1Am. J. Hum. Genet. 2010 Aug 87: 229-36
PMID20691406
TitleMicrodeletions of 3q29 confer high risk for schizophrenia.
Abstractschizophrenia (SZ) is a severe psychiatric illness that affects approximately 1% of the population and has a strong genetic underpinning. Recently, genome-wide analysis of copy-number variation (CNV) has implicated rare and de novo events as important in SZ. Here, we report a genome-wide analysis of 245 SZ cases and 490 controls, all of Ashkenazi Jewish descent. Because many studies have found an excess burden of large, rare deletions in cases, we limited our analysis to deletions over 500 kb in size. We observed seven large, rare deletions in cases, with 57% of these being de novo. We focused on one 836 kb de novo deletion at chromosome 3q29 that falls within a 1.3-1.6 Mb deletion previously identified in children with intellectual disability (ID) and autism, because increasing evidence suggests an overlap of specific rare copy-number variants (CNVs) between autism and SZ. By combining our data with prior CNV studies of SZ and analysis of the data of the Genetic Association Information Network (GAIN), we identified six 3q29 deletions among 7545 schizophrenic subjects and one among 39,748 controls, resulting in a statistically significant association with SZ (p = 0.02) and an odds ratio estimate of 17 (95% confidence interval: 1.36-1198.4). Moreover, this 3q29 deletion region contains two linkage peaks from prior SZ family studies, and the minimal deletion interval implicates 20 annotated genes, including PAK2 and DLG1, both paralogous to X-linked ID genes and now strong candidates for SZ susceptibility.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
2Am. J. Hum. Genet. 2010 Aug 87: 229-36
PMID20691406
TitleMicrodeletions of 3q29 confer high risk for schizophrenia.
Abstractschizophrenia (SZ) is a severe psychiatric illness that affects approximately 1% of the population and has a strong genetic underpinning. Recently, genome-wide analysis of copy-number variation (CNV) has implicated rare and de novo events as important in SZ. Here, we report a genome-wide analysis of 245 SZ cases and 490 controls, all of Ashkenazi Jewish descent. Because many studies have found an excess burden of large, rare deletions in cases, we limited our analysis to deletions over 500 kb in size. We observed seven large, rare deletions in cases, with 57% of these being de novo. We focused on one 836 kb de novo deletion at chromosome 3q29 that falls within a 1.3-1.6 Mb deletion previously identified in children with intellectual disability (ID) and autism, because increasing evidence suggests an overlap of specific rare copy-number variants (CNVs) between autism and SZ. By combining our data with prior CNV studies of SZ and analysis of the data of the Genetic Association Information Network (GAIN), we identified six 3q29 deletions among 7545 schizophrenic subjects and one among 39,748 controls, resulting in a statistically significant association with SZ (p = 0.02) and an odds ratio estimate of 17 (95% confidence interval: 1.36-1198.4). Moreover, this 3q29 deletion region contains two linkage peaks from prior SZ family studies, and the minimal deletion interval implicates 20 annotated genes, including PAK2 and DLG1, both paralogous to X-linked ID genes and now strong candidates for SZ susceptibility.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
3Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet. 2011 Dec 156B: 844-9
PMID21850710
TitleMutation screening of the 3q29 microdeletion syndrome candidate genes DLG1 and PAK2 in schizophrenia.
AbstractDeletion of chromosome 3q29, which is associated with mental retardation and autism, was recently identified as being present in excess or occurring de novo in schizophrenia cases, being present in approximately 1/1,000 cases and 1/40,000 unscreened controls. Of the ?20 genes in the commonly deleted region two are prominent candidates for involvement in the behavioral features of the microdeletion syndrome: DLG1 and PAK2. We report the result of mutation screening of the entire protein coding sequence of both genes in a sample of 234 unrelated cases and 272 unrelated controls from the UK. We find no evidence for any amino acid changing genetic variants in PAK2. We observe several rare and singleton non-synonymous genetic variations at DLG1, however there is no excess of these variants in cases when compared to controls. Our sample was underpowered to detect very rare or low-penetrance disease relevant alleles in the studied genes. Therefore very rare, low-to-moderate penetrance protein coding mutations or non-coding mutations at DLG1 and/or PAK2, or a nearby gene, may reproduce the behavioral characteristics of the 3q29 microdeletion.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
4World J Psychiatry 2013 Sep 3: 57-61
PMID24255876
TitleNew findings in the genetics of schizophrenia.
AbstractNew findings in schizophrenia genetics are based on genome-wide association studies (GWAS), research into DNA copy number variations (CNVs), and endophenotypes. More than 70 genes have recently been suspected to be involved in the genetic background of schizophrenia based on the GWAS´s results. They are typically related to neurodevelopment/neuroplasticity, immunology and neuroendocrinology. Nevertheless, for many detected genes their possible relationship to schizophrenia etiopathogenesis is still unknown. The CNVs at genome loci 1q21.1 (candidate gene e.g., PRKAB2), 2p16.3 (candidate gene e.g., NRXN1), 3q29 (candidate genes e.g., BDH1, DLG1, PAK2 or TFRC), 15q11.2 (candidate gene e.g., CYFIP1), 15q13.3 (candidate gene e.g., CHRNA7), 16p13.1 (candidate genes e.g.,NTAN1 or NDE1) and 22q11.2 (candidate genes e.g., COMT, GSTT2 or PRODH) were associated with schizophrenia most frequently. Genetic research of schizophrenia endophenotypes, usually neurophysiological, neuromotoric, neurocognitive, neuroanatomical, neurological or personality-related, will help us to discover the role of relevant genes in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. It is also necessary to integrate knowledge from other research platforms in schizophrenia, like epigenetics, studies of gene-environment interactions, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, neuroimaging and psychopathology. A better knowledge of the genetic background of schizophrenia can lead to changes in the treatment, prevention and genetic counselling. It may also reduce stigma in this severe mental disorder.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
5J. Biol. Chem. 2013 May 288: 15023-34
PMID23576434
TitleRole of SAP97 protein in the regulation of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1 endocytosis and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 signaling.
AbstractThe corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor 1 (CRFR1) is a target for the treatment of psychiatric diseases such as depression, schizophrenia, anxiety disorder, and bipolar disorder. The carboxyl-terminal tail of the CRFR1 terminates in a PDZ-binding motif that provides a potential site for the interaction of PSD-95/Discs Large/Zona Occludens 1 (PDZ) domain-containing proteins. In this study, we found that CRFR1 interacts with synapse-associated protein 97 (SAP97; also known as DLG1) by co-immunoprecipitation in human embryonic 293 (HEK 293) cells and cortical brain lysates and that this interaction is dependent upon an intact PDZ-binding motif at the end of the CRFR1 carboxyl-terminal tail. Similarly, we demonstrated that SAP97 is recruited to the plasma membrane in HEK 293 cells expressing CRFR1 and that mutation of the CRFR1 PDZ-binding motif results in the redistribution of SAP97 into the cytoplasm. Overexpression of SAP97 antagonized agonist-stimulated CRFR1 internalization, whereas single hairpin (shRNA) knockdown of endogenous SAP97 in HEK 293 cells resulted in increased agonist-stimulated CRFR1 endocytosis. CRFR1 was internalized as a complex with SAP97 resulting in the redistribution of SAP97 to endocytic vesicles. Overexpression or shRNA knockdown of SAP97 did not significantly affect CRFR1-mediated cAMP formation, but SAP97 knockdown did significantly attenuate CRFR1-stimulated ERK1/2 phosphorylation in a PDZ interaction-independent manner. Taken together, our studies show that SAP97 interactions with CRFR1 attenuate CRFR1 endocytosis and that SAP97 is involved in coupling G protein-coupled receptors to the activation of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
6PLoS ONE 2013 -1 8: e70302
PMID23936182
TitlePopulation-specific haplotype association of the postsynaptic density gene DLG4 with schizophrenia, in family-based association studies.
AbstractThe post-synaptic density (PSD) of glutamatergic synapses harbors a multitude of proteins critical for maintaining synaptic dynamics. Alteration of protein expression levels in this matrix is a marked phenomenon of neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, where cognitive functions are impaired. To investigate the genetic relationship of genes expressed in the PSD with schizophrenia, a family-based association analysis of genetic variants in PSD genes such as DLG4, DLG1, PICK1 and MDM2, was performed, using Japanese samples (124 pedigrees, n = 376 subjects). Results showed a significant association of the rs17203281 variant from the DLG4 gene, with preferential transmission of the C allele (p = 0.02), although significance disappeared after correction for multiple testing. Replication analysis of this variant, found no association in a Chinese schizophrenia cohort (293 pedigrees, n = 1163 subjects) or in a Japanese case-control sample (n = 4182 subjects). The DLG4 expression levels between postmortem brain samples from schizophrenia patients showed no significant changes from controls. Interestingly, a five marker haplotype in DLG4, involving rs2242449, rs17203281, rs390200, rs222853 and rs222837, was enriched in a population specific manner, where the sequences A-C-C-C-A and G-C-C-C-A accumulated in Japanese (p = 0.0009) and Chinese (p = 0.0007) schizophrenia pedigree samples, respectively. However, this could not be replicated in case-control samples. None of the variants in other examined candidate genes showed any significant association in these samples. The current study highlights a putative role for DLG4 in schizophrenia pathogenesis, evidenced by haplotype association, and warrants further dense screening for variants within these haplotypes.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
7Transl Psychiatry 2015 -1 5: e654
PMID26440542
TitleReduced cortical expression of a newly identified splicing variant of the DLG1 gene in patients with early-onset schizophrenia.
AbstractThe human discs, large homolog 1 gene (DLG1) is mapped to the schizophrenia-susceptibility locus 3q29, and it encodes a scaffold protein that interacts with the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor presumably dysregulated in schizophrenia. In the current study, we have newly identified a splicing variant of DLG1, which is transcribed from an unreported 95-base-pair exon (exon 3b) and is labeled 3b(+). We investigated the mRNA expression of 3b(+) in the post-mortem dorsolateral prefrontal cortices of patients with psychiatric disorders, obtained from The Stanley Medical Research Institute, and examined the potential association of the expression with the genotype of the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs3915512 located within exon 3b. A real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction revealed that the mRNA levels of 3b(+) were significantly reduced in patients with early-onset schizophrenia (onset at <18 years old, P=0.0003) but not in those with non-early-onset schizophrenia, early-onset or non-early-onset bipolar disorder or in the controls. Furthermore, the genotype at the rs3915512 SNP was closely associated with the levels of 3b(+) mRNA expression. It is inferred that the T allele fails to meet the exonic splicing enhancer consensus, thus resulting in skipping of exon 3b, leading to the expression of 3b(-) (the previously known DLG1 variant) but not 3b(+). Because all the subjects with early-onset schizophrenia in the current study possess the T/T genotype, the reduced level of the DLG1 3b(+) transcript may be involved in the susceptibility and/or pathophysiology of early-onset schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
8Ann. Hum. Genet. 2016 Jan 80: 38-49
PMID26474449
TitlePractical Experience of the Application of a Weighted Burden Test to Whole Exome Sequence Data for Obesity and Schizophrenia.
AbstractFor biological and statistical reasons it makes sense to combine information from variants at the level of the gene. One may wish to give more weight to variants which are rare and those that are more likely to affect function. A combined weighting scheme, implemented in the SCOREASSOC program, was applied to whole exome sequence data for 1392 subjects with schizophrenia and 982 with obesity from the UK10K project. Results conformed fairly well with null hypothesis expectations and no individual gene was strongly implicated. However, a number of the higher ranked genes appear plausible candidates as being involved in one or other phenotype and may warrant further investigation. These include MC4R, NLGN2, CRP, DONSON, GTF3A, IL36B, ADCYAP1R1, ARSA, DLG1, SIK2, SLAIN1, UBE2Q2, ZNF507, CRHR1, MUSK, NSF, SNORD115, GDF3 and HIBADH. Some individual variants in these genes have different frequencies between cohorts and could be genotyped in additional subjects. For other genes, there is a general excess of variants at many different sites so attempts at replication would be more difficult. Overall, the weighted burden test provides a convenient method for using sequence data to highlight genes of interest.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
9Mol. Neurobiol. 2016 Apr 53: 2065-81
PMID25902861
TitleHippocampal Pruning as a New Theory of Schizophrenia Etiopathogenesis.
AbstractPruning in neurons has been suggested to be strongly involved in schizophrenia's (SKZ) etiopathogenesis in recent biological, imaging, and genetic studies. We investigated the impact of protein-coding genes known to be involved in pruning, collected by a systematic literature research, in shaping the risk for SKZ in a case-control sample of 9,490 subjects (Psychiatric Genomics Consortium). Moreover, their modifications through evolution (humans, chimpanzees, and rats) and subcellular localization (as indicative of their biological function) were also investigated. We also performed a biological pathways (Gene Ontology) analysis. Genetics analyses found four genes (DLG1, NOS1, THBS4, and FADS1) and 17 pathways strongly involved in pruning and SKZ in previous literature findings to be significantly associated with the sample under analysis. The analysis of the subcellular localization found that secreted genes, and so regulatory ones, are the least conserved through evolution and also the most associated with SKZ. Their cell line and regional brain expression analysis found that their areas of primary expression are neuropil and the hippocampus, respectively. At the best of our knowledge, for the first time, we were able to describe the SKZ neurodevelopmental hypothesis starting from a single biological process. We can also hypothesize how alterations in pruning fine regulation and orchestration, strongly related with the evolutionary newest (and so more sensitive) secreted proteins, may be of particular relevance in the hippocampus. This early alteration may lead to a mis-structuration of neural connectivity, resulting in the different brain alteration that characterizes SKZ patients.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic