1Am. J. Hum. Genet. 2010 Aug 87: 229-36
PMID20691406
TitleMicrodeletions of 3q29 confer high risk for schizophrenia.
Abstractschizophrenia (SZ) is a severe psychiatric illness that affects approximately 1% of the population and has a strong genetic underpinning. Recently, genome-wide analysis of copy-number variation (CNV) has implicated rare and de novo events as important in SZ. Here, we report a genome-wide analysis of 245 SZ cases and 490 controls, all of Ashkenazi Jewish descent. Because many studies have found an excess burden of large, rare deletions in cases, we limited our analysis to deletions over 500 kb in size. We observed seven large, rare deletions in cases, with 57% of these being de novo. We focused on one 836 kb de novo deletion at chromosome 3q29 that falls within a 1.3-1.6 Mb deletion previously identified in children with intellectual disability (ID) and autism, because increasing evidence suggests an overlap of specific rare copy-number variants (CNVs) between autism and SZ. By combining our data with prior CNV studies of SZ and analysis of the data of the Genetic Association Information Network (GAIN), we identified six 3q29 deletions among 7545 schizophrenic subjects and one among 39,748 controls, resulting in a statistically significant association with SZ (p = 0.02) and an odds ratio estimate of 17 (95% confidence interval: 1.36-1198.4). Moreover, this 3q29 deletion region contains two linkage peaks from prior SZ family studies, and the minimal deletion interval implicates 20 annotated genes, including PAK2 and DLG1, both paralogous to X-linked ID genes and now strong candidates for SZ susceptibility.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
2Am. J. Hum. Genet. 2010 Aug 87: 229-36
PMID20691406
TitleMicrodeletions of 3q29 confer high risk for schizophrenia.
Abstractschizophrenia (SZ) is a severe psychiatric illness that affects approximately 1% of the population and has a strong genetic underpinning. Recently, genome-wide analysis of copy-number variation (CNV) has implicated rare and de novo events as important in SZ. Here, we report a genome-wide analysis of 245 SZ cases and 490 controls, all of Ashkenazi Jewish descent. Because many studies have found an excess burden of large, rare deletions in cases, we limited our analysis to deletions over 500 kb in size. We observed seven large, rare deletions in cases, with 57% of these being de novo. We focused on one 836 kb de novo deletion at chromosome 3q29 that falls within a 1.3-1.6 Mb deletion previously identified in children with intellectual disability (ID) and autism, because increasing evidence suggests an overlap of specific rare copy-number variants (CNVs) between autism and SZ. By combining our data with prior CNV studies of SZ and analysis of the data of the Genetic Association Information Network (GAIN), we identified six 3q29 deletions among 7545 schizophrenic subjects and one among 39,748 controls, resulting in a statistically significant association with SZ (p = 0.02) and an odds ratio estimate of 17 (95% confidence interval: 1.36-1198.4). Moreover, this 3q29 deletion region contains two linkage peaks from prior SZ family studies, and the minimal deletion interval implicates 20 annotated genes, including PAK2 and DLG1, both paralogous to X-linked ID genes and now strong candidates for SZ susceptibility.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
3Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet. 2011 Dec 156B: 844-9
PMID21850710
TitleMutation screening of the 3q29 microdeletion syndrome candidate genes DLG1 and PAK2 in schizophrenia.
AbstractDeletion of chromosome 3q29, which is associated with mental retardation and autism, was recently identified as being present in excess or occurring de novo in schizophrenia cases, being present in approximately 1/1,000 cases and 1/40,000 unscreened controls. Of the ?20 genes in the commonly deleted region two are prominent candidates for involvement in the behavioral features of the microdeletion syndrome: DLG1 and PAK2. We report the result of mutation screening of the entire protein coding sequence of both genes in a sample of 234 unrelated cases and 272 unrelated controls from the UK. We find no evidence for any amino acid changing genetic variants in PAK2. We observe several rare and singleton non-synonymous genetic variations at DLG1, however there is no excess of these variants in cases when compared to controls. Our sample was underpowered to detect very rare or low-penetrance disease relevant alleles in the studied genes. Therefore very rare, low-to-moderate penetrance protein coding mutations or non-coding mutations at DLG1 and/or PAK2, or a nearby gene, may reproduce the behavioral characteristics of the 3q29 microdeletion.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
4World J Psychiatry 2013 Sep 3: 57-61
PMID24255876
TitleNew findings in the genetics of schizophrenia.
AbstractNew findings in schizophrenia genetics are based on genome-wide association studies (GWAS), research into DNA copy number variations (CNVs), and endophenotypes. More than 70 genes have recently been suspected to be involved in the genetic background of schizophrenia based on the GWAS´s results. They are typically related to neurodevelopment/neuroplasticity, immunology and neuroendocrinology. Nevertheless, for many detected genes their possible relationship to schizophrenia etiopathogenesis is still unknown. The CNVs at genome loci 1q21.1 (candidate gene e.g., PRKAB2), 2p16.3 (candidate gene e.g., NRXN1), 3q29 (candidate genes e.g., BDH1, DLG1, PAK2 or TFRC), 15q11.2 (candidate gene e.g., CYFIP1), 15q13.3 (candidate gene e.g., CHRNA7), 16p13.1 (candidate genes e.g.,NTAN1 or NDE1) and 22q11.2 (candidate genes e.g., COMT, GSTT2 or PRODH) were associated with schizophrenia most frequently. Genetic research of schizophrenia endophenotypes, usually neurophysiological, neuromotoric, neurocognitive, neuroanatomical, neurological or personality-related, will help us to discover the role of relevant genes in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. It is also necessary to integrate knowledge from other research platforms in schizophrenia, like epigenetics, studies of gene-environment interactions, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, neuroimaging and psychopathology. A better knowledge of the genetic background of schizophrenia can lead to changes in the treatment, prevention and genetic counselling. It may also reduce stigma in this severe mental disorder.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
5Biol. Psychiatry 2015 Jan 77: 158-66
PMID25034949
TitleCopy number variable microRNAs in schizophrenia and their neurodevelopmental gene targets.
AbstractMicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key regulators of gene expression in the human genome and may contribute to risk for neuropsychiatric disorders. miRNAs play an acknowledged role in the strongest of genetic risk factors for schizophrenia, 22q11.2 deletions. We hypothesized that in schizophrenia there would be an enrichment of other rare copy number variants (CNVs) that overlap miRNAs.
Using high-resolution genome-wide microarrays and rigorous methods, we compared the miRNA content of rare CNVs in well-characterized cohorts of schizophrenia cases (n = 420) and comparison subjects, excluding 22q11.2 CNVs. We also performed a gene-set enrichment analysis of the predicted miRNA target genes.
The schizophrenia group was enriched for the proportion of individuals with a rare CNV overlapping a miRNA (3.29-fold increase over comparison subjects, p < .0001). The presence of a rare CNV overlapping a miRNA remained a significant predictor of schizophrenia case status (p = .0072) in a multivariate logistic regression model correcting for total CNV size. In contrast, comparable analyses correcting for CNV size showed no enrichment of rare CNVs overlapping protein-coding genes. A gene-set enrichment analysis indicated that predicted target genes of recurrent CNV-overlapped miRNAs in schizophrenia may be functionally enriched for neurodevelopmental processes, including axonogenesis and neuron projection development. Predicted gene targets driving these results included CAPRIN1, NEDD4, NTRK2, PAK2, RHOA, and SYNGAP1.
These data are the first to demonstrate a genome-wide role for CNVs overlapping miRNAs in the genetic risk for schizophrenia. The results provide support for an expanded multihit model of causation, with potential implications for miRNA-based therapeutics.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic