1World Psychiatry 2004 Jun 3: 104-9
TitleImplementation of evidence-based treatment for schizophrenic disorders: two-year outcome of an international field trial of optimal treatment.
AbstractAccording to clinical trials literature, every person with a schizophrenic disorder should be provided with the combination of optimal dose antipsychotics, strategies to educate himself and his carers to cope more efficiently with environmental stresses, cognitive-behavioural strategies to enhance work and social goals and reducing residual symptoms, and assertive home-based management to help prevent and resolve major social needs and crises, including recurrent episodes of symptoms. Despite strong scientific support for the routine implementation of these 'evidence-based' strategies, few services provide more than the pharmacotherapy component, and even this is seldom applied in the manner associated with the best results in the clinical trials. An international collaborative group, the Optimal Treatment Project (OTP), has been developed to promote the routine use of evidence-based strategies for schizophrenic disorders. A field trial was started to evaluate the benefits and costs of applying evidence-based strategies over a 5-year period. Centres have been set up in 18 countries. This paper summarises the outcome after 24 months of 'optimal' treatment in 603 cases who had reached this stage in their treatment by the end of 2002. On all measures the evidence-based OTP approach achieved more than double the benefits associated with current best practices. One half of recent cases had achieved full recovery from clinical and social morbidity. These advantages were even more striking in centres where a random-control design was used.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
2Int. J. Clin. Pract. 2013 Nov 67: 1105-12
TitleThe characteristics and outcomes of hospitalised and outpatient-treated first-onset schizophrenia patients: a 5-year register linkage study.
AbstractWe compared the course and outcome of schizophrenia in two groups: (i) hospitalised patients (HP) (n = 5980) who were identified based on their first hospital admission for schizophrenia and (ii) outpatient-treated patients (OTP) who received disability pension because of schizophrenia but who had no hospital admissions for schizophrenia or other psychotic disorder before having been granted a disability pension for schizophrenia (n = 1220). Outcomes were compared using data on mortality, psychiatric hospital utilisation, relapse rate and occupational functioning.
A nationwide register-based 5-year follow-up study of all first-onset schizophrenia cases between 1998 and 2003 in Finland. The data were linked with the register information of hospital admissions, disability pensions and National Causes of Death Registers.
When outcome of treatment was evaluated using mortality rate, relapses, hospital treatment and involuntary admissions as outcome measures, results indicated that OTP group had got along better with their illnesses than HP group. The mortality rates, number of psychiatric treatment days and relapse rate during the 5-year follow up were significantly lower in OTP group. Within the OTP group, there was a notable subgroup of never HP (n = 737, 60.4%), who did not require any psychiatric hospitalisation during the 5-year follow up.
Patients first identified as outpatients had better outcomes than patients first identified following a hospitalisation. Future studies are required to establish whether outpatient treatment is associated with more favourable prognosis, even after fully adjusting for severity of initial symptoms. The higher suicide mortality of hospital-treated patients suggests that hospital treatment of first-onset patients does not protect from suicide.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic