions and the greater induction of c-Fos in the D1-negative neurons indicate that PDE10A inhibition produces a small but significantly greater activation of the D2-containing striatopallidal pathway.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
62Bioorg. Med. Chem. 2015 Jul 23: 3351-67
PMID25960322
TitleAddressing phototoxicity observed in a novel series of biaryl derivatives: discovery of potent, selective and orally active phosphodiesterase 10A inhibitor ASP9436.
AbstractWe synthesized several biaryl derivatives as PDE10A inhibitors to prevent phototoxicity of 2-[4-({[1-methyl-4-(pyridin-4-yl)-1H-pyrazol-3-yl]oxy}methyl)phenyl]quinoline (1) and found that the energy difference between the energy-minimized conformation and the coplanar conformation of the biaryl moiety helped facilitate prediction of the phototoxic potential of biaryl compounds. Replacement of the quinoline ring of 1 with N-methyl benzimidazole increased this energy difference and prevented phototoxicity in the 3T3 NRU test. Further optimization identified 1-methyl-5-(1-methyl-3-{[4-(1-methyl-1H-benzimidazol-4-yl)phenoxy]methyl}-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)pyridin-2(1H)-one (38b). Compound 38b exhibited good selectivity against other PDEs, and oral administration of 38b improved visual-recognition memory deficit in mice at doses of 0.001 and 0.003mg/kg in the novel object recognition test. ASP9436 (sesquiphosphate of 38b) may therefore be used for the treatment of schizophrenia with a low risk of phototoxicity.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
63Neuropharmacology 2015 Dec 99: 256-63
PMID26044638
TitleThe PDE10A inhibitor MP-10 and haloperidol produce distinct gene expression profiles in the striatum and influence cataleptic behavior in rodents.
AbstractPhosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) has garnered attention as a potential therapeutic target for schizophrenia due to its prominent striatal expression and ability to modulate striatal signaling. The present study used the selective PDE10A inhibitor MP-10 and the dopamine D2 antagonist haloperidol to compare effects of PDE10A inhibition and dopamine D2 blockade on striatopallidal (D2) and striatonigral (D1) pathway activation. Our studies confirmed that administration of MP-10 significantly elevates expression of the immediate early genes (IEG) c-fos, egr-1, and arc in rat striatum. Furthermore, we demonstrated that MP-10 induced egr-1 expression was distributed evenly between enkephalin-containing D2-neurons and substance P-containing D1-neurons. In contrast, haloperidol (3mg/kg) selectively activated egr-1 expression in enkephalin neurons. Co-administration of MP-10 and haloperidol (0.5mg/kg) increased IEG expression to a greater extent than either compound alone. Similarly, in a rat catalepsy assay, administration of haloperidol (0.5mg/kg) or MP-10 (3-30mg/kg) did not produce cataleptic behavior when dosed alone, but co-administration of haloperidol with MP-10 (3 and 10mg/kg) induced cataleptic behaviors. Interestingly, co-administration of haloperidol with a high dose of MP-10 (30mg/kg) failed to produce cataleptic behavior. These findings are important for understanding theneural circuits involved in catalepsy and suggest that the behavioral effects produced by PDE10A inhibitors may be influenced by concomitant medication and the level of PDE10A inhibition achieved by the dose of the inhibitor.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
64Schizophr. Res. 2015 Dec 169: 441-6
PMID26421691
TitleLinkage and whole genome sequencing identify a locus on 6q25-26 for formal thought disorder and implicate MEF2A regulation.
AbstractFormal thought disorder is a major feature of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. It is heritable, found in healthy relatives of patients with schizophrenia and other mental disorders but knowledge of specific genetic factors is lacking. The aim of this study was to search for biologically relevant high-risk variants. Formal thought disorder was assessed in participants in the Copenhagen schizophrenia Linkage Study (N=236), a unique high-risk family study comprised of six large pedigrees. Microsatellite linkage analysis of formal thought disorder was performed and subsequent haplotype analysis of the implicated region using phased microsatellite and SNP genotypes. Whole genome sequencing (N=3) was used in the attempt to identify causative variants in the linkage region. Linkage analysis of formal thought disorder resulted in a single peak at chromosome 6(q26-q27) centred on marker D6S1277, with a maximum LOD score of 4.0. Phasing and fine mapping of the linkage peak identified a 5.5Mb haplotype (chr6:162242322-167753547, hg18) in 31 individuals, all belonging to the same pedigree sharing the haplotype from a common ancestor. The haplotype segregated with increased total thought disorder index score (P=4.9 10(-5)) and qualitatively severe forms of thought disturbances. Whole genome sequencing identified a novel nucleotide deletion (chr6:164377205 AG>A, hg18) predicted to disrupt the potential binding of the transcription factor MEF2A. The MEF2A binding site is located between two genes previously reported to associate with schizophrenia, QKI (HGNC:21100) and PDE10A (HGNC:8772). The findings are consistent with MEF2A deregulation conferring risk of formal thought disorder.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
65PLoS ONE 2015 -1 10: e0122197
PMID25815469
TitleCharacterization of binding and inhibitory properties of TAK-063, a novel phosphodiesterase 10A inhibitor.
AbstractPhosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) inhibition is a novel and promising approach for the treatment of central nervous system disorders such as schizophrenia and Huntington's disease. A novel PDE10A inhibitor, TAK-063 [1-[2-fluoro-4-(1H-pyrazol-1-yl)phenyl]-5-methoxy-3-(1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)-pyridazin-4(1H)-one] has shown high inhibitory activity and selectivity for human recombinant PDE10A2 in vitro; the half-maximal inhibitory concentration was 0.30 nM, and selectivity over other phosphodiesterases (PDEs) was more than 15000-fold. TAK-063 at 10 M did not show more than 50% inhibition or stimulation of 91 enzymes or receptors except for PDEs. In vitro autoradiography (ARG) studies using rat brain sections revealed that [3H]TAK-063 selectively accumulated in the caudate putamen (CPu), nucleus accumbens (NAc), globus pallidus, substantia nigra, and striatonigral projection, where PDE10A is highly expressed. This [3H]TAK-063 accumulation was almost entirely blocked by an excess amount of MP-10, a PDE10A selective inhibitor, and the accumulation was not observed in brain slices of PDE10A-knockout mice. In rat brain sections, [3H]TAK-063 bound to a single high-affinity site with mean SEM dissociation constants of 7.2 1.2 and 2.6 0.5 nM for the CPu and NAc shell, respectively. Orally administered [14C]TAK-063 selectively accumulated in PDE10A expressing brain regions in an in vivo ARG study in rats. Striatal PDE10A occupancy by TAK-063 in vivo was measured using T-773 as a tracer and a dose of 0.88 mg/kg (p.o.) was calculated to produce 50% occupancy in rats. Translational studies with TAK-063 and other PDE10A inhibitors such as those presented here will help us better understand the pharmacological profile of this class of potential central nervous system drugs.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
66Mol Imaging Biol 2015 Aug 17: 445-9
PMID25622810
TitleMolecular Imaging of PDE10A Knockout Mice with a Novel PET Radiotracer: [(11)C]T-773.
Abstract[(11)C]T-773 is a new radioligand for positron emission tomography (PET) targeting the phosphodiesterase 10A enzyme (PDE10A). PDE10A is highly expressed in the striatum by medium spiny neurons, and it has been demonstrated to be involved in the regulation of striatal signaling through the reduction of medium spiny neuronal sensitivity towards glutamatergic excitation. PDE10A is associated with Parkinson's disease and different neuropsychiatric disorders such as Huntington's disease, obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD) and schizophrenia. Studies have indicated that the inhibition of PDE10A may represent a novel therapeutic approach to the treatment of the aforementioned diseases characterized by the reduced activity of medium spiny neurons. An appropriate PET radioligand for PDE10A would help to facilitate drug development and drug evaluation.
We have evaluated the [(11)C]T-773 ligand in PDE10A knockout mice (heterozygous [HET] and homozygous [HOM]) as well as in normal control animals (WILD) with PET.
The regional percent standardized uptake values (%SUV; mean??SD) in the striatum were 48.2??1.0 (HOM), 63.6??5.3 (HET) and 85.1??6.3 (WILD). Between each animal group the striatal %SUV values were significantly different (p?The novel PDE10A radioligand [(11)C]T-773 shows increased signals with higher levels of PDE10A and acceptable binding in the striatum in control animals compared to knockout mice.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
67J. Med. Chem. 2015 Nov 58: 8584-600
PMID26430878
TitleSynthesis of Fluorine-Containing Phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) Inhibitors and the In Vivo Evaluation of F-18 Labeled PDE10A PET Tracers in Rodent and Nonhuman Primate.
AbstractA series of fluorine-containing PDE10A inhibitors were designed and synthesized to improve the metabolic stability of [(11)C]MP-10. Twenty of the 22 new analogues had high potency and selectivity for PDE10A: 18a-j, 19d-j, 20a-b, and 21b had IC50 values <5 nM for PDE10A. Seven F-18 labeled compounds [(18)F]18a-e, [(18)F]18g, and [(18)F]20a were radiosynthesized by (18)F-introduction onto the quinoline rather than the pyrazole moiety of the MP-10 pharmacophore and performed in vivo evaluation. Biodistribution studies in rats showed ~2-fold higher activity in the PDE10A-enriched striatum than nontarget brain regions; this ratio increased from 5 to 30 min postinjection, particularly for [(18)F]18a-d and [(18)F]20a. MicroPET studies of [(18)F]18d and [(18)F]20a in nonhuman primates provided clear visualization of striatum with suitable equilibrium kinetics and favorable metabolic stability. These results suggest this strategy may identify a (18)F-labeled PET tracer for quantifying the levels of PDE10A in patients with CNS disorders including Huntington's disease and schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
68Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2015 May 25: 1864-8
PMID25863433
TitleEvolution and synthesis of novel orally bioavailable inhibitors of PDE10A.
AbstractThe design and synthesis of highly potent, selective orally bioavailable inhibitors of PDE10A is reported. Starting with an active compound of modest potency from a small focused screen, we were able to evolve this series to a lead molecule with high potency and selectivity versus other PDEs using structure-based design. A systematic refinement of ADME properties during lead optimization led to a lead compound with good half-life that was brain penetrant. Compound 39 was highly potent versus PDE10A (IC50=1.0 nM), demonstrated high selectivity (>1000-fold) against other PDEs and was efficacious when dosed orally in a rat model of psychosis, PCP-induced hyperlocomotion with an EC50 of 1 mg/kg.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
69Eur. J. Pharmacol. 2015 Aug 761: 79-85
PMID25941078
TitleCharacterisation of Lu AF33241: A novel, brain-penetrant, dual inhibitor of phosphodiesterase (PDE) 2A and PDE10A.
AbstractHere, we present a preliminary pharmacological characterisation of Lu AF33241, a novel, brain penetrant phosphodiesterase inhibitor of (PDE) 2A and 10A tool compound, in in vitro/in vivo assays indicative of PDE2A and/or PDE10A inhibition, and in vivo models/assays relevant to cognitive processing and antipsychotic-like activity. An assay was also included to investigate potential effects on motor activity. The in vitro selectivity of Lu AF33241 was determined against a panel of PDE enzymes. Lu AF33241 potently inhibited both full-length recombinant hPDE2A (Ki=4.2nM) and hPDE10A (Ki=42nM). The compound moderately inhibited both hPDE1C (Ki=1200nM), hPDE7B (Ki=890nM), and hPDE11A (Ki=1800nM). Lu AF33241 displayed a Ki above 5000nM against all other tested members of the PDE family. Albeit within a narrow dose range, Lu AF33241 attenuated sub-chronic phencyclidine-induced deficits in novel object recognition (3 and 10mg/kg), displayed antipsychotic-like activity in the conditioned avoidance response paradigm (10mg/kg), and did not induce catalepsy within a dose-range of 2-6mg/kg. Further catalepsy studies are needed to investigate a predictive safety window. Lu AF33241 represents a novel PDE2A/PDE10A inhibitor tool compound that may serve to further the understanding of the roles played by these enzymes in various CNS disorders.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
70Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2015 Nov 25: 4893-8
PMID26077491
TitleDiscovery of [C]MK-8193 as a PET tracer to measure target engagement of phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) inhibitors.
AbstractPhosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) inhibition has recently been identified as a potential mechanism to treat multiple symptoms that manifest in schizophrenia. In order to facilitate preclinical development and support key proof-of-concept clinical trials of novel PDE10A inhibitors, it is critical to discover positron emission tomography (PET) tracers that enable plasma concentration/PDE10A occupancy relationships to be established across species with structurally diverse PDE10A inhibitors. In this Letter, we describe how a high-throughput screening hit was optimized to provide [(11)C]MK-8193 (8j), a PET tracer that supports the determination of plasma concentration/PDE10A occupancy relationships for structurally diverse series of PDE10A inhibitors in both rat and rhesus monkey.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
71J. Med. Chem. 2015 Jan 58: 978-93
PMID25495129
TitleIdentification of a novel orally bioavailable phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) inhibitor with efficacy in animal models of schizophrenia.
AbstractWe report the continuation of a focused medicinal chemistry program aimed to further optimize a series of imidazo[1,2-a]pyrazines as a novel class of potent and selective phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) inhibitors. In vitro and in vivo pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic evaluation allowed the selection of compound 25a for its assessment in preclinical models of psychosis. The evolution of our medicinal chemistry program, structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis, as well as a detailed pharmacological profile for optimized lead 25a are described.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
72J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 2015 Feb 352: 327-37
PMID25502803
TitleAMG 580: a novel small molecule phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) positron emission tomography tracer.
AbstractPhosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) inhibitors have therapeutic potential for the treatment of psychiatric and neurologic disorders, such as schizophrenia and Huntington's disease. One of the key requirements for successful central nervous system drug development is to demonstrate target coverage of therapeutic candidates in brain for lead optimization in the drug discovery phase and for assisting dose selection in clinical development. Therefore, we identified AMG 580 [1-(4-(3-(4-(1H-benzo[d]imidazole-2-carbonyl)phenoxy)pyrazin-2-yl)piperidin-1-yl)-2-fluoropropan-1-one], a novel, selective small-molecule antagonist with subnanomolar affinity for rat, primate, and human PDE10A. We showed that AMG 580 is suitable as a tracer for lead optimization to determine target coverage by novel PDE10A inhibitors using triple-stage quadrupole liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry technology. [(3)H]AMG 580 bound with high affinity in a specific and saturable manner to both striatal homogenates and brain slices from rats, baboons, and human in vitro. Moreover, [(18)F]AMG 580 demonstrated prominent uptake by positron emission tomography in rats, suggesting that radiolabeled AMG 580 may be suitable for further development as a noninvasive radiotracer for target coverage measurements in clinical studies. These results indicate that AMG 580 is a potential imaging biomarker for mapping PDE10A distribution and ensuring target coverage by therapeutic PDE10A inhibitors in clinical studies.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
73Oncotarget 2016 Feb 7: 5353-65
PMID26713600
Title?-catenin nuclear translocation in colorectal cancer cells is suppressed by PDE10A inhibition, cGMP elevation, and activation of PKG.
AbstractPhosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10) is a cGMP and cAMP degrading PDE isozyme that is highly expressed in the brain striatum where it appears to play an important role in cognition and psychomotor activity. PDE10 inhibitors are being developed for the treatment of schizophrenia and Huntington's disease and are generally well tolerated, possibly because of low expression levels in most peripheral tissues. We recently reported high levels of PDE10 in colon tumors and that genetic silencing of PDE10 by siRNA or inhibition with small molecule inhibitors can suppress colon tumor cell growth with a high degree of selectivity over normal colonocytes (Li et al., Oncogene 2015). These observations suggest PDE10 may have an unrecognized role in tumorigenesis. Here we report that the concentration range by which the highly specific PDE10 inhibitor, Pf-2545920 (MP-10), inhibits colon tumor cell growth parallels the concentration range required to increase cGMP and cAMP levels, and activates PKG and PKA, respectively. Moreover, PDE10 knockdown by shRNA reduces the sensitivity of colon tumor cells to the growth inhibitory activity of Pf-2545920. Pf-2545920 also inhibits the translocation of ?-catenin to the nucleus, thereby reducing ?-catenin mediated transcription of survivin, resulting in caspase activation and apoptosis. PDE10 mRNA was also found to be elevated in colon tumors compared with normal tissues. These findings suggest that PDE10 can be targeted for cancer therapy or prevention whereby inhibition results in cGMP elevation and PKG activation to reduce ?-catenin-mediated transcription of survival proteins leading to the selective apoptosis of cancer cells.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
74Behav Pharmacol 2016 Jun 27: 331-8
PMID26580130
TitleThe effects of PDE10 inhibition on attentional set-shifting do not depend on the activation of dopamine D1 receptors.
AbstractInhibitors of phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) represent a novel class of potential antipsychotic compounds. These principles increase the level of cAMP and cGMP in the medium spiny neurons of the striatum and resemble the neurochemical consequences of dopamine D2 receptor inhibition and dopamine D1 receptor stimulation. Cognitive dysfunctions, including an impaired ability to shift perceptual attentional set, are core features of schizophrenia. In the present study, we investigated the involvement of D1 receptors in the procognitive action of the PDE10A inhibitor using the attentional set-shifting task in rats. The performance of the rats in the extradimensional shift stage of the attentional set-shifting task was taken as an index of cognitive flexibility. We first assessed the effects of the D1 agonist in otherwise untreated animals and in animals pretreated with the D1 receptor antagonist. We then investigated the procognitive effects of the PDE10A inhibitor, MP-10, in otherwise untreated animals and in animals pretreated with the D1 receptor antagonist. The dopamine D1 receptor antagonist SCH-23390 produced cognitive impairment at the dose of 0.0125?mg/kg, but not at 0.0063?mg/kg. The D1 receptor agonist, SKF-81,297, produced a procognitive effect that was abolished by 0.0063?mg/kg of SCH-23390. The compound MP-10 produced a procognitive effect at the dose of 0.3?mg/kg, but not at 0.1?mg/kg. Rat pretreatment with 0.0063?mg/kg of SCH-23390 did not block the procognitive effect of 0.3?mg/kg of MP-10. The present study demonstrates that the blockade of dopamine D1 receptors is unlikely to affect the procognitive effects of PDE10A inhibition.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
75Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2016 Jan 26: 197-202
PMID26597534
TitleFragment-assisted hit investigation involving integrated HTS and fragment screening: Application to the identification of phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) inhibitors.
AbstractFragment-based drug design (FBDD) relies on direct elaboration of fragment hits and typically requires high resolution structural information to guide optimization. In fragment-assisted drug discovery (FADD), fragments provide information to guide selection and design but do not serve as starting points for elaboration. We describe FADD and high-throughput screening (HTS) campaign strategies conducted in parallel against PDE10A where fragment hit co-crystallography was not available. The fragment screen led to prioritized fragment hits (IC50's ?500?M), which were used to generate a hypothetical core scaffold. Application of this scaffold as a filter to HTS output afforded a 4?M hit, which, after preparation of a small number of analogs, was elaborated into a 16nM lead. This approach highlights the strength of FADD, as fragment methods were applied despite the absence of co-crystallographical information to efficiently identify a lead compound for further optimization.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
76Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2016 Jan 26: 126-32
PMID26602277
TitleDiscovery of pyrazolopyrimidine phosphodiesterase 10A inhibitors for the treatment of schizophrenia.
AbstractHerein, we present the identification of a novel class of pyrazolopyrimidine phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) inhibitors. Beginning with a lead molecule (1) identified through a fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) effort, lead optimization was enabled by rational design, X-ray crystallography, metabolic and off-target profiling, and fragment scaffold-hopping. We highlight the discovery of PyP-1, a potent, highly selective, and orally bioavailable pyrazolopyrimidine inhibitor of PDE10A. PyP-1 exhibits sub-nanomolar potency (PDE10A Ki=0.23nM), excellent pharmacokinetic (PK) and physicochemical properties, and a clean off-target profile. It displays dose-dependent efficacy in numerous pharmacodynamic (PD) assays that measure potential for anti-psychotic activity and cognitive improvement. PyP-1 also has a clean preclinical profile with respect to cataleptic potential in rats, prolactin secretion, and weight gain, common adverse events associated with currently marketed therapeutics. Further, PyP-1 displays in vivo preclinical target engagement as measured by PET enzyme occupancy in concert with [(11)C]MK-8193, a novel PDE10A PET tracer.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
77Synapse 2016 Jun 70: 253-63
PMID26878349
TitleBrain PET measurement of PDE10A occupancy by TAK-063, a new PDE10A inhibitor, using [(11) C]T-773 in nonhuman primates.
AbstractBecause phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) degrades both cyclic adenosine monophosphate and cyclic guanosine monophosphate and is distributed mainly in the striatum, PDE10A inhibitors have been considered to potentially be useful therapeutic agents for psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases such as schizophrenia and Huntington's disease. We measured striatal PDE10A occupancy by TAK-063, a newly developed compound with high affinity and selectivity for PDE10A, using PET with [(11) C]T-773 in nonhuman primates. Two 123-min dynamic PET measurements were performed on three female rhesus monkeys, once at baseline and again after intravenous administration of different doses of TAK-063 (0.2-1.6 mg/kg). Total distribution volume (VT ) was calculated with a two-tissue compartment model using metabolite-corrected plasma input. Although the in vitro autoradiography did not show high specific binding to [(11) C]T-773 in the cerebellum, VT in the cerebellum decreased after TAK-063 treatment. The specific binding to PDE10A (VS ) was calculated as the difference of the VT between the target regions and the cerebellum. PDE10A occupancy was calculated as the percent change of VS . The average PDE10A occupancy of the caudate nucleus and putamen was 35.2% at 0.2 mg/kg and 83.2% at 1.6 mg/kg. In conclusion, this nonhuman primate PET study demonstrated that [(11) C]T-773 is useful to estimate the PDE10A occupancy by TAK-063 in the striatum although there is in vivo interaction of the uptake between [(11) C]T-773 and TAK-063 in the cerebellum. These results warrant further clinical occupancy study for TAK-063. Synapse 70:253-263, 2016. 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
78Psychopharmacology (Berl.) 2016 Apr -1: -1
PMID27117142
TitleBehavioral and qEEG effects of the PDE10A inhibitor THPP-1 in a novel rhesus model of antipsychotic activity.
AbstractMuch preclinical data, almost exclusively using rodent, supports the notion that phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) inhibition may offer an alternative to the current standard of care in schizophrenia. However, concerns persist regarding the clinical translatability of these models for newer drug classes like PDE10A inhibitors.
We therefore sought to characterize the clinical standard risperidone and the PDE10A inhibitor THPP-1 in nonhuman primate, both alone and when used as a combination therapy.
THPP-1 and risperidone were tested in a novel rhesus model of stimulant-induced motor activity (SIMA) and in rhesus electroencephalography (EEG).
Consistent with rodent data, both THPP-1 and risperidone significantly attenuated the stimulant effects in SIMA when administered alone, though some differences were noted. Combination therapy with a low dose of risperidone produced significantly more robust effects. THPP-1 and risperidone also produced a marked reduction of wake cycle time and gamma frequency power in EEG. However, THPP-1 differed from risperidone by reducing spectral power of lower frequencies (delta).
SIMA results suggest that PDE10A inhibition produces antipsychotic-like effects in higher species, and that combination therapy with PDE10A inhibitors may produce more robust efficacy compared to monotherapies. EEG and qEEG results confirm that PDE10A inhibition does share some central signaling effects with clinically effective antipsychotics. The present combination therapy results may carry implications for the manner in which clinical testing of PDE10A inhibitors is conducted.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
79Am J Psychiatry 2016 Feb -1: appiajp201515040518
PMID26892941
TitlePhosphodiesterase 10A in Schizophrenia: A PET Study Using [(11)C]IMA107.
AbstractPhosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) is an enzyme present in striatal medium spiny neurons that degrades the intracellular second messengers triggered by dopamine signaling. The pharmaceutical industry has considerable interest in PDE10A inhibitors because they have been shown to have an antipsychotic-like effect in animal models. However, the status of PDE10A in schizophrenia is unknown. Using a newly developed and validated radioligand, [(11)C]IMA107, the authors report the first in vivo assessment of PDE10A brain expression in patients with schizophrenia.
The authors compared PDE10A availability in the brains of 12 patients with chronic schizophrenia and 12 matched healthy comparison subjects using [(11)C]IMA107 positron emission tomography (PET). Regional estimates of the binding potential (BPND) of [(11)C]IMA107 were generated from dynamic PET scans using the simplified reference tissue model with the cerebellum as the reference tissue for nonspecific binding.
There was no significant difference in [(11)C]IMA107 BPND between schizophrenia patients and comparison subjects in any of the brain regions studied (thalamus, caudate, putamen, nucleus accumbens, globus pallidus, and substantia nigra). There was also no significant correlation between [(11)C]IMA107 BPND and the severity of psychotic symptoms or antipsychotic dosage.
Patients with schizophrenia have normal availability of PDE10A in brain regions thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of this disorder. The findings do not support the proposal of an altered PDE10A availability in schizophrenia. The implication of this finding for future drug development is discussed.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
80Neuropsychopharmacology 2016 Feb -1: -1
PMID26849714
TitleTAK-063, a PDE10A Inhibitor with Balanced Activation of Direct and Indirect Pathways, Provides Potent Antipsychotic-Like Effects in Multiple Paradigms.
AbstractPhosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) inhibitors are expected to be novel drugs for schizophrenia through activation of both direct and indirect pathway medium spiny neurons. However, excess activation of the direct pathway by a dopamine D1 receptor agonist SKF82958 canceled antipsychotic-like effects of a dopamine D2 receptor antagonist haloperidol in methamphetamine (METH)-induced hyperactivity in rats. Thus, balanced activation of these pathways may be critical for PDE10A inhibitors. Current antipsychotics and the novel PDE10A inhibitor TAK-063, but not the selective PDE10A inhibitor MP-10, produced dose-dependent antipsychotic-like effects in METH-induced hyperactivity and prepulse inhibition in rodents. TAK-063 and MP-10 activated the indirect pathway to a similar extent; however, MP-10 caused greater activation of the direct pathway than did TAK-063. Interestingly, the off-rate of TAK-063 from PDE10A in rat brain sections was faster than that of MP-10, and a slower off-rate PDE10A inhibitor with TAK-063-like chemical structure showed an MP-10-like pharmacological profile. In general, faster off-rate enzyme inhibitors are more sensitive than slower off-rate inhibitors to binding inhibition by enzyme substrates. As expected, TAK-063 was more sensitive than MP-10 to binding inhibition by cyclic nucleotides. Moreover, an immunohistochemistry study suggested that cyclic adenosine monophosphate levels in the direct pathway were higher than those in the indirect pathway. These data can explain why TAK-063 showed partial activation of the direct pathway compared with MP-10. The findings presented here suggest that TAK-063's antipsychotic-like efficacy may be attributable to its unique pharmacological properties, resulting in balanced activation of the direct and indirect striatal pathways.Neuropsychopharmacology advance online publication, 24 February 2016; doi:10.1038/npp.2016.20.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
81PLoS ONE 2016 -1 11: e0147365
PMID26808689
TitleModulation of mGlu2 Receptors, but Not PDE10A Inhibition Normalizes Pharmacologically-Induced Deviance in Auditory Evoked Potentials and Oscillations in Conscious Rats.
AbstractImprovement of cognitive impairments represents a high medical need in the development of new antipsychotics. Aberrant EEG gamma oscillations and reductions in the P1/N1 complex peak amplitude of the auditory evoked potential (AEP) are neurophysiological biomarkers for schizophrenia that indicate disruption in sensory information processing. Inhibition of phosphodiesterase (i.e. PDE10A) and activation of metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR2) signaling are believed to provide antipsychotic efficacy in schizophrenia, but it is unclear whether this occurs with cognition-enhancing potential. The present study used the auditory paired click paradigm in passive awake Sprague Dawley rats to 1) model disruption of AEP waveforms and oscillations as observed in schizophrenia by peripheral administration of amphetamine and the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist phencyclidine (PCP); 2) confirm the potential of the antipsychotics risperidone and olanzapine to attenuate these disruptions; 3) evaluate the potential of mGluR2 agonist LY404039 and PDE10 inhibitor PQ-10 to improve AEP deficits in both the amphetamine and PCP models. PCP and amphetamine disrupted auditory information processing to the first click, associated with suppression of the P1/N1 complex peak amplitude, and increased cortical gamma oscillations. Risperidone and olanzapine normalized PCP and amphetamine-induced abnormalities in AEP waveforms and aberrant gamma/alpha oscillations, respectively. LY404039 increased P1/N1 complex peak amplitudes and potently attenuated the disruptive effects of both PCP and amphetamine on AEPs amplitudes and oscillations. However, PQ-10 failed to show such effect in either models. These outcomes indicate that modulation of the mGluR2 results in effective restoration of abnormalities in AEP components in two widely used animal models of psychosis, whereas PDE10A inhibition does not.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic