1Eur. J. Hum. Genet. 2006 Oct 14: 1111-9
PMID16773125
TitleAHI1, a pivotal neurodevelopmental gene, and C6orf217 are associated with susceptibility to schizophrenia.
Abstractschizophrenia, a severe neuropsychiatric disorder, is believed to involve multiple genetic factors. A significant body of evidence supports a pivotal role for abnormalities of brain development in the disorder. Linkage signals for schizophrenia map to human chromosome 6q. To obtain a finer localization, we genotyped 180 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a young, inbred Arab-Israeli family sample with a limited number of founders. The SNPs were mostly within a approximately 7 Mb region around the strong linkage peak at 136.2 Mb that we had previously mapped. The most significant genetic association with schizophrenia for single SNPs and haplotypes was within a 500 kb genomic region of high linkage disequilibrium (LD) at 135.85 Mb. In a different, outbred, nuclear family sample that was not appropriate for linkage analysis, under-transmitted haplotypes incorporating the same SNPs (but not the individual SNPs) were significantly associated with schizophrenia. The implicated genomic region harbors the Abelson Helper Integration Site 1 (AHI1) gene, which showed the strongest association signal, and an adjacent, primate-specific gene, C6orf217. Mutations in human AHI1 underlie the autosomal recessive Joubert Syndrome with brain malformation and mental retardation. Previous comparative genomic analysis has suggested accelerated evolution of AHI1 in the human lineage. C6orf217 has multiple splice isoforms and is expressed in brain but does not seem to encode a functional protein. The two genes appear in opposite orientations and their regulatory upstream regions overlap, which might affect their expression. Both, AHI1 and C6orf217 appear to be highly relevant candidate genes for schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
2Eur. J. Hum. Genet. 2007 Sep 15: 988-91
PMID17473831
TitleSupport for involvement of the AHI1 locus in schizophrenia.
AbstractRecently, markers in the Abelson Helper Integration Site 1 (AHI1) region were shown to be associated with schizophrenia in a family sample of Israeli-Arabs. Here, we report a study evaluating the relevance of the AHI1 region to schizophrenia in an Icelandic sample. Seven markers shown to confer risk in the previous report were typed in 608 patients diagnosed with broad schizophrenia and 1,504 controls. Odds ratios for the overtransmitted alleles in the Israeli-Arab families ranged from 1.15 to 1.29 in the Icelandic sample. After Bonferroni correction for the seven markers tested, two markers were significantly associated with schizophrenia. Thus, our results are in general agreement with the previous report, with the strongest association signal observed in a region upstream of the AHI1 gene.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
3Hum. Mol. Genet. 2008 Dec 17: 3887-96
PMID18782849
TitleAssociation of common variants in the Joubert syndrome gene (AHI1) with autism.
AbstractIt has been suggested that autism, like other complex genetic disorders, may benefit from the study of rare or Mendelian variants associated with syndromic or non-syndromic forms of the disease. However, there are few examples in which common variation in genes causing a Mendelian neuropsychiatric disorder has been shown to contribute to disease susceptibility in an allied common condition. Joubert syndrome (JS) is a rare recessively inherited disorder, with mutations reported at several loci including the gene Abelson's Helper Integration 1 (AHI1). A significant proportion of patients with JS, in some studies up to 40%, have been diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and several linkage studies in ASD have nominally implicated the region on 6q where AHI1 resides. To evaluate AHI1 in ASD, we performed a three-stage analysis of AHI1 as an a priori candidate gene for autism. Re-sequencing was first used to screen AHI1, followed by two subsequent association studies, one limited and one covering the gene more completely, in Autism Genetic Resource Exchange (AGRE) families. In stage 3, we found evidence of an associated haplotype in AHI1 with ASD after correction for multiple comparisons, in a region of the gene that had been previously associated with schizophrenia. These data suggest a role for AHI1 in common disorders affecting human cognition and behavior.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
4J. Comp. Neurol. 2008 Nov 511: 238-56
PMID18785627
TitleSpecies differences in the expression of Ahi1, a protein implicated in the neurodevelopmental disorder Joubert syndrome, with preferential accumulation to stigmoid bodies.
AbstractJoubert syndrome (JBTS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by cerebellum and brainstem malformations. Individuals with JBTS have abnormal breathing and eye movements, ataxia, hypotonia, and cognitive difficulty, and they display mirror movements. Mutations in the Abelson-helper integration site-1 gene (AHI1) cause JBTS in humans, suggesting that AHI1 is required for hindbrain development; however AHI1 may also be required for neuronal function. Support for this idea comes from studies demonstrating that the AHI1 locus is associated with schizophrenia. To gain further insight into the function of AHI1 in both the developing and mature central nervous system, we determined the spatial and temporal expression patterns of the gene products of AHI1 orthologs throughout development, in human, mouse, and zebrafish. Murine AHI1 was distributed throughout the cytoplasm, dendrites, and axons of neurons, but was absent in glial cells. AHI1 expression in the mouse brain was observed as early as embryonic day 10.5 and persisted into adulthood, with peak expression during the first postnatal week. Murine AHI1 was observed in neurons of the hindbrain, midbrain, and ventral forebrain. Generally, the AHI1/AHI1/AHI1 orthologs had a conserved distribution pattern in human, mouse, and zebrafish, but mouse AHI1 was not present in the developing and mature cerebellum. AHI1 was also observed consistently in the stigmoid body, a poorly characterized cytoplasmic organelle found in neurons. Overall, these results suggest roles for AHI1 in neurodevelopmental processes that underlie most of the neuroanatomical defects in JBTS, and perhaps in neuronal functions that contribute to schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
5Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet. 2009 Oct 150B: 914-25
PMID19152384
TitleEvidence for an interaction of schizophrenia susceptibility loci on chromosome 6q23.3 and 10q24.33-q26.13 in Arab Israeli families.
AbstractA genome scan for schizophrenia related loci in Arab Israeli families by Lerer et al. [Lerer et al. (2003); Mol Psychiatry 8:488-498] detected significant evidence for linkage at chromosome 6q23. Subsequent fine mapping [Levi et al. (2005); Eur J Hum Genet 13:763-771], association [Amann-Zalcenstein et al. (2006); Eur J Hum Genet 14:1111-1119] and replication studies [Ingason et al. (2007); Eur J Hum Genet 15:988-991] identified AHI1 as a putative susceptibility gene. The same genome scan revealed suggestive evidence for a schizophrenia susceptibility locus in the 10q23-26 region. Genes at these two loci may act independently in the pathogenesis of the disease in our homogeneous sample of Arab Israeli families or may interact with each other and with other factors in a common biological pathway. The purpose of our current study was to test the hypothesis of genetic interaction between these two loci and to identify the type of interaction between them. The initial stage of our study focused on the 10q23-q26 region which has not been explored further in our sample. The second stage of the study included a test for possible genetic interaction between the 6q23.3 locus and the refined 10q24.33-q26.13 locus. A final candidate region of 19.9 Mb between markers D10S222 (105.3 Mb) and D10S587 (125.2 Mb) was found on chromosome 10 by non-parametric and parametric linkage analyses. These linkage findings are consistent with previous reports in the same chromosomal region. Two-locus multipoint linkage analysis under three complex disease inheritance models (heterogeneity, multiplicative, and additive models) yielded a best maximum LOD score of 7.45 under the multiplicative model suggesting overlapping function of the 6q23.3 and 10q24.33-q26.13 loci.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
6Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2010 Nov 107: 19126-31
PMID20956301
TitleNeuronal Abelson helper integration site-1 (Ahi1) deficiency in mice alters TrkB signaling with a depressive phenotype.
AbstractRecent studies suggest that the human Abelson helper integration site-1 (AHI1) gene on chromosome 6 is associated with susceptibility to schizophrenia and autism, two common neuropsychological disorders with depression symptoms. Mouse AHI1 protein is abundant in the hypothalamus and amygdala, which are important brain regions for controlling emotion. However, the neuronal function of AHI1 remains unclear. With the Cre-loxP system, we created a mouse model that selectively reduces AHI1 expression in neuronal cells. Mice with neuronal AHI1 deficiency show reduced TrkB level in the brain and depressive phenotypes, which can be alleviated by antidepressant drugs or by overexpression of TrkB in the amygdala. AHI1 deficiency promotes the degradation of endocytic TrkB and reduces TrkB signaling in neuronal cells. Our findings suggest that impaired endocytic sorting and increased degradation of TrkB can induce depression and that this impaired pathway may serve as a previously uncharacterized therapeutic target for depression.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
7Hum. Mol. Genet. 2010 Apr 19: 1379-86
PMID20071346
TitleA large replication study and meta-analysis in European samples provides further support for association of AHI1 markers with schizophrenia.
AbstractThe Abelson helper integration site 1 (AHI1) gene locus on chromosome 6q23 is among a group of candidate loci for schizophrenia susceptibility that were initially identified by linkage followed by linkage disequilibrium mapping, and subsequent replication of the association in an independent sample. Here, we present results of a replication study of AHI1 locus markers, previously implicated in schizophrenia, in a large European sample (in total 3907 affected and 7429 controls). Furthermore, we perform a meta-analysis of the implicated markers in 4496 affected and 18,920 controls. Both the replication study of new samples and the meta-analysis show evidence for significant overrepresentation of all tested alleles in patients compared with controls (meta-analysis; P = 8.2 x 10(-5)-1.7 x 10(-3), common OR = 1.09-1.11). The region contains two genes, AHI1 and C6orf217, and both genes-as well as the neighbouring phosphodiesterase 7B (PDE7B)-may be considered candidates for involvement in the genetic aetiology of schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
8FASEB J. 2010 Aug 24: 3066-82
PMID20371615
TitleFine mapping of AHI1 as a schizophrenia susceptibility gene: from association to evolutionary evidence.
AbstractIn previous studies, we identified a locus for schizophrenia on 6q23.3 and proposed the Abelson helper integration site 1 (AHI1) as the candidate gene. AHI1 is expressed in the brain and plays a key role in neurodevelopment, is involved in Joubert syndrome, and has been recently associated with autism. The neurodevelopmental role of AHI1 fits with etiological hypotheses of schizophrenia. To definitively confirm our hypothesis, we searched for associations using a dense map of the region. Our strongest findings lay within the AHI1 gene: single-nucleotide polymorphisms rs11154801 and rs7759971 showed significant associations (P=6.23E-06; P=0.84E-06) and haplotypes gave P values in the 10E-8 to 10E-10 range. The second highest significant region maps close to AHI1 and includes the intergenic region between BC040979 and PDE7B (rs2038549 at P=9.70E-06 and rs1475069 at P=6.97E-06), and PDE7B and MAP7. Using a sample of Palestinian Arab families to confirm these findings, we found isolated signals. While these results did not retain their significance after correction for multiple testing, the joint analysis across the 2 samples supports the role of AHI1, despite the presence of heterogeneity. Given the hypothesis of positive selection of schizophrenia genes, we resequenced a 11 kb region within AHI1 in ethnically defined populations and found evidence for a selective sweep. Network analysis indicates 2 haplotype clades, with schizophrenia-susceptibility haplotypes clustering within the major clade. In conclusion, our data support the role of AHI1 as a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia and confirm it has been subjected to positive selection, also shedding light on new possible candidate genes, MAP7 and PDE7B.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
9PLoS ONE 2010 -1 5: e12254
PMID20805890
TitleImpact of the AHI1 gene on the vulnerability to schizophrenia: a case-control association study.
AbstractThe Abelson helper integration-1 (AHI1) gene is required for both cerebellar and cortical development in humans. While the accelerated evolution of AHI1 in the human lineage indicates a role in cognitive (dys)function, a linkage scan in large pedigrees identified AHI1 as a positional candidate for schizophrenia. To further investigate the contribution of AHI1 to the susceptibility of schizophrenia, we evaluated the effect of AHI1 variation on the vulnerability to psychosis in two samples from Spain and Germany.
29 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in a genomic region including the AHI1 gene were genotyped in two samples from Spain (280 patients with psychotic disorders; 348 controls) and Germany (247 patients with schizophrenic disorders; 360 controls). Allelic, genotypic and haplotype frequencies were compared between cases and controls in both samples separately, as well as in the combined sample. The effect of genotype on several psychopathological measures (BPRS, KGV, PANSS) assessed in a Spanish subsample was also evaluated. We found several significant associations in the Spanish sample. Particularly, rs7750586 and rs911507, both located upstream of the AHI1 coding region, were found to be associated with schizophrenia in the analysis of genotypic (p = 0.0033, and 0.031, respectively) and allelic frequencies (p = 0.001 in both cases). Moreover, several other risk and protective haplotypes were detected (0.006schizophrenia. The analysis of clinical measures also revealed an effect on symptom severity (minimum P value = 0.0037).
Our data support, in agreement with previous reports, an effect of AHI1 variation on the susceptibility to schizophrenia in central and southern European populations.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
10PLoS ONE 2010 -1 5: e12254
PMID20805890
TitleImpact of the AHI1 gene on the vulnerability to schizophrenia: a case-control association study.
AbstractThe Abelson helper integration-1 (AHI1) gene is required for both cerebellar and cortical development in humans. While the accelerated evolution of AHI1 in the human lineage indicates a role in cognitive (dys)function, a linkage scan in large pedigrees identified AHI1 as a positional candidate for schizophrenia. To further investigate the contribution of AHI1 to the susceptibility of schizophrenia, we evaluated the effect of AHI1 variation on the vulnerability to psychosis in two samples from Spain and Germany.
29 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in a genomic region including the AHI1 gene were genotyped in two samples from Spain (280 patients with psychotic disorders; 348 controls) and Germany (247 patients with schizophrenic disorders; 360 controls). Allelic, genotypic and haplotype frequencies were compared between cases and controls in both samples separately, as well as in the combined sample. The effect of genotype on several psychopathological measures (BPRS, KGV, PANSS) assessed in a Spanish subsample was also evaluated. We found several significant associations in the Spanish sample. Particularly, rs7750586 and rs911507, both located upstream of the AHI1 coding region, were found to be associated with schizophrenia in the analysis of genotypic (p = 0.0033, and 0.031, respectively) and allelic frequencies (p = 0.001 in both cases). Moreover, several other risk and protective haplotypes were detected (0.006schizophrenia. The analysis of clinical measures also revealed an effect on symptom severity (minimum P value = 0.0037).
Our data support, in agreement with previous reports, an effect of AHI1 variation on the susceptibility to schizophrenia in central and southern European populations.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
11Schizophr. Res. 2010 Jul 120: 159-66
PMID20452750
TitleLymphoblast and brain expression of AHI1 and the novel primate-specific gene, C6orf217, in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
AbstractAssociation with schizophrenia of the Abelson Helper Integration Site 1 (AHI1) gene on chromosome 6q23 and the adjacent primate-specific gene, C6orf217, was demonstrated in an inbred, Arab Israeli family sample and replicated in an Icelandic case control sample. Further support was provided by a second replication in a large European sample and a meta-analysis that supported association with schizophrenia of all seven alleles overtransmitted to affected subjects in the original study. We examined constitutive expression of AHI1 and C6orf217 in immortalized lymphoblasts of patients from the Arab Israeli family sample in which the association with schizophrenia was originally discovered and population-matched normal controls, and in post-mortem brain of patients with schizophrenia and bipolar (BP) disorder and control subjects from the Stanley Medical Research Institute Collection. We found a significant effect of diagnostic group in the lymphoblast sample (F=5.72; df=2,39; p=0.006). Patients with early age of onset had higher AHI1 expression than controls and later onset patients (p=0.002; 0.03 respectively). C6orf217 expression in lymphoblasts was too low to measure. We found no difference in brain expression of AHI1 in schizophrenia or BP patients compared to controls. However, there was a genotypic difference in AHI1 expression for SNP rs9321501, which was strongly associated with schizophrenia in the original study. Genotypes that included the undertransmitted C allele (CC/AC) showed lower expression than the homozygous AA genotype (F=4.73, df=2,83; p=0.028). There was no significant difference in brain expression of C6orf217 between patients and controls and no genotypic effect. This study provides further evidence for involvement of AHI1 in susceptibility to schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
12Mol. Psychiatry 2014 Feb 19: 243-52
PMID24042478
TitleNeural mechanisms underlying stress resilience in Ahi1 knockout mice: relevance to neuropsychiatric disorders.
AbstractThe Abelson helper integration site 1 (AHI1) gene has a pivotal role in brain development. Studies by our group and others have demonstrated association of AHI1 with schizophrenia and autism. To elucidate the mechanism whereby alteration in AHI1 expression may be implicated in the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders, we studied AHI1 heterozygous knockout (AHI1(+/-)) mice. Although their performance was not different from wild-type mice on tests that model classical schizophrenia-related endophenotypes, AHI1(+/-) mice displayed an anxiolytic-like phenotype across different converging modalities. Using behavioral paradigms that involve exposure to environmental and social stress, significantly decreased anxiety was evident in the open field, elevated plus maze and dark-light box, as well as during social interaction in pairs. Assessment of core temperature and corticosterone secretion revealed a significantly blunted response of the autonomic nervous system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in AHI1(+/-) mice exposed to environmental and visceral stress. However, response to centrally acting anxiogenic compounds was intact. On resting-state functional MRI, connectivity of the amygdala with other brain regions involved in processing of anxiogenic stimuli and inhibitory avoidance learning, such as the lateral entorhinal cortex, ventral hippocampus and ventral tegmental area, was significantly reduced in the mutant mice. Taken together, our data link AHI1 under-expression with a defect in the process of threat detection. Alternatively, the results could be interpreted as representing an anxiety-related endophenotype, possibly granting the AHI1(+/-) mouse relative resilience to various types of stress. The current knockout model highlights the contribution of translational approaches to understanding the genetic basis of emotional regulation and its associated neurocircuitry, with possible relevance to neuropsychiatric disorders.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
13PLoS ONE 2014 -1 9: e94968
PMID24736721
TitleHeat shock alters the expression of schizophrenia and autism candidate genes in an induced pluripotent stem cell model of the human telencephalon.
Abstractschizophrenia (SZ) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are highly heritable neuropsychiatric disorders, although environmental factors, such as maternal immune activation (MIA), play a role as well. Cytokines mediate the effects of MIA on neurogenesis and behavior in animal models. However, MIA stimulators can also induce a febrile reaction, which could have independent effects on neurogenesis through heat shock (HS)-regulated cellular stress pathways. However, this has not been well-studied. To help understand the role of fever in MIA, we used a recently described model of human brain development in which induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) differentiate into 3-dimensional neuronal aggregates that resemble a first trimester telencephalon. RNA-seq was carried out on aggregates that were heat shocked at 39C for 24 hours, along with their control partners maintained at 37C. 186 genes showed significant differences in expression following HS (p<0.05), including known HS-inducible genes, as expected, as well as those coding for NGFR and a number of SZ and ASD candidates, including SMARCA2, DPP10, ARNT2, AHI1 and ZNF804A. The degree to which the expression of these genes decrease or increase during HS is similar to that found in copy loss and copy gain copy number variants (CNVs), although the effects of HS are likely to be transient. The dramatic effect on the expression of some SZ and ASD genes places HS, and perhaps other cellular stressors, into a common conceptual framework with disease-causing genetic variants. The findings also suggest that some candidate genes that are assumed to have a relatively limited impact on SZ and ASD pathogenesis based on a small number of positive genetic findings, such as SMARCA2 and ARNT2, may in fact have a much more substantial role in these disorders - as targets of common environmental stressors.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
14Int J Mol Sci 2015 -1 16: 2517-29
PMID25622261
TitleThe influence of AHI1 variants on the diagnosis and treatment outcome in schizophrenia.
AbstractThe present study aimed to explore whether four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the AHI1 gene could be associated with schizophrenia (SCZ) and whether they could predict the clinical outcomes in SCZ patients treated with antipsychotics. Four hundred twenty-six (426) in-patients with SCZ and 345 controls were genotyped for four AHI1 SNPs (rs11154801, rs7750586, rs9647635 and rs9321501). Baseline and clinical measures for SCZ patients were assessed through the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Allelic and genotypic frequencies in SCZ subjects were compared with those of controls using the ?2 statistics. The repeated-measure ANOVA was used for the assessment of treatment outcomes measured by PANSS changes. The case-control analysis did not show any difference in the genotypic distribution of the SNPs, while in the allelic analysis, a weak association was found between the rs9647635 A allele and SCZ. Furthermore, in the haplotype analysis, three haplotypes resulted in being associated with SCZ. On the other hand, two SNPs (rs7750586 and rs9647635) were associated with clinical improvement of negative symptoms in the allelic analysis, although in the genotypic analysis, only trends of association were found for the same SNPs. Our findings suggest a possible influence of AHI1 variants on SCZ susceptibility and antipsychotic response, particularly concerning negative symptomatology. Subsequent well-designed studies would be mandatory to confirm our results due to the methodological shortcomings of the present study.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic