1Schizophr. Res. 2007 Aug 94: 342-53
TitlePolymorphisms in MICB are associated with human herpes virus seropositivity and schizophrenia risk.
AbstractViral infection may be a risk factor for schizophrenia and has been associated with decreased cognitive functioning in patients. We report associations of SNPs at MICB (MHC class I polypeptide-related sequence B, chromosome 6p21) with cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus 1 seropositivity. We previously found associations with schizophrenia on chromosome 6p21 among patients seropositive for cytomegalovirus (CMV) and herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1). To localize the associations further, we genotyped 26 SNPs spanning 100 kb in a sample of 236 Caucasian schizophrenia patients and 240 controls. Based on suggestive associations, we selected five SNPs at MICB to assay among two additional Caucasian samples that had been serotyped for CMV and HSV1: a case-control sample recruited in Baltimore (n=272 cases, 108 controls), and a case-parent trio sample recruited in Pittsburgh (n=221). Among Baltimore control individuals there were significant associations with antibody status for infectious agents: rs1051788 with HSV1 seropositivity (p=0.006) and rs2523651 with cytomegalovirus seropositivity (p=0.001). The former association was also detectable among the parents of cases recruited in Pittsburgh (p=0.024). Neither viral association was noted among the schizophrenia cases. With respect to schizophrenia risk, significant transmission distortion was noted at rs1051788 and rs1055569 among the case-parent trios regardless of antibody status (p=0.014 and 0.036 respectively). A similar trend for association with schizophrenia liability at rs1051788 in the Baltimore sample did not attain statistical significance. There are a number of explanations for the associations, including chance variation, as well as gene-virus interactions. Further replicate studies are warranted, as are functional studies of these polymorphisms.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia
2Schizophr Bull 2009 Nov 35: 1163-82
TitleSchizophrenia susceptibility genes directly implicated in the life cycles of pathogens: cytomegalovirus, influenza, herpes simplex, rubella, and Toxoplasma gondii.
AbstractMany genes implicated in schizophrenia can be related to glutamatergic transmission and neuroplasticity, oligodendrocyte function, and other families clearly related to neurobiology and schizophrenia phenotypes. Others appear rather to be involved in the life cycles of the pathogens implicated in the disease. For example, aspartylglucosaminidase (AGA), PLA2, SIAT8B, GALNT7, or B3GAT1 metabolize chemical ligands to which the influenza virus, herpes simplex, cytomegalovirus (CMV), rubella, or Toxoplasma gondii bind. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGR/EGFR) is used by the CMV to gain entry to cells, and a CMV gene codes for an interleukin (IL-10) mimic that binds the host cognate receptor, IL10R. The fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR1) is used by herpes simplex. KPNA3 and RANBP5 control the nuclear import of the influenza virus. Disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) controls the microtubule network that is used by viruses as a route to the nucleus, while DTNBP1, MUTED, and BLOC1S3 regulate endosomal to lysosomal routing that is also important in viral traffic. Neuregulin 1 activates ERBB receptors releasing a factor, EBP1, known to inhibit the influenza virus transcriptase. Other viral or bacterial components bind to genes or proteins encoded by CALR, FEZ1, FYN, HSPA1B, IL2, HTR2A, KPNA3, MED12, MED15, MICB, NQO2, PAX6, PIK3C3, RANBP5, or TP53, while the cerebral infectivity of the herpes simplex virus is modified by Apolipoprotein E (APOE). Genes encoding for proteins related to the innate immune response, including cytokine related (CCR5, CSF2RA, CSF2RB, IL1B, IL1RN, IL2, IL3, IL3RA, IL4, IL10, IL10RA, IL18RAP, lymphotoxin-alpha, tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF]), human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antigens (HLA-A10, HLA-B, HLA-DRB1), and genes involved in antigen processing (angiotensin-converting enzyme and tripeptidyl peptidase 2) are all concerned with defense against invading pathogens. Human microRNAs (Hsa-mir-198 and Hsa-mir-206) are predicted to bind to influenza, rubella, or poliovirus genes. Certain genes associated with schizophrenia, including those also concerned with neurophysiology, are intimately related to the life cycles of the pathogens implicated in the disease. Several genes may affect pathogen virulence, while the pathogens in turn may affect genes and processes relevant to the neurophysiology of schizophrenia. For such genes, the strength of association in genetic studies is likely to be conditioned by the presence of the pathogen, which varies in different populations at different times, a factor that may explain the heterogeneity that plagues such studies. This scenario also suggests that drugs or vaccines designed to eliminate the pathogens that so clearly interact with schizophrenia susceptibility genes could have a dramatic effect on the incidence of the disease.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia
3Schizophr. Res. 2010 May 118: 232-9
TitleGrey matter changes associated with host genetic variation and exposure to Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (HSV1) in first episode schizophrenia.
AbstractWe previously reported reduced prefrontal cortex (PFC) grey matter volume among first episode, antipsychotic-na´ve schizophrenia subjects (SZ) exposed to HSV1 but not among healthy subjects (HS) (Prasad et al., 2007). Independently, rs1051788, an exonic polymorphism of the MHC Class I polypeptide-related sequence B (MICB) gene was associated with HSV1 seropositivity, as well as SZ risk. In this study, we examined whether PFC grey matter changes associated with HSV1 exposure varied against the background of MICB genotypes.
We examined Caucasian individuals from the sample we studied in our previous report (Prasad et al., 2007) (SZ, n=21 and HS, n=19). Whole brain voxelwise analysis of structural MRI scans was conducted using Statistical Parametric Mapping, ver 5 (SPM5). The impact of rs1051788 variation and HSV1 seropositivity on grey matter volumes was examined using regression models on the combined sample of cases and controls, and then within each diagnostic group.
In the combined sample of cases and controls, we observed the main effects of HSV1 seropositivity and genotypes, and a significant joint effect of HSV1 seropositivity and genotype mainly in the PFC. The joint effect was more prominent among cases than among controls.
Our observations suggest that rs1051788 and HSV1 seropositivity are associated individually and jointly with reduced PFC grey matter volume. The patterns of these associations differ by diagnostic status, and these factors explain only a "small" portion of the variance in the grey matter volume reductions.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia