1Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. 2004 Mar 28: 374-84
TitlePossible interaction of alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase genes with the dopamine D2 receptor gene in anxiety-depressive alcohol dependence.
AbstractThe role of the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene in the development of alcohol abuse or dependence is controversial. The controversy is due in part to the disparate definitions pertaining to the control groups used and to the definitions of subtypes in alcohol dependence. In the Han Chinese population, the alcohol dehydrogenase 1B*2/*2 (ADH1B*2/*2) genotype and the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2*2 (ALDH2*2) allele have been considered as protective factors against alcohol abuse or dependence. Moreover, the ADH1B and ALDH2 genes might be involved in dopamine metabolism. We hypothesized that the ADH1B and ALDH2 genes might interact with the DRD2 gene and that the association between the DRD2 gene and alcohol dependence might be affected by different ADH1B and ALDH2 genotypes. This study examined whether the DRD2 gene is associated with specific subtypes of alcohol dependence and evaluated the relationship between the DRD2 gene and alcohol-metabolizing genes in a specific subtype of alcohol dependence.
Of the 465 Han Chinese subjects who were recruited for the study, 71 were classified with pure alcohol dependence, 113 with both alcohol dependence and anxiety-depression (ANX/DEP ALC), and 129 with anxiety-depression but without alcohol dependence (ANX/DEP). The remaining 152 subjects were supernormal controls. All subjects were interviewed with the Chinese version of the modified Schedule of Affective Disorders and schizophrenia-Lifetime; all alcohol dependence, anxiety, and major depressive diagnoses were made according to DSM-IV criteria.
The DRD2 gene was not found to be associated with pure alcohol dependence or ANX/DEP, but was found to be associated with ANX/DEP ALC. Furthermore, the association between the DRD2 gene and ANX/DEP ALC was shown to be under the control of the ALDH2*1/*1 and ADH1B*1/*2 genotypes.
ANX/DEP ALC is a specific subtype of alcohol dependence. Because ANX/DEP ALC was associated with the DRD2 gene only under the stratification of ADH1B*1/*2 or ALDH2*1/*1, the DRD2 gene might interact with the ADH1B gene and the ALDH2 gene, respectively, in the development of ANX/DEP ALC in the Taiwan Han Chinese population.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia
2Curr. Med. Chem. 2010 -1 17: 1300-16
TitlePrimate-accelerated evolutionary genes: novel routes to drug discovery in psychiatric disorders.
AbstractNovel molecular genetic approaches, at genome-scale in different species allowed characterizing genes that have undergone recent selection. The interest in this research field is not limited to the natural curiosity about our evolutionary past, but it is also to identify novel susceptibility genes for neuropsychiatic disorders by pointing specific human traits, such as behavioral and cognitive abilities. Hypotheses have been proposed to relate specific psychiatric disorders to the origin of modern humans, as evidenced by the theory of Crow about schizophrenia. In the present review, we will focus on genes that underwent positive selection in humans or displayed a human specific evolutionary pattern and which were reported as associated with psychiatric disorders. This will include the (1) DRD4 gene associated with attentiondeficit/ hyperactivity disorder, located in a locus that underwent a positive selection; the (2) GABRB2 gene, a gene associated with schizophrenia and recently reported as the target of a positive selection; (3) MARK1, a candidate gene for autism that was reported as displaying a signature of adaptative evolution in the human lineage, and (4) the ADH and ALDH2 genes which are associated with alcoholism, and for which evidence of positive selection was identified in the human lineage since the divergence between humans and chimpanzees. Identification of novel candidate genes based on recent evolution selection, coupled to genome-wide strategies designed to detect rare structural variants, could lead to a better knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of neurodevelopmental disorders and might therefore help to develop new medical chemistry.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia
3PLoS ONE 2014 -1 9: e86037
TitleA two-stage association study suggests BRAP as a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia.
Abstractschizophrenia (SZ) is a neurodevelopmental disorder in which altered immune function typically plays an important role in mediating the effect of environmental insults and regulation of inflammation. The breast cancer suppressor protein associated protein (BRAP) is suggested to exert vital effects in neurodevelopment by modulating the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade and inflammation signaling. To explore the possible role of BRAP in SZ, we conducted a two-stage study to examine the association of BRAP polymorphisms with SZ in the Han Chinese population. In stage one, we screened SNPs in BRAP from our GWAS data, which detected three associated SNPs, with rs3782886 being the most significant one (P ?=? 2.31E-6, OR ?=? 0.67). In stage two, we validated these three SNPs in an independently collected population including 1957 patients and 1509 controls, supporting the association of rs3782886 with SZ (P ?=? 1.43E-6, OR ?=? 0.73). Furthermore, cis-eQTL analysis indicates that rs3782886 genotypes are associated with mRNA levels of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 family (ALDH2) (P ?=? 0.0039) and myosin regulatory light chain 2 (MYL2) (P < 1.0E-4). Our data suggest that the BRAP gene may confer vulnerability for SZ in Han Chinese population, adding further evidence for the involvement of developmental and/or neuroinflammatory cascades in the illness.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia
4J Psychiatr Res 2015 Oct 69: 50-6
TitleALDH2 polymorphism, associated with attenuating negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia treated with add-on dextromethorphan.
AbstractIncreasing the evidence of inflammation's contribution to schizophrenia; using anti-inflammatory or neurotrophic therapeutic agents to see whether they improve schizophrenia treatment. Dextromethorphan (DM), a non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, might protect monoamine neurons. Whether treating schizophrenia with risperidone plus add-on DM is more effective than risperidone (RISP) alone, and the association between the ALDH2 polymorphism and treatment response were investigated.
A double-blind study in which patients with schizophrenia were randomly assigned to the RISP + DM (60 mg/day; n = 74) or the RISP + Placebo (n = 75) group. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) scores were used to evaluate clinical response during weeks 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 11. The genotypes of the ALDH2 polymorphism were determined using polymerase chain reactions plus restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. A generalized estimating equation was used to analyze the effects of ALDH2 polymorphism on the clinical performance of DM.
PANSS and SANS scores were significantly lower in both groups after 11 weeks of treatment. SANS total scores were significantly lower in the RISP + DM group in patients with the ALDH2*2*2 genotype.
RISP plus add-on DM treatment reduced negative schizophrenia symptoms in patients with the ALDH2 polymorphism.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia
5Cereb. Cortex 2016 Mar -1: -1
TitleALDH2 Glu504Lys Confers Susceptibility to Schizophrenia and Impacts Hippocampal-Prefrontal Functional Connectivity.
AbstractAlthough previous evidence suggested that ALDH2 is a candidate gene for schizophrenia, the association and underlying mechanisms have never been investigated. Therefore, we investigated ALDH2 as a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia and explored the effect of its polymorphisms on brain functions. In the discovery stage, we detected a positive association between a dominant-negative mutant, Glu504Lys, and schizophrenia (P= 8.01E-5, OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.16-1.55). This association was confirmed in the validation stage (P= 3.48E-6, OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.15-1.42). The combined P reached a genome-wide significance (Pcombined= 1.32E-9, OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.20-1.42). To investigate the neural mechanism linking Glu504Lys to schizophrenia, we calculated the functional connectivity (FC) and applied an imaging genetics strategy using resting-state fMRI data. The imaging analysis revealed a significant interaction of diagnostic group by genotype for FC between the left hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex. In the Glu homozygotes, hippocampal-prefrontal FC correlated inversely with memory performance in the healthy controls and with the PANSS negative score in the schizophrenia patients. Our results supported a role for ALDH2 in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Moreover, variation at Glu504Lys disrupts hippocampal-prefrontal FC, which might be the neural mechanism linking it to the disease.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia