|1||Rev. Neurol. (Paris) 2005 Mar 161: 318-22|
|Title||[Presentation of Niemann-Pick type C disease with psychiatric disturbance in an adult].|
|Abstract||Niemann-Pick Type C disease (NPC) is an autosomal recessive neurovisceral lysosomal lipid storage disorder.|
A 31-year-old right-handed woman had suffered from schizophrenia for 13 years. At 25 years of age, she developed a gait disorder with a static and kinetic cerebellar syndrome, dysarthria, vertical supranuclear gaze palsy and cognitive impairment. Brain MRI was normal. Abdominal ultrasonography was performed because of hypercholesterolemia and elevated transaminases and revealed hepatosplenomegaly, which in conjunction with other signs and symptoms, suggested the diagnosis of NPC. The diagnosis was confirmed by demonstration of lysosomal storage of unesterified cholesterol (filipin staining) and of a reduced rate of LDL-induced cholesterol esterification. Implication of the NPC1 gene was assessed by genetic complementation analysis.
The phenotypic presentation of NPC is remarkably variable. The rarer adult-onset form has a slowly progressive course. Psychotic manifestations are often prominent and may precede neurologic symptoms. Exposure to neuroleptics delays the diagnosis of NPC.
Psychotic manifestations associated with cerebellar syndrome, vertical supranuclear gaze palsy, and splenomegaly are very suggestive of NPC disease which can be reliably diagnosed on cultured skin fibroblasts by filipin staining.
|2||Subcell. Biochem. 2008 -1 49: 241-68|
|Title||Altered lipid metabolism in brain injury and disorders.|
|Abstract||Deregulated lipid metabolism may be of particular importance for CNS injuries and disorders, as this organ has the highest lipid concentration next to adipose tissue. Atherosclerosis (a risk factor for ischemic stroke) results from accumulation of LDL-derived lipids in the arterial wall. Pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha and IL-1), secretory phospholipase A2 IIA and lipoprotein-PLA2 are implicated in vascular inflammation. These inflammatory responses promote atherosclerotic plaques, formation and release of the blood clot that can induce ischemic stroke. TNF-alpha and IL-1 alter lipid metabolism and stimulate production of eicosanoids, ceramide, and reactive oxygen species that potentiate CNS injuries and certain neurological disorders. Cholesterol is an important regulator of lipid organization and the precursor for neurosteroid biosynthesis. Low levels of neurosteroids were related to poor outcome in many brain pathologies. Apolipoprotein E is the principal cholesterol carrier protein in the brain, and the gene encoding the variant Apolipoprotein E4 is a significant risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. Parkinson's disease is to some degree caused by lipid peroxidation due to phospholipases activation. Niemann-Pick diseases A and B are due to acidic sphingomyelinase deficiency, resulting in sphingomyelin accumulation, while Niemann-Pick disease C is due to mutations in either the NPC1 or NPC2 genes, resulting in defective cholesterol transport and cholesterol accumulation. Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune inflammatory demyelinating condition of the CNS. Inhibiting phospholipase A2 attenuated the onset and progression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. The endocannabinoid system is hypoactive in Huntington's disease. Ethyl-eicosapetaenoate showed promise in clinical trials. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis causes loss of motorneurons. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition reduced spinal neurodegeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis transgenic mice. Eicosapentaenoic acid supplementation provided improvement in schizophrenia patients, while the combination of (eicosapentaenoic acid + docosahexaenoic acid) provided benefit in bipolar disorders. The ketogenic diet where >90% of calories are derived from fat is an effective treatment for epilepsy. Understanding cytokine-induced changes in lipid metabolism will promote novel concepts and steer towards bench-to-bedside transition for therapies.|
|3||BMC Pharmacol. 2009 -1 9: 10|
|Title||Psychotropic drugs up-regulate the expression of cholesterol transport proteins including ApoE in cultured human CNS- and liver cells.|
|Abstract||Disturbances in lipid homeostasis and myelination have been proposed in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. We have previously shown that several antipsychotic and antidepressant drugs increase lipid biosynthesis through activation of the Sterol Regulatory Element-Binding Protein (SREBP) transcription factors, which control the expression of numerous genes involved in fatty acid and cholesterol biosynthesis. The aim of the present proof-of-principle study was to investigate whether such drugs also affect lipid transport and export pathways in cultured human CNS and liver cells.|
Quantitative PCR and immunoblotting were used to determine the level of lipid transport genes in human glioblastoma (GaMg) exposed to clozapine, olanzapine, haloperidol or imipramine. The effect of some of these drugs was also investigated in human astrocytoma (CCF-STTG1), neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells. We found significant transcriptional changes of cholesterol transport genes (ApoE, ABCA1, NPC1, NPC2, NPC1L1), which are predominantly controlled by the Liver X receptor (LXR) transcription factor. The up-regulation was observed after 24 to 48 hours of drug exposure, which is markedly delayed as compared to the drug-induced SREBP-controlled stimulation of lipid biosynthesis seen after 6 hours.
Our data show that stimulation of cellular lipid biosynthesis by amphiphilic psychotropic drugs is followed by a transcriptional activation of cholesterol transport and efflux pathways. Such effects may be relevant for both therapeutic effects and metabolic adverse effects of psychotropic drugs.
|4||Encephale 2013 Oct 39: 315-9|
|Title||[Adult onset Niemann-Pick type C disease and psychosis: literature review].|
|Abstract||Niemann-Pick type C disease (NPC) is a rare hereditary disease, which psychiatrists do not face often in France. Indeed, only a couple of articles specifically describing the psychiatric-disorders in the adult form have been published. And for the most part, they were not written by psychiatrists. This comprehensive international literature review aims at providing knowledge on this disease to French psychiatrists.|
To achieve this literature review, we used the "PubMed" search engine, looking for the following keywords: Niemann-Pick type C AND (schizophrenia OR psychosis).
Niemann-Pick type C disease (NPC) is a rare, neurovisceral, autosomal recessive disease, with an extremely heterogeneous clinical presentation. It is characterized by a wide range of symptoms that are not specific, such as neurological, systemic or psychiatric symptoms. The adult form of the disease concerns a small proportion (5 %) of the people affected and is usually expressed as a neurological form. A variety of progressive and disabling symptoms are encountered, mainly cerebellar signs (cerebellar ataxia, impaired gait, dysarthria), but also movement disorders, cataplexy, seizures and dysphagia. Patients face constant cognitive deterioration, which can result in severe dementia. Abnormal saccadic eye movement is often the first manifestation of the disease. Supranuclear gaze palsy is considered to be a specific sign and should be systematically searched for. In terms of systemic signs, the usual infantile hepatosplenomegaly is very fickle in the adult form; if present, it is usually asymptomatic. Non-specific psychiatric symptoms are often associated with NPC disease. For one third of cases, it can also express as an isolated psychiatric-disorder form, such as schizophrenia-like psychosis (paranoid delusions, auditory hallucinations, interpretative thoughts, and disorganization), depression, bipolar disorder, obsessive-compulsive behaviour and behavioural problems (sleep disorders, hyperactivity, agitation, aggressiveness or self-mutilations). This psychiatric overview is mostly atypical and is accompanied by visual hallucinations, confusion, symptom fluctuations, treatment resistance or aggravation with neuroleptic drugs, catatonia, progressive cognitive decline, but also seizures. The late appearance of neurological manifestations is often wrongfully attributed to the effects of antipsychotic medication, which generates tardy diagnosis. Most of NPC affected patients die prematurely. NPC diagnosis is based on a filipin test on a fibroblast culture from a skin biopsy and also on a sequencing of the NPC1 and NPC2 genes. Routine laboratory biochemistry profiles are generally normal. The early diagnosis is fundamental to deploy the best follow-up care. The patient should therefore be in contact with a reference centre. Until recently, NPC treatment consisted in supportive therapies and symptomatic drugs, useful, however, with variable efficacy. The recent discovery of a medicine called Miglustat (N-butyldeoxynojirimycin; NB-DJN; Zavesca(®), Actelion Pharmaceuticals Ltd.) which improves the disease evolution, should encourage psychiatrists to look for it in every atypical psychosis.
|5||Encephale 2015 Jun 41: 238-43|
|Title||[Niemann-Pick type C disease and psychosis: Two siblings].|
|Abstract||Niemann-Pick type C disease (NPC) is a rare, neurovisceral, autosomal recessive disease, with an extremely heterogeneous clinical presentation. The adult form of the disease is usually expressed as a neurological form. Non-specific psychiatric symptoms are often associated with NPC. For some cases, it can also be expressed as an isolated psychiatric disorder form. Since 2009, the launching of a medicine called miglustat has helped to improve the disease evolution.|
We report two siblings followed-up in the same department of psychiatry and with an atypical psychotic symptomatology. Case 1 is a 27-year-old French male. He was hospitalised several times due to disordered behaviour, psychomotor excitation, mood instability and wandering. He was originally diagnosed with schizophrenia. However, the patient's psychosis proved refractory to treatment. He also exhibited a number of neurological signs (pyramidal signs and abnormal movements of the hands, head and limbs), which were considered related to his antipsychotic medication. Three years later, a full physical, neurological and neuropsychological examination revealed various neurological and visceral symptoms. He was diagnosed with NPC based on a classical biochemical NPC-phenotype following filipin staining in cultured skin fibroblasts. NPC1 gene sequencing revealed that he was a compound heterozygote for the p.S954L and p.N1156S mutations. The patient's psychiatric and neurological symptoms are currently stabilized by miglustat, allowing the patient to cease antipsychotic medication. Case 2 is the elder sister of Case 1. She was hospitalised several times due to acute delirium, hallucinations and suicidal tendencies. She was diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia at 22 years of age. She has received a variety of typical and atypical antipsychotics. Many of these drugs proved initially effective but the patient's symptoms repeatedly returned. The patient shows persistent and worsening gait disorder and abnormal arm movements. A follow-up neurological examination at age 29 did not detect any ataxia, cataplexy or vertical supra-nuclear gaze palsy. Direct NPC1 gene sequencing detected a mutant NPC1 allele held in common with her brother, but full sequencing of both the NPC1 and NPC2 genes and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) did not detect any other pathogenic mutation or other anomalies.
Because NPC is an autosomal recessive condition, heterozygous individuals carrying only one causal gene mutation are usually asymptomatic. Thus, while the accepted wisdom would suggest that patient 2 is not affected by the disease, it is interesting to consider why she has developed neurological and psychiatric disorders like her brother. Several hypotheses are discussed: mental expression in heterozygous genetic factor predisposing to schizophrenia, comorbidity or fortuitous association. It is not currently known whether a patient with a single NPC gene mutation can express NPC in full, partially, or perhaps just to a minimal degree. This case of a patient with a heterozygous "carrier" NPC genotype and neuropsychiatric disorders suggestive of the disease raises the possibility that symptomatic heterozygous NPC patients may exist. On the other hand, if the heterozygous genotype of patient 2 does not give rise to symptomatic disease, it is pertinent to question whether it could be a predisposing factor for the development of psychiatric pathologies. There are currently no published data on the occurrence of heterozygous NPC1 or NPC2 mutations among patients with atypical psychiatric presentations combined with neurological symptoms. Conversely, there are no published data demonstrating an increased frequency of psychiatric disorders in families affected by NPC. Finally, in view of the history of psychiatric disorders in this family, it is possible that psychosis simply occurred concomitantly with symptomatic NPC in patient 1 by chance, and that schizophrenia occurred simultaneously with an asymptomatic NPC carrier genotype in patient 2. To investigate this further, NPC patients' carrier family members (parents and siblings) should be fully screened for signs suggestive of the disease.
|6||Rinsho Shinkeigaku 2016 May -1: -1|
|Title||A case of variant biochemical phenotype of Niemann-Pick disease type C accompanying savant syndrome.|
|Abstract||A 40-year-old man was referred to our hospital because of vertical supranuclear gaze palsy, frequent sudden loss of muscle tonus and ataxia for several years. He had a history of prolonged neonatal jaundice. He was given a diagnosis of autism in his childhood, followed by a diagnosis of schizophrenia in his teenage. He also developed a savant skill of calendar calculating. (123)I-IMP-SPECT showed decreased cerebral blood flow in the left frontotemporal lobe as often seen in savant syndrome. Although genetic analysis of NPC1 and NPC2 revealed no pathogenic mutation, filipin staining of cultured fibroblasts from his biopsied skin revealed a certain amount of intracellular cholesterol storage pattern, indicating a variant biochemical phenotype of Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC). The diagnosis of adulthood onset NPC is difficult and challenging, especially for neurologists, because the symptoms and signs are not as clear as those in the classical childhood onset NPC and this subtype is not yet widely known. However, the diagnosis can be made by a combination of filipin staining of fibroblast and/or gene analysis. As a disease-specific therapy for NPC has been approved in Japan, the diagnosis of NPC is of significance.|