1Mol. Psychiatry 2007 Mar 12: 273-82
TitleInterleukin 3 and schizophrenia: the impact of sex and family history.
AbstractChromosome 5q21-33 has been implicated in harboring risk genes for schizophrenia. In this paper, we report evidence that multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms in and around interleukin 3 (IL3) are associated with the disease in the Irish Study of High-Density schizophrenia Families (ISHDSF), the Irish Case-Control Study of schizophrenia (ICCSS) and the Irish Trio Study of schizophrenia (ITRIO). The associations are sex-specific and depend on the family history (FH) of schizophrenia. In all three samples, rs31400 shows female-specific and FH-dependent associations (P=0.0062, 0.0647 and 0.0284 for the ISHDSF, ICCSS and ITRIO, respectively). Several markers have similar associations in one or two of the three samples. In haplotype analyses, identical risk and protective haplotypes are identified in the ISHDSF and ITRIO samples in several multimarker combinations. For ICCSS, the same haplotypes are implicated; however, the risk haplotypes observed in the family samples become protective. Several significant markers, rs440970, rs31400 and rs2069803, are located in and around known estrogen response elements, promoter and enhancer of the IL3 gene. They may explain the sex-specific associations and be functional for the expression of IL3 gene.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia
2Neurosci. Lett. 2008 Jul 440: 35-7
TitleAssociation between interleukin-3 receptor alpha polymorphism and schizophrenia in the Chinese population.
Abstractschizophrenia has been observed to be associated with various abnormalities in cytokines and cytokine receptors. Three very recent reports showed the evidence that the IL3 gene, colony stimulating factor 2 receptor alpha (CSF2RA), beta (CSF2RB) and IL-3 receptor alpha (IL3RA), the IL-specific receptor subunits for CSF2 and IL3, respectively, are associated with schizophrenia. To examine the association of the IL3RA polymorphism (rs6603272) with schizophrenia in a Chinese population, 310 physically healthy patients with schizophrenia were compared with 330 age-, sex- matched normal controls. Statistically significant differences were observed in both allelic and genotypic frequencies of the rs6603272 polymorphism (Allele, chi2=6.24, d.f.=1, p=0.013, odds ratio (OR)=1.35, 95% CI 1.07-1.71; Genotype, chi2=6.85, d.f.=2, p=0.033). Our results indicate a small but significant contribution of the IL3RA polymorphism to susceptibility to schizophrenia, suggesting that the IL3 pathway may be involved in schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia
3Mol. Psychiatry 2008 Oct 13: 930-8
TitleAssociation study of CSF2RB with schizophrenia in Irish family and case - control samples.
AbstractColony stimulating factor 2 receptor, beta (CSF2RB) is the shared subunit of receptors for interleukin 3 (IL3), colony stimulating factor 2 (CSF2) and IL5, and is responsible for the initiation of signal transduction triggered by ligand binding. In our previous study, we showed the evidence that the IL3 gene is associated with schizophrenia and the associations observed are sex-specific and dependent on family history (FH). In this article, we studied 10 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the CSF2RB gene in the Irish Study of High-Density schizophrenia Families (ISHDSF) and the Irish Case - Control Study of schizophrenia (ICCSS), and tested allele and haplotype associations with schizophrenia. Using the pedigree disequilibrium test, we found that two markers (rs11705394 and rs7285064) reached nominal significance. In sex-stratified analyses, for both the markers the association signals were mainly derived from male subjects. In the ICCSS sample, we found that several markers (rs2072707, rs2284031 and rs909486) showed sex-specific and FH-dependent associations with schizophrenia. In multimarker haplotype analyses, both ISHDSF and ICCSS samples showed globally significant associations in multiple linkage disequilibrium (LD) blocks sharing minimal LD. Since CSF2RB is essential for IL3 signaling, the findings that both IL3 and CSF2RB showed sex-specific and FH-dependent associations suggest that the IL3 pathway is involved in schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia
4Schizophr. Res. 2008 Dec 106: 208-17
TitleInteraction between interleukin 3 and dystrobrevin-binding protein 1 in schizophrenia.
Abstractschizophrenia is a common psychotic mental disorder that is believed to result from the effects of multiple genetic and environmental factors. In this study, we explored gene-gene interactions and main effects in both case-control (657 cases and 411 controls) and family-based (273 families, 1,350 subjects) datasets of English or Irish ancestry. Fifty three markers in 8 genes were genotyped in the family sample and 44 markers in 7 genes were genotyped in the case-control sample. The Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction Pedigree Disequilibrium Test (MDR-PDT) was used to examine epistasis in the family dataset and a 3-locus model was identified (permuted p=0.003). The 3-locus model involved the IL3 (rs2069803), RGS4 (rs2661319), and DTNBP1 (rs2619539) genes. We used MDR to analyze the case-control dataset containing the same markers typed in the RGS4, IL3 and DTNBP1 genes and found evidence of a joint effect between IL3 (rs31400) and DTNBP1 (rs760761) (cross-validation consistency 4/5, balanced prediction accuracy=56.84%, p=0.019). While this is not a direct replication, the results obtained from both the family and case-control samples collectively suggest that IL3 and DTNBP1 are likely to interact and jointly contribute to increase risk for schizophrenia. We also observed a significant main effect in DTNBP1, which survived correction for multiple comparisons, and numerous nominally significant effects in several genes.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia
5Schizophr Bull 2009 Nov 35: 1163-82
TitleSchizophrenia susceptibility genes directly implicated in the life cycles of pathogens: cytomegalovirus, influenza, herpes simplex, rubella, and Toxoplasma gondii.
AbstractMany genes implicated in schizophrenia can be related to glutamatergic transmission and neuroplasticity, oligodendrocyte function, and other families clearly related to neurobiology and schizophrenia phenotypes. Others appear rather to be involved in the life cycles of the pathogens implicated in the disease. For example, aspartylglucosaminidase (AGA), PLA2, SIAT8B, GALNT7, or B3GAT1 metabolize chemical ligands to which the influenza virus, herpes simplex, cytomegalovirus (CMV), rubella, or Toxoplasma gondii bind. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGR/EGFR) is used by the CMV to gain entry to cells, and a CMV gene codes for an interleukin (IL-10) mimic that binds the host cognate receptor, IL10R. The fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR1) is used by herpes simplex. KPNA3 and RANBP5 control the nuclear import of the influenza virus. Disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) controls the microtubule network that is used by viruses as a route to the nucleus, while DTNBP1, MUTED, and BLOC1S3 regulate endosomal to lysosomal routing that is also important in viral traffic. Neuregulin 1 activates ERBB receptors releasing a factor, EBP1, known to inhibit the influenza virus transcriptase. Other viral or bacterial components bind to genes or proteins encoded by CALR, FEZ1, FYN, HSPA1B, IL2, HTR2A, KPNA3, MED12, MED15, MICB, NQO2, PAX6, PIK3C3, RANBP5, or TP53, while the cerebral infectivity of the herpes simplex virus is modified by Apolipoprotein E (APOE). Genes encoding for proteins related to the innate immune response, including cytokine related (CCR5, CSF2RA, CSF2RB, IL1B, IL1RN, IL2, IL3, IL3RA, IL4, IL10, IL10RA, IL18RAP, lymphotoxin-alpha, tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF]), human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antigens (HLA-A10, HLA-B, HLA-DRB1), and genes involved in antigen processing (angiotensin-converting enzyme and tripeptidyl peptidase 2) are all concerned with defense against invading pathogens. Human microRNAs (Hsa-mir-198 and Hsa-mir-206) are predicted to bind to influenza, rubella, or poliovirus genes. Certain genes associated with schizophrenia, including those also concerned with neurophysiology, are intimately related to the life cycles of the pathogens implicated in the disease. Several genes may affect pathogen virulence, while the pathogens in turn may affect genes and processes relevant to the neurophysiology of schizophrenia. For such genes, the strength of association in genetic studies is likely to be conditioned by the presence of the pathogen, which varies in different populations at different times, a factor that may explain the heterogeneity that plagues such studies. This scenario also suggests that drugs or vaccines designed to eliminate the pathogens that so clearly interact with schizophrenia susceptibility genes could have a dramatic effect on the incidence of the disease.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia