1Psychiatry Res 2000 Apr 94: 43-9
PMID10788676
TitleIncreased anti-streptococcal antibodies in patients with Tourette's syndrome.
AbstractInfection or postinfectious phenomena have been postulated to play a role in the pathogenesis of children afflicted with the typical symptoms of Tourette's syndrome (TS). We investigated whether an increase of titers of antistreptococcal antibodies can be reproduced in our children with TS, and whether this increase is restricted to children. We examined the titers of two different antistreptococcal antibodies, antistreptolysin (ASL) and anitDNase B, both in children and adults. Titer s of ASO and antiDNase B were measured (1) in 13 children/adolescents suffering from TS and in an aged-matched comparison group;(2) in 23 adult patients, a comparison group of 23 aged-matched controls, and in another group of 17 aged-matched, non-medicated acute schizophrenics. ASO and antiDNase B titers were determined by laser nephelometry using a commercially available kit. Two antistreptococcal cut-off levels were compared (> 250 U/ml and 400 U/ml). As expected, increases ASO titers (>400 IU/ml) were found in a higher portion of children/adolescents with TS compared to controls. Regarding adults, titers >250 U/ml for both antistreptococcal antigens were found in significantly more TS patients than in schizophrenic patients or healthy control subjects. The mean values of ASO and antiDNase titers were significantly higher in both groups of TS patients compared to control children/adolescents, to the comparison groups of healthy adults and to schizophrenics. No difference in antistreptococcal titers was found between schizophrenics and the group of healthy adults. TS patients exhibited higher antistreptococcal titers than age-matched comparison groups of both children/adolescents and adults using different types of calculation. Our findings support the theory that a postinfectious immune mechanism may play a role in the pathogenesis of TS. The mechanism still needs to be elucidated.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
2Psychiatry Res 2000 Apr 94: 43-9
PMID10788676
TitleIncreased anti-streptococcal antibodies in patients with Tourette's syndrome.
AbstractInfection or postinfectious phenomena have been postulated to play a role in the pathogenesis of children afflicted with the typical symptoms of Tourette's syndrome (TS). We investigated whether an increase of titers of antistreptococcal antibodies can be reproduced in our children with TS, and whether this increase is restricted to children. We examined the titers of two different antistreptococcal antibodies, antistreptolysin (ASL) and anitDNase B, both in children and adults. Titer s of ASO and antiDNase B were measured (1) in 13 children/adolescents suffering from TS and in an aged-matched comparison group;(2) in 23 adult patients, a comparison group of 23 aged-matched controls, and in another group of 17 aged-matched, non-medicated acute schizophrenics. ASO and antiDNase B titers were determined by laser nephelometry using a commercially available kit. Two antistreptococcal cut-off levels were compared (> 250 U/ml and 400 U/ml). As expected, increases ASO titers (>400 IU/ml) were found in a higher portion of children/adolescents with TS compared to controls. Regarding adults, titers >250 U/ml for both antistreptococcal antigens were found in significantly more TS patients than in schizophrenic patients or healthy control subjects. The mean values of ASO and antiDNase titers were significantly higher in both groups of TS patients compared to control children/adolescents, to the comparison groups of healthy adults and to schizophrenics. No difference in antistreptococcal titers was found between schizophrenics and the group of healthy adults. TS patients exhibited higher antistreptococcal titers than age-matched comparison groups of both children/adolescents and adults using different types of calculation. Our findings support the theory that a postinfectious immune mechanism may play a role in the pathogenesis of TS. The mechanism still needs to be elucidated.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
3Psychiatry Res 2011 Oct 194: 64-72
PMID21831608
TitleResting quantitative cerebral blood flow in schizophrenia measured by pulsed arterial spin labeling perfusion MRI.
AbstractArterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion MRI is a relatively novel technique that can allow for quantitative measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF) by using magnetically labeled arterial blood water as an endogenous tracer. Available data on resting CBF in schizophrenia primarily come from invasive and expensive nuclear medicine techniques that are often limited to small samples and yield mixed results. The noninvasive nature of ASL offers promise for larger-scale studies. The utility of this approach was examined in 24 healthy controls and 30 patients with schizophrenia. Differences between groups in quantitative CBF were assessed, as were relationships between CBF and psychiatric symptoms. Group comparisons demonstrated greater CBF for controls in several regions including bilateral precuneus and middle frontal gyrus. Patients showed increased CBF in left putamen/superior corona radiata and right middle temporal gyrus. For patients, greater severity of negative symptoms was associated with reduced CBF in bilateral superior temporal gyrus, cingulate gyrus, and left middle frontal gyrus. Increased severity of positive symptoms was related to both higher CBF in cingulate gyrus and superior frontal gyrus and decreased CBF in precentral gyrus/middle frontal gyrus. These findings support the feasibility and utility of implementing ASL in schizophrenia research and expand upon previous results.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
4Transl Psychiatry 2012 -1 2: e189
PMID23168989
TitleCerebral blood flow identifies responders to transcranial magnetic stimulation in auditory verbal hallucinations.
AbstractAuditory hallucinations comprise a critical domain of psychopathology in schizophrenia. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has shown promise as an intervention with both positive and negative reports. The aim of this study was to test resting-brain perfusion before treatment as a possible biological marker of response to repetitive TMS. Twenty-four medicated patients underwent resting-brain perfusion magnetic resonance imaging with arterial spin labeling (ASL) before 10 days of repetitive TMS treatment. Response was defined as a reduction in the hallucination change scale of at least 50%. Responders (n=9) were robustly differentiated from nonresponders (n=15) to repetitive TMS by the higher regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the left superior temporal gyrus (STG) (P<0.05, corrected) before treatment. Resting-brain perfusion in the left STG predicted the response to repetitive TMS in this study sample, suggesting this parameter as a possible bio-marker of response in patients with schizophrenia and auditory hallucinations. Being noninvasive and relatively easy to use, resting perfusion measurement before treatment might be a clinically relevant way to identify possible responders and nonresponders to repetitive TMS.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
5Schizophr. Res. 2013 Aug 148: 151-6
PMID23806581
TitleAltered arginine metabolism in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of maternal immune activation rat offspring.
AbstractAltered arginine metabolism has been implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. The present study measured the levels of L-arginine and its downstream metabolites in the sub-regions of the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and cerebellum in adult rats that had been exposed to maternal immune activation (MIA; a risk factor for schizophrenia). MIA significantly increased L-arginine, L-ornithine and putrescine levels and decreased agmatine levels in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex in a region-specific manner. Correlational analysis revealed a significant neurochemical-behavioural correlation. Cluster analyses showed that L-arginine and its main metabolites formed distinct groups, which changed as a function of MIA. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that MIA leads to altered arginine metabolism in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of the adult offspring.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
6Front Neuroinform 2013 -1 7: 21
PMID24151465
TitleThe Cerebral Blood Flow Biomedical Informatics Research Network (CBFBIRN) database and analysis pipeline for arterial spin labeling MRI data.
AbstractArterial spin labeling (ASL) is a magnetic resonance imaging technique that provides a non-invasive and quantitative measure of cerebral blood flow (CBF). After more than a decade of active research, ASL is now emerging as a robust and reliable CBF measurement technique with increased availability and ease of use. There is a growing number of research and clinical sites using ASL for neuroscience research and clinical care. In this paper, we present an online CBF Database and Analysis Pipeline, collectively called the Cerebral Blood Flow Biomedical Informatics Research Network (CBFBIRN) that allows researchers to upload and share ASL and clinical data. In addition to serving the role as a central data repository, the CBFBIRN provides a streamlined data processing infrastructure for CBF quantification and group analysis, which has the potential to accelerate the discovery of new scientific and clinical knowledge. All capabilities and features built into the CBFBIRN are accessed online using a web browser through a secure login. In this work, we begin with a general description of the CBFBIRN system data model and its architecture, then devote the remainder of the paper to the CBFBIRN capabilities. The latter part of our work is divided into two processing modules: (1) Data Upload and CBF Quantification Module; (2) Group Analysis Module that supports three types of analysis commonly used in neuroscience research. To date, the CBFBIRN hosts CBF maps and associated clinical data from more than 1,300 individual subjects. The data have been contributed by more than 20 different research studies, investigating the effect of various conditions on CBF including Alzheimer's, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, traumatic brain injury, HIV, caffeine usage, and methamphetamine abuse. Several example results, generated by the CBFBIRN processing modules, are presented. We conclude with the lessons learned during implementation and deployment of the CBFBIRN and our experience in promoting data sharing.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
7Front Hum Neurosci 2013 -1 7: 304
PMID23805093
TitleRepeated measurements of cerebral blood flow in the left superior temporal gyrus reveal tonic hyperactivity in patients with auditory verbal hallucinations: a possible trait marker.
AbstractThe left superior temporal gyrus (STG) has been suggested to play a key role in auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) in patients with schizophrenia.
Eleven medicated subjects with schizophrenia and medication-resistant AVH and 19 healthy controls underwent perfusion magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with arterial spin labeling (ASL). Three additional repeated measurements were conducted in the patients. Patients underwent a treatment with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) between the first 2 measurements. The main outcome measure was the pooled cerebral blood flow (CBF), which consisted of the regional CBF measurement in the left STG and the global CBF measurement in the whole brain.
Regional CBF in the left STG in patients was significantly higher compared to controls (p < 0.0001) and to the global CBF in patients (p < 0.004) at baseline. Regional CBF in the left STG remained significantly increased compared to the global CBF in patients across time (p < 0.0007), and it remained increased in patients after TMS compared to the baseline CBF in controls (p < 0.0001). After TMS, PANSS (p = 0.003) and PSYRATS (p = 0.01) scores decreased significantly in patients.
This study demonstrated tonically increased regional CBF in the left STG in patients with schizophrenia and auditory hallucinations despite a decrease in symptoms after TMS. These findings were consistent with what has previously been termed a trait marker of AVH in schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
8Psychiatr Danub 2014 Nov 26 Suppl 1: 162-6
PMID25413534
TitleThe advantages of "Dance-group" for psychotic patients.
AbstractPsychosocial rehabilitation and in particular group dances allow the recovery of lost or compromised ability of patients with mental illness, and they facilitate their reintegration into the social context. The dance group has enabled users of the Day Centre of the Unit of Mental Health Torre del Greco ASL NA 3 south to achieve the objectives of rehabilitation such as: taking care of themselves, of their bodies and their interests, improving self-esteem , the management of pathological emotions, socialization and integration, overcoming the psychotic closing and relational isolation. In particular, patients with schizophrenia, psychotic and mood disorders had a concrete benefit from such rehabilitation activities, facilitating interpersonal relationships, therapy compliance and significantly improved mood, quality of life, providing them with the rhythm and the security in their relationship with each other. The dance group and for some individuals, also psychotherapy and drug therapy, have facilitated social inclusion, improved the quality of life and cured their diseases. The work is carrying out in a group with patients, practitioners, family members, volunteers, social community workers, following the operating departmental protocols. Using the chorus group "Sing that you go" as an operational tool for psychosocial rehabilitation and therapeutic element we promote the psychological well-being and the enhancement of mood.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
9Psychiatry Res 2014 Dec 220: 102-11
PMID25128248
TitleRelative contributions of negative symptoms, insight, and coping strategies to quality of life in stable schizophrenia.
AbstractThe purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine the relative contributions of negative symptomatology, insight, and coping to quality of life (QOL) in a sample of 92 consecutive outpatients with stable schizophrenia referring to the Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatric Section, University of Turin, Struttura Semplice di Coordinamento a Valenza Dipartimentale (SSCVD), Department of Mental Health ASL TO1, Molinette, Italy, in the period between July 2009 and July 2011. In order to assess the specific effect of negative symptoms on QOL and the possible mediating role of insight and coping, two mediation hypotheses were tested, using multiple regression analyses specified by Baron and Kenny (1986). Our findings suggest that (a) higher negative symptoms predict a worse Quality of Life Scale (QLS) intrapsychic foundations (IF) subscale score; (b) attribution of symptoms and coping-social diversion have a direct and positive association with QLS-IF; (c) patients high in negative symptoms are less likely to use attribution of symptoms and coping-social diversion; and (d) attribution of symptoms and coping-social diversion act as partial mediators in the negative symptoms-QOL relationship. The prediction model accounts for 45.3% of the variance of the QLS-IF subscale score in our sample. In conclusion, our results suggest that insight and coping-social diversion substantially contribute to QOL in patients with higher negative symptoms. These factors are potentially modifiable from specific therapeutic interventions, which can produce considerable improvements in the QOL of this population.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
10Neurobiol. Aging 2014 Oct 35: 2411-8
PMID24680326
TitleAccelerated white matter aging in schizophrenia: role of white matter blood perfusion.
AbstractElevated rate of age-related decline in white matter integrity, indexed by fractional anisotropy (FA) from diffusion tensor imaging, was reported in patients with schizophrenia. Its etiology is unknown. We hypothesized that a decline of blood perfusion to the white matter may underlie the accelerated age-related reduction in FA in schizophrenia. Resting white matter perfusion and FA were collected using pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling and high-angular-resolution diffusion tensor imaging, respectively, in 50 schizophrenia patients and 70 controls (age = 18-63 years). Main outcome measures were the diagnosis-by-age interaction on whole-brain white matter perfusion, and FA. Significant age-related decline in brain white matter perfusion and FA were present in both groups. Age-by-diagnosis interaction was significant for FA (p < 0.001) but not white matter perfusion. Age-by-diagnosis interaction for FA values remained significant even after accounting for age-related decline in perfusion. Therefore, we replicated the finding of an increased rate of age-related white matter FA decline in schizophrenia and observed a significant age-related decline in white matter blood perfusion, although the latter did not contribute to the accelerated age-related decline in FA. The results suggest that factors other than reduced perfusion account for the accelerated age-related decline in white matter integrity in schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
11Schizophr. Res. 2014 Apr 154: 113-8
PMID24581548
TitlePseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling MRI study of schizophrenic patients.
AbstractArterial spin labeling (ASL) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a novel noninvasive technique that can measure regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). To our knowledge, few studies have examined rCBF in patients with schizophrenia by ASL-MRI. Here we used pseudo-continuous ASL (pCASL) to examine the structural and functional imaging data in schizophrenic patients, taking the regional cerebral gray matter volume into account. The subjects were 36 patients with schizophrenia and 42 healthy volunteers who underwent 3-tesla MRI, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and pCASL. We evaluated the gray matter volume imaging, DTI, and pCASL imaging data in a voxel-by-voxel statistical analysis. The schizophrenia patients showed reduced rCBF in the left prefrontal and bilateral occipital cortices compared to the healthy volunteers. There was a significant reduction of gray matter volume in the left inferior frontal cortex in the schizophrenia patients. With respect to the fractional anisotropy (FA) values in the DTI, there were significant FA reductions in the left superior temporal, left external capsule, and left inferior prefrontal regions in the patients compared to the controls.
Our pCASL study with partial volume effect correction together with volumetry and DTI data demonstrated hypoactivity in the left prefrontal area beyond structural abnormalities in schizophrenia patients. There were also hypofunction areas in bilateral occipital cortices, although structural abnormalities were not apparent.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
12Schizophr. Res. 2014 Apr 154: 113-8
PMID24581548
TitlePseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling MRI study of schizophrenic patients.
AbstractArterial spin labeling (ASL) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a novel noninvasive technique that can measure regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). To our knowledge, few studies have examined rCBF in patients with schizophrenia by ASL-MRI. Here we used pseudo-continuous ASL (pCASL) to examine the structural and functional imaging data in schizophrenic patients, taking the regional cerebral gray matter volume into account. The subjects were 36 patients with schizophrenia and 42 healthy volunteers who underwent 3-tesla MRI, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and pCASL. We evaluated the gray matter volume imaging, DTI, and pCASL imaging data in a voxel-by-voxel statistical analysis. The schizophrenia patients showed reduced rCBF in the left prefrontal and bilateral occipital cortices compared to the healthy volunteers. There was a significant reduction of gray matter volume in the left inferior frontal cortex in the schizophrenia patients. With respect to the fractional anisotropy (FA) values in the DTI, there were significant FA reductions in the left superior temporal, left external capsule, and left inferior prefrontal regions in the patients compared to the controls.
Our pCASL study with partial volume effect correction together with volumetry and DTI data demonstrated hypoactivity in the left prefrontal area beyond structural abnormalities in schizophrenia patients. There were also hypofunction areas in bilateral occipital cortices, although structural abnormalities were not apparent.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
13Psychiatry Res 2015 Sep 233: 293-8
PMID26319293
TitlePsychomotor symptoms of schizophrenia map on the cerebral motor circuit.
Abstractschizophrenia is a devastating disorder thought to result mainly from cerebral pathology. Neuroimaging studies have provided a wealth of findings of brain dysfunction in schizophrenia. However, we are still far from understanding how particular symptoms can result from aberrant brain function. In this context, the high prevalence of motor symptoms in schizophrenia such as catatonia, neurological soft signs, parkinsonism, and abnormal involuntary movements is of particular interest. Here, the neuroimaging correlates of these motor symptoms are reviewed. For all investigated motor symptoms, neural correlates were found within the cerebral motor system. However, only a limited set of results exists for hypokinesia and neurological soft signs, while catatonia, abnormal involuntary movements and parkinsonian signs still remain understudied with neuroimaging methods. Soft signs have been associated with altered brain structure and function in cortical premotor and motor areas as well as cerebellum and thalamus. Hypokinesia is suggested to result from insufficient interaction of thalamocortical loops within the motor system. Future studies are needed to address the neural correlates of motor abnormalities in prodromal states, changes during the course of the illness, and the specific pathophysiology of catatonia, dyskinesia and parkinsonism in schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
14Psychopharmacology (Berl.) 2015 Nov 232: 4191-204
PMID26223493
TitleModulatory effects of ketamine, risperidone and lamotrigine on resting brain perfusion in healthy human subjects.
AbstractResting brain perfusion, measured using the MRI-based arterial spin labelling (ASL) technique, is sensitive to detect central effects of single, clinically effective, doses of pharmacological compounds. However, pharmacological interaction experiments, such as the modulation of one drug response in the presence of another, have not been widely investigated using a task-free ASL approach.
We assessed the effects of three psychoactive compounds (ketamine, risperidone and lamotrigine), and their interaction, on resting brain perfusion in healthy human volunteers.
A multivariate Gaussian process classification (GPC) and more conventional univariate analyses were applied. The four pre-infusion conditions for each subject comprised risperidone, lamotrigine and two placebo sessions. The two placebo conditions enabled us to evaluate the classification performance in a test-retest setting, in addition to its performance in distinguishing the active oral drugs from placebo (direct effect on brain perfusion). The post ketamine- or saline-infusion scans allowed the effect of ketamine, and its interaction with risperidone and lamotrigine, on brain perfusion to be characterised.
The pseudo-continuous ASL measurements of perfusion were sensitive to the effects of ketamine infusion and risperidone. The GPC captured consistent changes in perfusion across the group and contextualised the univariate changes with a larger pattern of regions contributing to accurate discrimination of ketamine from placebo.
The findings argue against perfusion changes confounding in the previously described evoked BOLD response to ketamine and emphasise the blockade of the NMDA receptor over neuronal glutamate release in determining the perfusion changes induced by ketamine.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
15Neuroimage 2015 May 112: 70-85
PMID25724758
Title"Domain gauges": A reference system for multivariate profiling of brain fMRI activation patterns induced by psychoactive drugs in rats.
AbstractPharmacological magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI) of the brain has become a widely used tool in both preclinical and clinical drug research. One of its challenges is to condense the observed complex drug-induced brain-activation patterns into semantically meaningful metrics that can then serve as a basis for informed decision making. To aid interpretation of spatially distributed activation patterns, we propose here a set of multivariate metrics termed "domain gauges", which have been calibrated based on different classes of marketed or validated reference drugs. Each class represents a particular "domain" of interest, i.e., a specific therapeutic indication or mode of action. The drug class is empirically characterized by the unique activation pattern it evokes in the brain-the "domain profile". A domain gauge provides, for any tested intervention, a "classifier" as a measure of response strength with respect to the domain in question, and a "differentiator" as a measure of deviation from the domain profile, both along with error ranges. Capitalizing on our in-house database with an unprecedented wealth of standardized perfusion-based phMRI data obtained from rats subjected to various validated treatments, we exemplarily focused on 3 domains based on therapeutic indications: an antipsychotic, an antidepressant and an anxiolytic domain. The domain profiles identified as part of the gauge definition process, as well as the outputs of the gauges when applied to both reference and validation data, were evaluated for their reconcilability with prior biological knowledge and for their performance in drug characterization. The domain profiles provided quantitative activation patterns with high biological plausibility. The antipsychotic profile, for instance, comprised key areas (e.g., cingulate cortex, nucleus accumbens, ventral tegmental area, substantia nigra) which are believed to be strongly involved in mediating an antipsychotic effect, and which are in line with network-level dysfunctions observed in schizophrenia. The domain gauges plausibly positioned the vast majority of the pharmacological and even non-pharmacological treatments. The results also suggest the segregation of sub-domains based on, e.g., the mode of action. Upon judicious selection of domains and careful calibration of the gauges, our approach represents a valuable analytical tool for biological interpretation and decision making in drug discovery.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
16Schizophr. Res. 2015 May 164: 164-75
PMID25684554
TitleNeuroimaging findings in treatment-resistant schizophrenia: A systematic review: Lack of neuroimaging correlates of treatment-resistant schizophrenia.
AbstractRecent developments in neuroimaging have advanced the understanding of biological mechanisms underlying schizophrenia. However, neuroimaging correlates of treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS) and superior effects of clozapine on TRS remain unclear.
Systematic search was performed to identify neuroimaging characteristics unique to TRS and ultra-resistant schizophrenia (i.e. clozapine-resistant [URS]), and clozapine's efficacy in TRS using Embase, Medline, and PsychInfo. Search terms included (schizophreni*) and (resistan* OR refractory OR clozapine) and (ASL OR CT OR DTI OR FMRI OR MRI OR MRS OR NIRS OR PET OR SPECT).
25 neuroimaging studies have investigated TRS and effects of clozapine. Only 5 studies have compared TRS and non-TRS, collectively providing no replicated neuroimaging finding specific to TRS. Studies comparing TRS and healthy controls suggest that hypometabolism in the prefrontal cortex, hypermetabolism in the basal ganglia, and structural anomalies in the corpus callosum contribute to TRS. Clozapine may increase prefrontal hypoactivation in TRS although this was not related to clinical improvement; in contrast, evidence has suggested a link between clozapine efficacy and decreased metabolism in the basal ganglia and thalamus.
Existing literature does not elucidate neuroimaging correlates specific to TRS or URS, which, if present, might also shed light on clozapine's efficacy in TRS. This said, leads from other lines of investigation, including the glutamatergic system can prove useful in guiding future neuroimaging studies focused on, in particular, the frontocortical-basal ganglia-thalamic circuits. Critical to the success of this work will be precise subtyping of study subjects based on treatment response/nonresponse and the use of multimodal neuroimaging.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
17Schizophr Bull 2015 Jan 41: 163-70
PMID24327756
TitleStatic and dynamic characteristics of cerebral blood flow during the resting state in schizophrenia.
AbstractThe cerebral network that is active during rest and is deactivated during goal-oriented activity is called the default mode network (DMN). It appears to be involved in self-referential mental activity. Atypical functional connectivity in the DMN has been observed in schizophrenia. One hypothesis suggests that pathologically increased DMN connectivity in schizophrenia is linked with a main symptom of psychosis, namely, misattribution of thoughts.
A resting-state pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling (ASL) study was conducted to measure absolute cerebral blood flow (CBF) in 34 schizophrenia patients and 27 healthy controls. Using independent component analysis (ICA), the DMN was extracted from ASL data. Mean CBF and DMN connectivity were compared between groups using a 2-sample t test.
schizophrenia patients showed decreased mean CBF in the frontal and temporal regions (P < .001). ICA demonstrated significantly increased DMN connectivity in the precuneus (x/y/z = -16/-64/38) in patients than in controls (P < .001). CBF was not elevated in the respective regions. DMN connectivity in the precuneus was significantly correlated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale scores (P < .01).
In schizophrenia patients, the posterior hub--which is considered the strongest part of the DMN--showed increased DMN connectivity. We hypothesize that this increase hinders the deactivation of the DMN and, thus, the translation of cognitive processes from an internal to an external focus. This might explain symptoms related to defective self-monitoring, such as auditory verbal hallucinations or ego disturbances.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics