1Mol. Psychiatry 2011 Mar 16: 321-32
TitleGenomewide pharmacogenomic study of metabolic side effects to antipsychotic drugs.
AbstractUnderstanding individual differences in the susceptibility to metabolic side effects as a response to antipsychotic therapy is essential to optimize the treatment of schizophrenia. Here, we perform genomewide association studies (GWAS) to search for genetic variation affecting the susceptibility to metabolic side effects. The analysis sample consisted of 738 schizophrenia patients, successfully genotyped for 492K single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), from the genomic subsample of the Clinical Antipsychotic Trial of Intervention Effectiveness study. Outcomes included 12 indicators of metabolic side effects, quantifying antipsychotic-induced change in weight, blood lipids, glucose and hemoglobin A1c, blood pressure and heart rate. Our criterion for genomewide significance was a pre-specified threshold that ensures, on average, only 10% of the significant findings are false discoveries. A total of 21 SNPs satisfied this criterion. The top finding indicated that a SNP in Meis homeobox 2 (MEIS2) mediated the effects of risperidone on hip circumference (q=0.004). The same SNP was also found to mediate risperidone's effect on waist circumference (q=0.055). Genomewide significant finding were also found for SNPs in PRKAR2B, GPR98, FHOD3, RNF144A, ASTN2, SOX5 and ATF7IP2, as well as in several intergenic markers. PRKAR2B and MEIS2 both have previous research indicating metabolic involvement, and PRKAR2B has previously been shown to mediate antipsychotic response. Although our findings require replication and functional validation, this study shows the potential of GWAS to discover genes and pathways that potentially mediate adverse effects of antipsychotic medication.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
2Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet. 2012 Jan 159B: 77-86
TitleEvaluation of conserved and ultra-conserved non-genic sequences in chromosome 15q15-linked periodic catatonia.
AbstractConserved and ultra-conserved non-genic sequence elements (CNGs, UCEs) between human and other mammalian genomes seem to constitute a heterogeneous group of functional sequences which likely have important biological function. To determine whether variation in CNGs and UCEs contributes to risk for the schizophrenic subphenotype of periodic catatonia (according to K. Leonhard; OMIM 605419), we evaluated non-coding elements at a critical 7.35?Mb interval on chromosome 15q15 in 8 unrelated cases with periodic catatonia (derived from pedigrees compatible with linkage to chromosome 15q15) and 8 controls, followed by association studies in a cohort of 510 cases and controls. Among 65 CNGs (?100?bp, 100% identity; human-mouse comparison), 7 CNGs matched criteria for UCE (?200? bp, 100% identity). A hot spot of 62/65 CNGs (95%) appeared at the MEIS2 locus, which implicates functional importance of associated (ultra-)conserved elements to this early developmental gene, which is present in the human fetal neocortex and associated with metabolic side effects to antipsychotic drugs. Further CNGs were identified at the PLCB2 and DLL4 locus or located intergenic between TYRO3 and MAPKBP1. Automated sequencing revealed genetic variation in 12.3% of CNGs, but frequencies were low (MAF: 0.06-0.4) in cases. Three variants located inside CNGs/UCEs were found in cases only. In a case-control association study we could not confirm a significant association of these three CNG-variants with periodic catatonia. Our results suggest genetic variation in (ultra-)conserved non-genic sequence elements which might alter functional properties. The identified variants are genetically not associated with the phenotype of periodic catatonia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic