1Pharmacogenetics 2001 Feb 11: 21-7
PMID11207027
TitleSerotonin receptor gene HTR3A variants in schizophrenic and bipolar affective patients.
AbstractSerotonin receptor genes have always been considered excellent candidate genes in the aetiology of neurogenetic diseases. In this study, we assessed sequence variations of the HTR3A gene. For this purpose, we established exon-specific primers and analysed DNA samples from 165 unrelated individuals including 70 schizophrenic patients, 48 patients with bipolar affective disorder and 47 healthy control persons using polymerase chain reaction/single-strand conformational polymorphism analysis. We discovered six sequence variants, five of which represent polymorphisms. These polymorphisms could not be associated with schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder (P = 0.055-1). We also detected a missense mutation in exon 9 in a schizophrenic patient at a conserved position (Pro391Arg). To determine the incidence of this substitution an extended set of 358 schizophrenic patients and 155 control individuals was investigated. The Pro391Arg mutation was not detected in these schizophrenic patients and controls screened. However, a second missense mutation (Arg344His) was detected in one schizophrenic patient, but not in any of the controls. These results suggest that the observed mutations in HTR3A are rare and therefore do not play a major role in the aetiology of the disorder. Further studies are needed to support the hypothesis that HTR3A may contribute to the schizophrenia in these patients.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
2Pharmacogenetics 2001 Feb 11: 21-7
PMID11207027
TitleSerotonin receptor gene HTR3A variants in schizophrenic and bipolar affective patients.
AbstractSerotonin receptor genes have always been considered excellent candidate genes in the aetiology of neurogenetic diseases. In this study, we assessed sequence variations of the HTR3A gene. For this purpose, we established exon-specific primers and analysed DNA samples from 165 unrelated individuals including 70 schizophrenic patients, 48 patients with bipolar affective disorder and 47 healthy control persons using polymerase chain reaction/single-strand conformational polymorphism analysis. We discovered six sequence variants, five of which represent polymorphisms. These polymorphisms could not be associated with schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder (P = 0.055-1). We also detected a missense mutation in exon 9 in a schizophrenic patient at a conserved position (Pro391Arg). To determine the incidence of this substitution an extended set of 358 schizophrenic patients and 155 control individuals was investigated. The Pro391Arg mutation was not detected in these schizophrenic patients and controls screened. However, a second missense mutation (Arg344His) was detected in one schizophrenic patient, but not in any of the controls. These results suggest that the observed mutations in HTR3A are rare and therefore do not play a major role in the aetiology of the disorder. Further studies are needed to support the hypothesis that HTR3A may contribute to the schizophrenia in these patients.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
3Schizophr. Res. 2002 Nov 58: 93-7
PMID12363396
TitleNovel mutations in 5-HT3A and 5-HT3B receptor genes not associated with clozapine response.
AbstractClozapine is a potent antagonist of 5-HT3 receptors, which are ligand-gated ion channels that mediate rapid excitatory responses in the central nervous system. Two different isoforms of 5-HT3 receptor subunit genes (HTR3A and HTR3B) have been identified. They have been assigned to chromosome 11q23.1-q23.2, a region which in the past has been linked to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. In this study, we performed a systematic mutation screening of the 5-HT3A and 5-HT3B receptor genes and tested the variants for association with clozapine response in a sample of 266 clozapine-treated patients. Two polymorphisms at the 5-HT3A gene and five new variants in the 5-HT3B gene were finally detected. Of these, only the more frequent mutations (178-C/T and 1596-A/G in 5-HT3A and a CA-repeat in 5-HT3B) were genotyped in our clozapine sample. Association analysis showed similar allele and genotype distributions among clozapine responders and nonresponders. These results make unlikely the possibility that 5-HT3A and 5-HT3B receptor genes underlie variation in clinical response to clozapine. However, the promoter regions of both genes have yet to be investigated.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
4Biol. Psychiatry 2006 Jul 60: 192-201
PMID16487942
TitleDistinguishable haplotype blocks in the HTR3A and HTR3B region in the Japanese reveal evidence of association of HTR3B with female major depression.
AbstractGenetic variations in the serotonin receptor 3A (HTR3A) and 3B (HTR3B) genes, positioned in tandem on chromosome 11q23.2, have been shown to be associated with psychiatric disorders in samples of European ancestry. But the polymorphisms highlighted in these reports map to different locations in the two genes, therefore it is unclear which gene exerts a stronger effect on susceptibility.
To determine the haplotype block structure in the genomic regions of HTR3A and HTR3B, and to examine whether genetic variations in the region show evidence of association with schizophrenia and affective disorder in the Japanese, we performed haplotype-based case-control analysis using 29 polymorphisms.
Two haplotype blocks each were revealed for HTR3A and HTR3B in Japanese samples. In HTR3B, haplotype block 2 that included a nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), yielded evidence of association with major depression in females (global p = .0023). Analysis employing genome-wide SNPs using the STRUCTURE program did not detect population stratification in the samples.
Our results suggest an important role for HTR3B in major depression in women and also raise the possibility that previously proposed disease-associated SNPs in the HTR3A/B region in Caucasians are in linkage disequilibrium with haplotype block 2 of HTR3B in the Japanese.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
5Ann Biomed Eng 2008 Jun 36: 877-88
PMID18330705
TitlePhysiogenomic analysis of localized FMRI brain activity in schizophrenia.
AbstractThe search for genetic factors associated with disease is complicated by the complexity of the biological pathways linking genotype and phenotype. This analytical complexity is particularly concerning in diseases historically lacking reliable diagnostic biological markers, such as schizophrenia and other mental disorders. We investigate the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) as an intermediate phenotype (endophenotype) to identify physiogenomic associations to schizophrenia. We screened 99 subjects, 30 subjects diagnosed with schizophrenia, 13 unaffected relatives of schizophrenia patients, and 56 unrelated controls, for gene polymorphisms associated with fMRI activation patterns at two locations in temporal and frontal lobes previously implied in schizophrenia. A total of 22 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 15 genes from the dopamine and serotonin neurotransmission pathways were genotyped in all subjects. We identified three SNPs in genes that are significantly associated with fMRI activity. SNPs of the dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) gene and of the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) were associated with activity in the temporal and frontal lobes, respectively. One SNP of serotonin-3A receptor (HTR3A) was associated with temporal lobe activity. The results of this study support the physiogenomic analysis of neuroimaging data to discover associations between genotype and disease-related phenotypes.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
6Neurosci. Lett. 2008 Apr 435: 95-8
PMID18359159
TitleRelationship between three serotonin receptor subtypes (HTR3A, HTR2A and HTR4) and treatment-resistant schizophrenia in the Japanese population.
AbstractThe proportion of treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS) has been estimated as 20-40% in the schizophrenic patients. Genetic factors are considered to be involved in the development of this condition. Serotonin subtypes are hypothesized to be the candidate genes. In the present study, single marker and haplotype analyses between several mutations of serotonin receptor subtypes (HTR2A, HTR3A and HTR4) and TRS (TRS=101, NON-TRS=239) were performed to determine a possible relationship with the development of TRS. Additionally, we also compared the daily neuroleptic dosage among each genotype. No significant association was observed between TRS and each allele, genotype, and haplotype. However, the daily neuroleptic dosage that patients had been receiving during their maintenance therapy was significantly higher in patients with the T/T genotype of HTR3A polymorphism (rs1062613, p=0.041). The present results support further research to examine the relationship between HTR3A polymorphism and the development of TRS in the Japanese population.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
7Neurosci. Lett. 2008 Apr 435: 95-8
PMID18359159
TitleRelationship between three serotonin receptor subtypes (HTR3A, HTR2A and HTR4) and treatment-resistant schizophrenia in the Japanese population.
AbstractThe proportion of treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS) has been estimated as 20-40% in the schizophrenic patients. Genetic factors are considered to be involved in the development of this condition. Serotonin subtypes are hypothesized to be the candidate genes. In the present study, single marker and haplotype analyses between several mutations of serotonin receptor subtypes (HTR2A, HTR3A and HTR4) and TRS (TRS=101, NON-TRS=239) were performed to determine a possible relationship with the development of TRS. Additionally, we also compared the daily neuroleptic dosage among each genotype. No significant association was observed between TRS and each allele, genotype, and haplotype. However, the daily neuroleptic dosage that patients had been receiving during their maintenance therapy was significantly higher in patients with the T/T genotype of HTR3A polymorphism (rs1062613, p=0.041). The present results support further research to examine the relationship between HTR3A polymorphism and the development of TRS in the Japanese population.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
8Pharmacogenet. Genomics 2008 Aug 18: 721-7
PMID18622264
TitleAssociation between a polymorphism of the HTR3A gene and therapeutic response to risperidone treatment in drug-naive Chinese schizophrenia patients.
AbstractCertain components of the serotonin system have been known for some time to be risk factors for schizophrenia. Few studies have, however, focused on the association between the therapeutic responses to atypical antipsychotics, such as risperidone, and polymorphisms of the 5-HT3 receptor, the only ionotropic ligand-gated serotonin receptor, even though there have been some genetic clues linking HTR3A and schizophrenia. We therefore postulated that such a polymorphism might be an explanatory factor in the diversity of response to risperidone treatment.
The study recruited 107 drug-naive Chinese schizophrenia patients who were given 8 weeks of risperidone monotherapy and it explored three of four single nucleotide polymorphisms spanning HTR3A for possible association with therapeutic improvement, using the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale.
Significant correlation between the baseline score and therapeutic improvement was observed in each subscale (P<0.001). Statistical analysis revealed association between genotypes of g.14396A>G polymorphism (rs1176713) and score reductions of negative and general subscales after adjusting for the influence of the baseline scores of each subscale [P (F, d.f.)=0.026 (3.763, 2), 0.023 (3.937, 2) respectively]. One haplotype, C-A-G, contributed to an effective response in general symptoms (chi(2)=7.3, P=0.007, odds ratio=3.371).
The results of this study are the first to suggest that the polymorphism of HTR3A may be a useful predictor of therapeutic response to risperidone treatment in Chinese schizophrenic patients, although these conclusions should be treated with caution because of the intricacy of the variety of the therapeutic effects to risperidone.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
9Pharmacogenet. Genomics 2008 Aug 18: 721-7
PMID18622264
TitleAssociation between a polymorphism of the HTR3A gene and therapeutic response to risperidone treatment in drug-naive Chinese schizophrenia patients.
AbstractCertain components of the serotonin system have been known for some time to be risk factors for schizophrenia. Few studies have, however, focused on the association between the therapeutic responses to atypical antipsychotics, such as risperidone, and polymorphisms of the 5-HT3 receptor, the only ionotropic ligand-gated serotonin receptor, even though there have been some genetic clues linking HTR3A and schizophrenia. We therefore postulated that such a polymorphism might be an explanatory factor in the diversity of response to risperidone treatment.
The study recruited 107 drug-naive Chinese schizophrenia patients who were given 8 weeks of risperidone monotherapy and it explored three of four single nucleotide polymorphisms spanning HTR3A for possible association with therapeutic improvement, using the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale.
Significant correlation between the baseline score and therapeutic improvement was observed in each subscale (P<0.001). Statistical analysis revealed association between genotypes of g.14396A>G polymorphism (rs1176713) and score reductions of negative and general subscales after adjusting for the influence of the baseline scores of each subscale [P (F, d.f.)=0.026 (3.763, 2), 0.023 (3.937, 2) respectively]. One haplotype, C-A-G, contributed to an effective response in general symptoms (chi(2)=7.3, P=0.007, odds ratio=3.371).
The results of this study are the first to suggest that the polymorphism of HTR3A may be a useful predictor of therapeutic response to risperidone treatment in Chinese schizophrenic patients, although these conclusions should be treated with caution because of the intricacy of the variety of the therapeutic effects to risperidone.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
10Pharmacogenet. Genomics 2009 Nov 19: 843-51
PMID19794330
TitleInfluence of 5-HT3 receptor subunit genes HTR3A, HTR3B, HTR3C, HTR3D and HTR3E on treatment response to antipsychotics in schizophrenia.
AbstractAmong serotonin (5-HT) receptors, the 5-HT3 receptor is the only ligand-gated ion channel. 5-HT3 antagonists such as ondansetron and tropisetron may improve auditory gating and neurocognitive deficits in schizophrenic patients. Moreover, many antipsychotic drugs are antagonists at 5-HT3 receptors. However, the role of 5-HT3 receptor variants on response to antipsychotic drugs in schizophrenic patients is still unclear.
In a prospective, randomized, double-blind study, we have assessed six functional and coding variants of the subunit genes HTR3A, HTR3B as well as the novel HTR3C, HTR3D, and HTR3E subunits in the response to haloperidol or risperidone. Seventy patients were treated for 4 weeks and positive symptoms, negative symptoms, and general psychopathology were measured by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS).
HTR3E had an effect on the speed of response to antipsychotics. GG-allele carriers responded more quickly to treatment on the PANSS negative symptom subscale (P = 0.03) and on the total PANSS score (P = 0.04) irrespective of medication. In a second independent study of 144 schizophrenia patients treated with atypical antipsychotics, this effect could not be confirmed.
Our findings argue against a major effect of HTR3 variants in response to antipsychotics. Solely, the HTR3E and also the HTR3A variant could exert a weak effect on the speed of response to antipsychotics.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
11Pharmacogenet. Genomics 2009 Nov 19: 843-51
PMID19794330
TitleInfluence of 5-HT3 receptor subunit genes HTR3A, HTR3B, HTR3C, HTR3D and HTR3E on treatment response to antipsychotics in schizophrenia.
AbstractAmong serotonin (5-HT) receptors, the 5-HT3 receptor is the only ligand-gated ion channel. 5-HT3 antagonists such as ondansetron and tropisetron may improve auditory gating and neurocognitive deficits in schizophrenic patients. Moreover, many antipsychotic drugs are antagonists at 5-HT3 receptors. However, the role of 5-HT3 receptor variants on response to antipsychotic drugs in schizophrenic patients is still unclear.
In a prospective, randomized, double-blind study, we have assessed six functional and coding variants of the subunit genes HTR3A, HTR3B as well as the novel HTR3C, HTR3D, and HTR3E subunits in the response to haloperidol or risperidone. Seventy patients were treated for 4 weeks and positive symptoms, negative symptoms, and general psychopathology were measured by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS).
HTR3E had an effect on the speed of response to antipsychotics. GG-allele carriers responded more quickly to treatment on the PANSS negative symptom subscale (P = 0.03) and on the total PANSS score (P = 0.04) irrespective of medication. In a second independent study of 144 schizophrenia patients treated with atypical antipsychotics, this effect could not be confirmed.
Our findings argue against a major effect of HTR3 variants in response to antipsychotics. Solely, the HTR3E and also the HTR3A variant could exert a weak effect on the speed of response to antipsychotics.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
12Pharmacogenet. Genomics 2010 Apr 20: 274-6
PMID20168265
TitleInfluence of serotonin 3A and 3B receptor genes on clozapine treatment response in schizophrenia.
AbstractEarlier results suggest a minor role of variants in the serotonin 3 receptor (HTR3) subunit genes on antipsychotic treatment outcome of schizophrenia patients. In this study, we further investigated the role of the subunits A and B of the HTR3 receptor using 140 schizophrenia patients taking clozapine for 6 months. We have found significant allelic association of clozapine response with three variants in the HTR3A receptor (rs2276302, rs1062613, rs1150226) although only rs1062613 association remained significant after permutations (permutated P=0.041). Moreover, rs2276302 and rs1062613 have shown nominally significant genotypic association. The two haplotypes composed of rs2276302-rs1062613-rs1150226 were also nominally significant. Taken together, our results suggest that variants in the HTR3A receptor gene can play a role in the treatment outcome of clozapine in schizophrenia patients that are refractory or intolerant of typical antipsychotic therapy. Further studies are necessary to confirm the reported associations.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
13Neurosci. Lett. 2011 Feb 489: 137-41
PMID21184810
TitleAre serotonin 3A and 3B receptor genes associated with suicidal behavior in schizophrenia subjects?
AbstractSuicide is a major contributor to the morbidity and mortality of schizophrenia, accounting for approximately 10% of deaths in these patients. Genetic factors have been reported to modulate the risk for suicide, although the precise mechanism and magnitude of the genetic contribution are unknown. Further, suicide attempters present abnormalities in the serotonergic system. We evaluated whether genetic variants in the serotonin receptors HTR3A (rs897692, rs1150226, rs1176724, rs2276302, rs3737457, rs897687 and rs1176713) and HTR3B (rs3758987, rs10502180, rs11606194, rs17116121, rs1176744, rs17116138, rs2276307, rs3782025 and rs1176761) were susceptibility components for suicidal behavior in 154 Caucasians schizophrenia subjects (20.1% of suicide attempters). In a second step, we compared haplotype and gene-gene interaction approaches because both genes are located in the chromosome 11q23 approximately 28Kbp apart. We did not observe allelic or genotypic associations. Six haplotypes were nominally significant associated with suicide. Gene-gene interaction using Helix Tree software showed two nominally significant interactions reproduced by haplotype association. Likewise, haplotypes composed by the markers included in the best multidimensional reduction three-locus model were nominally significant. Our results suggest that HTR3A and HTR3B polymorphisms may not play a major role in the susceptibility for suicidal behavior in schizophrenia subjects. Moreover, gene-gene interaction and haplotype association may have consistent results for genes located in the same chromosome.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
14Psychopharmacology (Berl.) 2012 Dec 224: 441-9
PMID22700043
TitleOutcome definitions and clinical predictors influence pharmacogenetic associations between HTR3A gene polymorphisms and response to clozapine in patients with schizophrenia.
AbstractPharmacogenetics of schizophrenia has not yet delivered anticipated clinical dividends. Clinical heterogeneity of schizophrenia contributes to the poor replication of the findings of pharmacogenetic association studies. Functionally important HTR3A gene single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were reported to be associated with response to clozapine.
The aim of this study was to investigate how the association between HTR3A gene SNP and response to clozapine is influenced by various clinical predictors and by differing outcome definitions in patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS).
We recruited 101 consecutive patients with TRS, on stable doses of clozapine, and evaluated their HTR3A gene SNP (rs1062613 and rs2276302), psychopathology, and serum clozapine levels. We assessed their socio-demographic and clinical profiles, premorbid adjustment, traumatic events, cognition, and disability using standard assessment schedules. We evaluated their response to clozapine, by employing six differing outcome definitions. We employed appropriate multivariate statistics to calculate allelic and genotypic association, accounting for the effects of various clinical variables.
T allele of rs1062613 and G allele of rs2276302 were significantly associated with good clinical response to clozapine (p = 0.02). However, varying outcome definitions make these associations inconsistent. rs1062613 and rs2276302 could explain only 13.8 % variability in the responses to clozapine, while combined clinical predictors and HTR3A pharmacogenetic association model could explain 38 % variability.
We demonstrated that the results of pharmacogenetic studies in schizophrenia depend heavily on their outcome definitions and that combined clinical and pharmacogenetic models have better predictive values. Future pharmacogenetic studies should employ multiple outcome definitions and should evaluate associated clinical variables.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
15Nord J Psychiatry 2013 Jun 67: 214-8
PMID23126479
TitleThere is no evidence for an association between the serotonin receptor 3A gene C178T polymorphism and tardive dyskinesia in Korean schizophrenia patients.
AbstractTardive dyskinesia (TD) is a potential adverse effect of long-term treatment with antipsychotics. Previous studies have suggested a link between brain serotonergic systems and TD vulnerability. A recent report described that a serotonin 3 receptor (5-HTR3) agonist induced rhythmic movements in mice with complete paraplegia. Furthermore, it has been reported that the 5-HTR3 antagonist ondansetron is efficacious in the treatment of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS).
The aim of the present study was to determine whether the 5-HTR3A gene C178T polymorphism is associated with antipsychotic-induced TD in Korean schizophrenia patients.
We investigated 280 Korean schizophrenia patients. Subjects with TD (n = 105) and without TD (n = 175) were matched for antipsychotic drug exposure and other relevant variables.
The distributions of genotypic (chi-squared = 3.55, p = 0.169) and allelic (chi-squared = 0.40, p = 0.528) frequencies did not differ between patients with and without TD. The total score on the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale also did not differ between the two genotype groups (F = 0.94, p = 0.391).
The findings of the present study do not support the involvement of the 5-HTR3A gene C178T polymorphism in TD in Korean schizophrenia subjects.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
16Schizophr. Res. 2015 Mar 162: 112-7
PMID25579050
TitleEvidence for schizophrenia susceptibility alleles in the Indian population: An association of neurodevelopmental genes in case-control and familial samples.
Abstractschizophrenia is a severe psychiatric disorder with lifetime prevalence of ~1% worldwide. A genotyping study was conducted using a custom panel of Illumina 1536 SNPs in 840 schizophrenia cases and 876 controls (351 patients and 385 controls from North India; and 436 patients, 401 controls and 143 familial samples with 53 probands containing 37 complete and 16 incomplete trios from South India). Meta-analysis of this population of Indo-European and Dravidian ancestry identified three strongly associated variants with schizophrenia: STT3A (rs548181, p=1.4710(-5)), NRG1 (rs17603876, p=8.6610(-5)) and GRM7 (rs3864075, p=4.0610(-3)). Finally, a meta-analysis was conducted comparing our data with data from the schizophrenia Psychiatric Genome-Wide Association Study Consortium (PGC-SCZ) that supported rs548181 (p=1.3910(-7)). In addition, combined analysis of sporadic case-control association and a transmission disequilibrium test in familial samples from South Indian population identified three associations: rs1062613 (p=3.1210(-3)), a functional promoter variant of HTR3A; rs6710782 (p=3.5010(-3)), an intronic variant of ERBB4; and rs891903 (p=1.0510(-2)), an intronic variant of EBF1. The results support the risk variants observed in the earlier published work and suggest a potential role of neurodevelopmental genes in the schizophrenia pathogenesis.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
17Brain Behav. Immun. 2016 Jan 51: 119-30
PMID26254231
TitleDisruptions of sensorimotor gating, cytokines, glycemia, monoamines, and genes in both sexes of rats reared in social isolation can be ameliorated by oral chronic quetiapine administration.
AbstractThe pathogenesis of schizophrenia in patients with metabolic abnormalities remains unclear. Our previous study demonstrated that isolation rearing (IR) induced longitudinal concomitant changes of pro-inflammatory cytokine (pro-CK) levels and metabolic abnormalities with a developmental origin. However, the general consensus, believes that these abnormalities are caused by antipsychotic treatment in schizophrenic patients. The IR paradigm presents with face, construct, and predictive validity for schizophrenia. Therefore, we employed IR rats of both sexes to examine whether chronic quetiapine (QTP, a second-generation antipsychotic medication) treatment induces disruptions of metabolism (body weight, blood pressure, and the glycemic and lipid profiles) or cytokines [interleukin (IL)-1 beta, IL-6, IL-10, interferon-gamma, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha], and further, whether it reverses deficits of behaviors [locomotor activity and prepulse inhibition (PPI)] and the expression of monoamines (dopamine and serotonin) and related genes (Htr1a, Htr2a, HTR3A, Drd1a, and Gabbr2). IR induced higher levels of pro-CK, dysglycemia, blood pressure, locomotor activity, and impaired PPI, simultaneously destabilizing cortico-striatal monoamines and relevant genes in both sexes, while QTP demonstrated dose-dependent reversal of these changes, suggesting that QTP might reduce the pro-CKs to regulate these abnormalities. Our data implied that antipsychotics may not be the solitary factor causing metabolic problems in schizophrenia and suggested that inflammatory changes may play a vital role in the developmental pathophysiology of schizophrenia and related metabolic abnormalities.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
18Brain Behav. Immun. 2016 Jan 51: 119-30
PMID26254231
TitleDisruptions of sensorimotor gating, cytokines, glycemia, monoamines, and genes in both sexes of rats reared in social isolation can be ameliorated by oral chronic quetiapine administration.
AbstractThe pathogenesis of schizophrenia in patients with metabolic abnormalities remains unclear. Our previous study demonstrated that isolation rearing (IR) induced longitudinal concomitant changes of pro-inflammatory cytokine (pro-CK) levels and metabolic abnormalities with a developmental origin. However, the general consensus, believes that these abnormalities are caused by antipsychotic treatment in schizophrenic patients. The IR paradigm presents with face, construct, and predictive validity for schizophrenia. Therefore, we employed IR rats of both sexes to examine whether chronic quetiapine (QTP, a second-generation antipsychotic medication) treatment induces disruptions of metabolism (body weight, blood pressure, and the glycemic and lipid profiles) or cytokines [interleukin (IL)-1 beta, IL-6, IL-10, interferon-gamma, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha], and further, whether it reverses deficits of behaviors [locomotor activity and prepulse inhibition (PPI)] and the expression of monoamines (dopamine and serotonin) and related genes (Htr1a, Htr2a, HTR3A, Drd1a, and Gabbr2). IR induced higher levels of pro-CK, dysglycemia, blood pressure, locomotor activity, and impaired PPI, simultaneously destabilizing cortico-striatal monoamines and relevant genes in both sexes, while QTP demonstrated dose-dependent reversal of these changes, suggesting that QTP might reduce the pro-CKs to regulate these abnormalities. Our data implied that antipsychotics may not be the solitary factor causing metabolic problems in schizophrenia and suggested that inflammatory changes may play a vital role in the developmental pathophysiology of schizophrenia and related metabolic abnormalities.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic