|1||Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry 2010 Dec 34: 1500-6|
|Title||SRD5A2 is associated with increased cortisol metabolism in schizophrenia spectrum disorders.|
|Abstract||Dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is documented in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, but the mechanism is unclear; recently, increased activity of cortisol metabolizing enzymes was indicated in these disorders. We investigated whether five genes involved in cortisol metabolism were associated with altered activity of cortisol metabolizing enzymes in bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SCZ).|
A case-control sample of subjects with BD (N=213), SCZ (N=274) and healthy controls (N=370) from Oslo, Norway, were included and genotyped from 2003 to 2008. A sub-sample (healthy controls: N=151; SCZ: N=40; BD: N=39) had estimated enzyme activities based on measurements of urinary free cortisol, urinary free cortisone and metabolites. A total of 102 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the SRD5A1, SRD5A2, AKR1D1, HSD11B1 and HSD11B2 genes were genotyped, and significant SNPs analyzed in the sub-sample.
There was a significant association of rs6732223 in SRD5A2 (5?-reductase) with SCZ (p=0.0043, Bonferroni corrected p=0.030, T risk allele). There was a significantly increased 5?-reductase activity associated with rs6732223 (T allele) within the SCZ group (p=0.011).
The present data suggest an interaction between SCZ and SRD5A2 variants coding for the enzyme 5?-reductase, giving rise to increased 5?-reductase activity in SCZ. The findings may have implications for cortisol metabolizing enzymes as possible drug targets.
|2||Psychoneuroendocrinology 2015 Oct 60: 18-27|
|Title||Investigating interactions between early life stress and two single nucleotide polymorphisms in HSD11B2 on the risk of schizophrenia.|
|Abstract||To examine the risk of schizophrenia in a Danish population after exposure to early life stress, and whether this risk is modified by DNA sequence variation, specifically two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs5479 and rs56303414) from the gene HSD11B2. This gene encodes the enzyme 11-? hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 which converts active cortisol into inactive cortisone.|
A two-stage analysis involving (1) a population-based cohort study, and (2) a nested case-control study using genotype information. Stage 1 included 1,141,447 people; here, we calculated incidence rate ratios (IRR) for the risk of schizophrenia among children of mothers who experienced loss or serious illness of close relatives before, during, and after pregnancy. In stage 2, we genotyped rs5479 and rs56303414 among 1275 schizophrenia cases and 1367 controls, and investigated interactions between genotypes and early life stress on the risk of schizophrenia.
In stage 1, no increased risk of schizophrenia was found in offspring after exposure during pregnancy, but offspring exposed to early life stress at age 0-2 years had a significantly increased risk of schizophrenia (adjusted IRR 1.18, 95% confidence interval 1.07-1.31). For rs5479, the minor allele was nucleotide A, and the major allele was nucleotide C. No interaction was found between rs5479 and exposure during pregnancy. Individuals with the minor A allele of rs5479, however, had a significantly increased risk of schizophrenia after exposure to early life stress at age 3-9 years (adjusted IRR 2.06, 1.04-4.06). No interaction was found between rs56303414 and exposure in any of the time periods.
No association was found between exposure to early life stress during pregnancy and schizophrenia in the offspring investigated, whereas individuals exposed to early life stress within the first two years of life had an increased risk. No interaction was found between HSD11B2 and exposure during pregnancy, but individuals with the A allele of rs5479 had an increased risk of schizophrenia after exposure at age 3-9 years.