1J Affect Disord 2000 Jul 59: 77-83
PMID10814775
TitlePreliminary evidence of an association between increased REM density and poor antidepressant response to partial sleep deprivation.
AbstractOne night of total sleep deprivation or of late-night partial sleep deprivation (PSD) produces a temporary remission in approximately 40-60% of patients with major depressive disorder; however, little is known about polysomnography (PSG) characteristics of responders to these types of sleep deprivation (SD).
Twenty-three unmedicated unipolar patients (17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS17) >16) and 14 normal controls underwent 1 night of late-night PSD (awake after 3 a.m.) Subjects underwent baseline PSG and received the HDRS17 at standard times before and after PSD. Clinical response was defined as a reduction of >30% in the modified HDRS17 (omitting sleep and weight loss items) following PSD.
The 12 responders and 11 nonresponders did not differ from each other significantly on baseline HDRS17 or PSG variables. The only PSG variable correlating with percent decrease in modified HDRS17 was baseline REM density (Pearson's r=-0.52, n=23, P=0.01.) In other words, the lower the baseline REM density, the more robust the antidepressant response was.
Subject numbers are relatively small.
Increased REM density, which reflects the number of rapid eye movements per epoch of REM sleep, may be a physiological marker for severity or poor prognosis in a variety of psychiatric disorders, including relapse in recovering alcoholics, suicidality in schizophrenia, and poor response to PSD or interpersonal psychotherapy in depression.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
2Am J Psychiatry 2001 Sep 158: 1400-10
PMID11532724
TitleN-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor expression in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of elderly patients with schizophrenia.
AbstractThe N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) class of glutamate receptors has received attention in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia because of the similarity between some schizophrenic symptoms and symptoms caused by NMDA antagonists. To determine if NMDA receptor abnormalities were present at the mRNA level, expression of NMDA receptor (NR) subunits NR(1), NR(2A), and NR(2B) was measured in specimens from the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the occipital cortex of elderly patients with schizophrenia and normal elderly subjects.
Postmortem specimens from antemortem assessed and diagnosed elderly patients with schizophrenia (N=26) were compared with those from a neuropathologically and neuropsychiatrically normal elderly comparison group (N=13) and from patients with Alzheimer's disease (N=10). The mRNA expression of the NR(1), NR(2A), and NR(2B) subunits and of postsynaptic density 95 (PSD-95), a protein associated with postsynaptic NMDA receptors, was studied with quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction.
Expression of NR(1) and NR(2A) but not NR(2B) subunits was higher in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the occipital cortex of patients with schizophrenia than in the normal and Alzheimer's disease groups. In contrast, NR(1) expression was significantly lower in the Alzheimer's disease group. Occipital cortex expression of PSD-95 was higher in the schizophrenic subjects and correlated strongly with the expression of NR(2A) and NR(2B) in both cortical regions and with expression of NR(1) in the occipital cortex. These results were not influenced by neuroleptic exposure history, postmortem interval, or age of the subject.
NMDA receptor subunits are abnormally expressed in elderly patients with schizophrenia. The disproportionate expression of the NR(1) and NR(2A) subunits relative to NR(2B) expression may have implications for the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and the sensitivity of schizophrenic patients to glutamate and glutamatergic drugs.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
3Am J Psychiatry 2001 Sep 158: 1400-10
PMID11532724
TitleN-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor expression in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of elderly patients with schizophrenia.
AbstractThe N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) class of glutamate receptors has received attention in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia because of the similarity between some schizophrenic symptoms and symptoms caused by NMDA antagonists. To determine if NMDA receptor abnormalities were present at the mRNA level, expression of NMDA receptor (NR) subunits NR(1), NR(2A), and NR(2B) was measured in specimens from the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the occipital cortex of elderly patients with schizophrenia and normal elderly subjects.
Postmortem specimens from antemortem assessed and diagnosed elderly patients with schizophrenia (N=26) were compared with those from a neuropathologically and neuropsychiatrically normal elderly comparison group (N=13) and from patients with Alzheimer's disease (N=10). The mRNA expression of the NR(1), NR(2A), and NR(2B) subunits and of postsynaptic density 95 (PSD-95), a protein associated with postsynaptic NMDA receptors, was studied with quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction.
Expression of NR(1) and NR(2A) but not NR(2B) subunits was higher in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the occipital cortex of patients with schizophrenia than in the normal and Alzheimer's disease groups. In contrast, NR(1) expression was significantly lower in the Alzheimer's disease group. Occipital cortex expression of PSD-95 was higher in the schizophrenic subjects and correlated strongly with the expression of NR(2A) and NR(2B) in both cortical regions and with expression of NR(1) in the occipital cortex. These results were not influenced by neuroleptic exposure history, postmortem interval, or age of the subject.
NMDA receptor subunits are abnormally expressed in elderly patients with schizophrenia. The disproportionate expression of the NR(1) and NR(2A) subunits relative to NR(2B) expression may have implications for the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and the sensitivity of schizophrenic patients to glutamate and glutamatergic drugs.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
4J. Neurochem. 2002 Nov 83: 797-806
PMID12421351
TitleSelective reduction of a PDZ protein, SAP-97, in the prefrontal cortex of patients with chronic schizophrenia.
AbstractMany postsynaptic density proteins carrying postsynaptic density-95/discs large/zone occludens-1 (PDZ) domain(s) interact with glutamate receptors to control receptor dynamics and synaptic plasticity. Here we examined the expression of PDZ proteins, synapse-associated protein (SAP) 97, postsynaptic density (PSD)-95, chapsyn-110, GRIP1 and SAP102, in post-mortem brains of schizophrenic patients and control subjects, and evaluated their contribution to schizophrenic pathology. Among these PDZ proteins, SAP97 exhibited the most marked change: SAP97 protein levels were decreased to less than half that of the control levels specifically in the prefrontal cortex of schizophrenic patients. In parallel, its binding partner, GluR1, similarly decreased in the same brain region. The correlation between SAP97 and GluR1 levels in control subjects was, however, altered in schizophrenic patients. SAP102 levels were also significantly reduced in the hippocampus of schizophrenic patients, but this reduction was correlated with sample storage time and post-mortem interval. There were no changes in the levels of the other PDZ proteins in any of the regions examined. In addition, neuroleptic treatment failed to mimic the SAP97 change. These findings suggest that a phenotypic loss of SAP97 is associated with the postsynaptic impairment in prefrontal excitatory circuits of schizophrenic patients.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
5J. Neurochem. 2002 Nov 83: 797-806
PMID12421351
TitleSelective reduction of a PDZ protein, SAP-97, in the prefrontal cortex of patients with chronic schizophrenia.
AbstractMany postsynaptic density proteins carrying postsynaptic density-95/discs large/zone occludens-1 (PDZ) domain(s) interact with glutamate receptors to control receptor dynamics and synaptic plasticity. Here we examined the expression of PDZ proteins, synapse-associated protein (SAP) 97, postsynaptic density (PSD)-95, chapsyn-110, GRIP1 and SAP102, in post-mortem brains of schizophrenic patients and control subjects, and evaluated their contribution to schizophrenic pathology. Among these PDZ proteins, SAP97 exhibited the most marked change: SAP97 protein levels were decreased to less than half that of the control levels specifically in the prefrontal cortex of schizophrenic patients. In parallel, its binding partner, GluR1, similarly decreased in the same brain region. The correlation between SAP97 and GluR1 levels in control subjects was, however, altered in schizophrenic patients. SAP102 levels were also significantly reduced in the hippocampus of schizophrenic patients, but this reduction was correlated with sample storage time and post-mortem interval. There were no changes in the levels of the other PDZ proteins in any of the regions examined. In addition, neuroleptic treatment failed to mimic the SAP97 change. These findings suggest that a phenotypic loss of SAP97 is associated with the postsynaptic impairment in prefrontal excitatory circuits of schizophrenic patients.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
6Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. 2002 Jan 98: 124-9
PMID11834303
TitleAcute administration of antipsychotics modulates Homer striatal gene expression differentially.
AbstractTypical and atypical antipsychotics, the mainstay of schizophrenia pharmacotherapy, have been demonstrated to affect differently neuronal gene expression in several preclinical paradigms. Here we report the differential gene expression of the glutamatergic post-synaptic density proteins Homer and PSD-95 in rat forebrain following acute haloperidol or olanzapine treatment. Moreover, considering the extensive interactions between dopaminergic and opioidergic systems we also measured striatal preproenkephalin mRNA. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with haloperidol 1 mg/kg or olanzapine 0.5 mg/kg or vehicle, i.p. and sacrificed 3 h after the injection. Homer gene expression was significantly increased in caudate putamen and nucleus accumbens of rats treated with haloperidol and in the core of accumbens of rats treated with olanzapine. No changes were detected for Homer in prefrontal and parietal cortex in any of the experimental groups. PSD-95 gene expression was not modulated in our paradigm by administration of either typical or atypical antipsychotics. These results (1) suggest a differential modulation of Homer by typical and atypical antipsychotics; (2) confirm that Homer can be induced as an early gene with putative direct effect on neuronal plasticity and (3) demonstrate different response to antipsychotics by different classes of postsynaptic density proteins at glutamatergic synapses.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
7Psychiatry Res 2003 Jan 117: 47-56
PMID12581820
TitleDepressive episodes in stable schizophrenia: critical evaluation of the DSM-IV and ICD-10 diagnostic criteria.
AbstractDepressive episodes are a common and potentially severe occurrence in schizophrenia but are poorly recognised by psychiatrists. Coherent diagnostic criteria are necessary to improve diagnosis and treatment of these conditions. To evaluate the usefulness of the ICD-10 category of post-schizophrenic depression (PSD) and the DSM-IV category of postpsychotic depressive disorder of schizophrenia (PDDS), 80 clinically stable schizophrenic outpatients were evaluated with two independent measures of depression, a dimensional measure and a categorical measure. One rater applied the DSM-IV criteria for major depressive episodes (MDE), and the other applied the Calgary Depression Scale for schizophrenia, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, and the Extrapyramidal Symptoms Rating Scale. Thirteen patients (16.3%) met criteria for MDE. All of them met the DSM-IV PDDS research criteria, but only two patients matched the ICD-10 PSD criteria, which require that the episode occurred in the 12 months after the last psychotic episode. There was no significant difference in the incidence of depressive episodes within 12 months after an acute psychotic episode and outside this time period. The data suggest that depressive episodes in schizophrenia are not restricted to the first year following the psychotic episode. Useful criteria for depressive episodes in schizophrenia should avoid a temporal relation with the psychotic episode.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
8Psychiatry Res 2003 Jan 117: 47-56
PMID12581820
TitleDepressive episodes in stable schizophrenia: critical evaluation of the DSM-IV and ICD-10 diagnostic criteria.
AbstractDepressive episodes are a common and potentially severe occurrence in schizophrenia but are poorly recognised by psychiatrists. Coherent diagnostic criteria are necessary to improve diagnosis and treatment of these conditions. To evaluate the usefulness of the ICD-10 category of post-schizophrenic depression (PSD) and the DSM-IV category of postpsychotic depressive disorder of schizophrenia (PDDS), 80 clinically stable schizophrenic outpatients were evaluated with two independent measures of depression, a dimensional measure and a categorical measure. One rater applied the DSM-IV criteria for major depressive episodes (MDE), and the other applied the Calgary Depression Scale for schizophrenia, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, and the Extrapyramidal Symptoms Rating Scale. Thirteen patients (16.3%) met criteria for MDE. All of them met the DSM-IV PDDS research criteria, but only two patients matched the ICD-10 PSD criteria, which require that the episode occurred in the 12 months after the last psychotic episode. There was no significant difference in the incidence of depressive episodes within 12 months after an acute psychotic episode and outside this time period. The data suggest that depressive episodes in schizophrenia are not restricted to the first year following the psychotic episode. Useful criteria for depressive episodes in schizophrenia should avoid a temporal relation with the psychotic episode.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
9Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 2003 Nov 1003: 75-93
PMID14684436
TitleMolecular abnormalities of the glutamate synapse in the thalamus in schizophrenia.
Abstractschizophrenia has been associated with dysfunction of glutamatergic neurotransmission. Synaptic glutamate activates pre- and postsynaptic ionotropic NMDA, AMPA, and kainate and metabotropic receptors, is removed from the synapse via five cell surface-expressed transporters, and is packaged for release by three vesicular transporters. In addition, there is a family of intracellular molecules enriched in the postsynaptic density (PSD) that target glutamate receptors to the synaptic membrane, modulate receptor activity, and coordinate glutamate receptor-related signal transduction. Each family of PSD proteins is selective for a given glutamate receptor subtype, the most well characterized being the NMDA receptor binding proteins PSD93, PSD95, NF-L, and SAP102. Besides binding glutamate receptors, many of these proteins also interact with cell surface proteins like cell adhesion molecules, ion channels, cytoskeletal elements, and signal transduction molecules. Given the complexity of the glutamate neurotransmitter system, there are many locations where disruption of normal signaling could occur and give rise to abnormal glutamatergic neurotransmission in schizophrenia. Using multiple cohorts of postmortem tissue, we have examined these synaptic molecules in schizophrenic thalamus. The expression of NR1 and NR2C subunit transcripts is decreased in the thalamus in schizophrenia. Interestingly, three intracellular PSD molecules that link the NMDA receptor to signal transduction pathways are also abnormally expressed. Additionally, several of the cell surface and vesicular transporters are abnormal in the schizophrenic thalamus. While occasional findings of abnormal receptor expression are made, the most dramatic and consistent alterations that we have found in the thalamus in schizophrenia involve the family of intracellular signaling/scaffolding molecules. We propose that schizophrenia has a glutamatergic component that involves alterations in the intracellular machinery that is coupled to glutamate receptors, in addition to abnormalities of the receptors themselves. Our data suggest that schizophrenia is associated with abnormal glutamate receptor-related intracellular signaling in the thalamus, and point to novel targets for innovative drug discovery.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
10Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 2003 Nov 1003: 75-93
PMID14684436
TitleMolecular abnormalities of the glutamate synapse in the thalamus in schizophrenia.
Abstractschizophrenia has been associated with dysfunction of glutamatergic neurotransmission. Synaptic glutamate activates pre- and postsynaptic ionotropic NMDA, AMPA, and kainate and metabotropic receptors, is removed from the synapse via five cell surface-expressed transporters, and is packaged for release by three vesicular transporters. In addition, there is a family of intracellular molecules enriched in the postsynaptic density (PSD) that target glutamate receptors to the synaptic membrane, modulate receptor activity, and coordinate glutamate receptor-related signal transduction. Each family of PSD proteins is selective for a given glutamate receptor subtype, the most well characterized being the NMDA receptor binding proteins PSD93, PSD95, NF-L, and SAP102. Besides binding glutamate receptors, many of these proteins also interact with cell surface proteins like cell adhesion molecules, ion channels, cytoskeletal elements, and signal transduction molecules. Given the complexity of the glutamate neurotransmitter system, there are many locations where disruption of normal signaling could occur and give rise to abnormal glutamatergic neurotransmission in schizophrenia. Using multiple cohorts of postmortem tissue, we have examined these synaptic molecules in schizophrenic thalamus. The expression of NR1 and NR2C subunit transcripts is decreased in the thalamus in schizophrenia. Interestingly, three intracellular PSD molecules that link the NMDA receptor to signal transduction pathways are also abnormally expressed. Additionally, several of the cell surface and vesicular transporters are abnormal in the schizophrenic thalamus. While occasional findings of abnormal receptor expression are made, the most dramatic and consistent alterations that we have found in the thalamus in schizophrenia involve the family of intracellular signaling/scaffolding molecules. We propose that schizophrenia has a glutamatergic component that involves alterations in the intracellular machinery that is coupled to glutamate receptors, in addition to abnormalities of the receptors themselves. Our data suggest that schizophrenia is associated with abnormal glutamate receptor-related intracellular signaling in the thalamus, and point to novel targets for innovative drug discovery.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
11Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. 2004 Feb 121: 60-9
PMID14969737
TitleExpression of the ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits and NMDA receptor-associated intracellular proteins in the substantia nigra in schizophrenia.
AbstractMultiple neurotransmitter systems have been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Dopamine hyperactivity has often been implicated in this illness. More recently, the glutamate hypothesis of schizophrenia suggests that NMDA receptor (NMDAR) hypofunction may also play a role in this illness. This is based primarily on studies showing that phencyclidine, an NMDAR antagonist, can induce a schizophreniform psychosis. While NMDAR dysfunction is most often implicated in schizophrenia, other components of the glutamate system, such as the AMPA and kainate receptors, as well as NMDAR-associated intracellular proteins, may also play a role in regulating NMDA receptor activity and glutamate neurotransmission. There is growing interest in the hypothesis that the pathophysiology of schizophrenia involves alterations in dopamine-glutamate interactions. The glutamate system is anatomically and functionally linked to the dopamine system, and glutamate can modulate dopaminergic activity and release by stimulating various glutamate receptor subtypes expressed by dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area. In this study, we investigated dopamine-glutamate interactions by measuring the expression of transcripts encoding the subunits for the ionotropic glutamate receptors (NMDA, AMPA and kainate) and five NMDAR-associated intracellular proteins, PSD-93, PSD-95, SAP102, NF-L and yotiao in the dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) of subjects with schizophrenia and a comparison group. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, a marker of dopamine-synthesizing cells), NR1 (an NMDA receptor subunit) and GluR5 (a kainate subunit) transcript levels were significantly increased in the SNc in schizophrenia. These data support the hypothesis that schizophrenia may involve alterations in dopamine-glutamate interactions.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
12Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. 2005 Oct 139: 317-32
PMID16122832
TitleDifferential modulation of gene expression in the NMDA postsynaptic density of schizophrenic and control smokers.
AbstractNicotine is known to induce the release of multiple neurotransmitters, including glutamate and dopamine, through activation of nicotinic receptors. Gene expression in the N-methyl-d-aspartate postsynaptic density (NMDA-PSD), as well as other functional groups, was compared in postmortem hippocampus of schizophrenic and nonmentally ill smokers and nonsmokers utilizing a microarray and quantitative RT-PCR approach. The expression of 277 genes was significantly changed between all smokers and nonsmokers. Specific gene groups, most notably genes expressed in the NMDA-PSD, were prevalent among these transcripts. Analysis of the interaction between smoking and schizophrenia identified several genes in the NMDA-PSD that were differentially affected by smoking in patients. The present findings suggest that smoking may differentially modulate glutamatergic function in schizophrenic patients and control subjects. The biological mechanisms underlying chronic tobacco use are likely to differ substantially between these two groups.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
13Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. 2005 Oct 139: 317-32
PMID16122832
TitleDifferential modulation of gene expression in the NMDA postsynaptic density of schizophrenic and control smokers.
AbstractNicotine is known to induce the release of multiple neurotransmitters, including glutamate and dopamine, through activation of nicotinic receptors. Gene expression in the N-methyl-d-aspartate postsynaptic density (NMDA-PSD), as well as other functional groups, was compared in postmortem hippocampus of schizophrenic and nonmentally ill smokers and nonsmokers utilizing a microarray and quantitative RT-PCR approach. The expression of 277 genes was significantly changed between all smokers and nonsmokers. Specific gene groups, most notably genes expressed in the NMDA-PSD, were prevalent among these transcripts. Analysis of the interaction between smoking and schizophrenia identified several genes in the NMDA-PSD that were differentially affected by smoking in patients. The present findings suggest that smoking may differentially modulate glutamatergic function in schizophrenic patients and control subjects. The biological mechanisms underlying chronic tobacco use are likely to differ substantially between these two groups.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
14Psychiatr. Genet. 2005 Mar 15: 37-44
PMID15722956
TitleCandidate psychiatric illness genes identified in patients with pericentric inversions of chromosome 18.
AbstractBoth the long and short arms of chromosome 18 have been consistently identified as potential locations for schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder susceptibility genes. We previously described the identification of two independent pericentric inversions of chromosome 18 [inv(18)(p11.31;q21.2) and inv(18)(p11.31;q21.1)] occurring in two small families in which carriers have been diagnosed with schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder, respectively. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization on patient metaphase chromosomes we have identified the locations of all four chromosome breakpoints in the inversion carriers. Neither pericentric inversion results in a direct gene disruption. However, each inversion breakpoint has the potential to perturb local gene expression by position effect or by the separation of important regulatory (enhancer) sequences from the core gene sequences. Five genes in the localities of the breakpoints have been identified as good candidates for the genetic basis of psychiatric illness in these families; TTMA, a novel membrane spanning protein; TCF4, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor; DLGAP1, an interactor of the PSD-95 synaptic protein; and ARKL1 and ARKL2, novel members of the ubiquitin ligase gene family.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
15Schizophr. Res. 2005 Dec 80: 323-30
PMID16140506
TitleNMDA receptor subunit NRI and postsynaptic protein PSD-95 in hippocampus and orbitofrontal cortex in schizophrenia and mood disorder.
AbstractMuch interest has focussed on glutamate and the N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. A number of studies have reported abnormal gene transcription of various glutamate receptor subtypes in the hippocampus including the NMDA receptor. However, corresponding protein levels in subregions of the hippocampus have not yet been investigated. We have used immunoautoradiographical techniques to assess the expression of the obligatory NMDA receptor subunit NR1 and an associated post-synaptic density protein PSD-95 in the hippocampal dentate gyrus and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in schizophrenia and mood disorder. Optical density measures from film autoradiographs revealed no changes in NR1 or PSD-95 in the OFC or dentate hilus, however a decrease in PSD-95 was found in the dentate molecular layer in both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder relative to major depression. These findings were unrelated to antipsychotic or mood stabilizer drug treatment. The dentate molecular layer contains the dendritic trees of granule cells and is the target of major excitatory afferent inputs from associative cortical, parahippocampal and hippocampal regions. A reduction in PSD-95 at glutamate synapses of the molecular layer may have a deleterious impact on information flow to other hippocampal regions via granule cells and their projecting mossy fibres. A down-regulation of PSD-95 in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder may also relate to disease mechanisms of psychosis.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
16Schizophr. Res. 2005 Oct 78: 87-93
PMID16023328
TitleAbnormal striatal expression of transcripts encoding NMDA interacting PSD proteins in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression.
AbstractPrevious studies have described abnormal expression of molecules involved in glutamatergic signaling in psychiatric illnesses, including proteins associated with receptor signaling complexes in the postsynaptic density (PSD). In particular the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor complex has been associated with these illnesses. Several subcortical structures including the striatum are innervated by direct glutamatergic projections from the prefrontal cortex, and these connections may be affected in severe psychiatric illnesses. Abnormal expression of molecules critical for glutamatergic signaling in subcortical structures may thus be associated with the pathophysiology of severe psychiatric illnesses. In the present study postmortem tissue from patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression was used to examine striatal expression of transcripts encoding NMDA receptor interacting proteins of the PSD required for trafficking, membrane targeting and synaptic function of this receptor. We found decreased striatal expression of transcripts encoding PSD-95 and SAP-102 in bipolar disorder and of SAP-102 in major depression and schizophrenia, while no significant changes in NF--L and PSD-93 mRNAs were observed. Abnormal expression of SAP-102 in schizophrenia and SAP-102 and PSD-95 in mood disorders in subcortical structures receiving afferent glutamatergic innervation from frontal cortex suggests dysregulation of cortical-subcortical circuitry in these illnesses.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
17Nat. Med. 2006 Jul 12: 824-8
PMID16767099
TitleAltered neuregulin 1-erbB4 signaling contributes to NMDA receptor hypofunction in schizophrenia.
AbstractRecent molecular genetics studies implicate neuregulin 1 (NRG1) and its receptor erbB in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Among NRG1 receptors, erbB4 is of particular interest because of its crucial roles in neurodevelopment and in the modulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor signaling. Here, using a new postmortem tissue-stimulation approach, we show a marked increase in NRG1-induced activation of erbB4 in the prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia. Levels of NRG1 and erbB4, however, did not differ between schizophrenia and control groups. To evaluate possible causes for this hyperactivation of erbB4 signaling, we examined the association of erbB4 with PSD-95 (postsynaptic density protein of 95 kDa), as this association has been shown to facilitate activation of erbB4. schizophrenia subjects showed substantial increases in erbB4-PSD-95 interactions. We found that NRG1 stimulation suppresses NMDA receptor activation in the human prefrontal cortex, as previously reported in the rodent cortex. NRG1-induced suppression of NMDA receptor activation was more pronounced in schizophrenia subjects than in controls, consistent with enhanced NRG1-erbB4 signaling seen in this illness. Therefore, these findings suggest that enhanced NRG1 signaling may contribute to NMDA hypofunction in schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
18Neurobiol. Dis. 2006 Jul 23: 61-76
PMID16549361
TitleIdentification of protein biomarkers for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder in the postmortem prefrontal cortex using SELDI-TOF-MS ProteinChip profiling combined with MALDI-TOF-PSD-MS analysis.
AbstractThis paper describes the high-throughput proteomic analysis of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) from schizophrenia (SCHIZ), bipolar (BD), and normal control cohorts from the Harvard Brain Tissue Resource Center performed using ProteinChip technology based on the surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS). The resultant profiles were utilized in classification-tree algorithms for selection of protein biomarker peaks contributing maximally to the differentiation between the examined diagnostic cohorts. Twenty-four such protein biomarker peaks were identified. All of them had lower levels in the SCHIZ cohort as compared to the BD cohort. Also, 21 of these peaks were down-regulated in the SCHIZ cohort vs. the control cohort, and 7 peaks were up-regulated in the BD cohort vs. the control cohort. The proteins constituting these biomarker peaks were recognized via matrix-assisted laser desorption time of flight/postsource decay mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-PSD-MS). These proteins represent a wide range of functional groups involved in cell metabolism, signaling cascades, regulation of gene transcription, protein and RNA chaperoning, and other aspects of cellular homeostasis. Finally, after statistical evaluation suggesting that the selected protein biomarkers are not significantly impacted by epidemiological/tissue storage parameters (although, influence of antipsychotic and mood stabilizing drugs could not be fully excluded), the ProteinChip-based profiling was engaged again to demonstrate that the detected SCHIZ-associated changes in the levels of our protein biomarkers could also be seen in DLPFC samples from the brain collection of the Mount Sinai Medical School/Bronx Veteran Affairs Medical Center. This study demonstrates the usefulness of ProteinChip-based SELDI-TOF protein profiling in gaining insight into the molecular pathology of SCHIZ and BD as it points to changes in protein levels characterizing these diseases.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
19Synapse 2006 Dec 60: 585-98
PMID16983646
TitleLamina-specific abnormalities of AMPA receptor trafficking and signaling molecule transcripts in the prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia.
AbstractAmpakines, positive AMPA receptor modulators, can improve cognitive function in schizophrenia, and enhancement of AMPA receptor-mediated currents by them potentiates the activity of antipsychotics. In vitro studies have revealed that trafficking of AMPA receptors is mediated by specific interactions of a complex network of proteins that also target and anchor them at the postsynaptic density (PSD). The aim of this study was to determine whether there are abnormalities of the molecules associated with trafficking and localization of AMPA receptors at the PSD in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in schizophrenia. We analyzed AMPA receptor expression in DLPFC in schizophrenia, major depression, bipolar disorder, and a control group, by examining transcript levels of all four AMPA receptor subunits by in situ hybridization. We found decreased GluR2 subunit expression in all three illnesses, decreased GluR3 in major depression, and decreased GluR4 in schizophrenia. However, autoradiography experiments showed no changes in AMPA receptor binding; thus, we hypothesized that these changes in receptor subunit stoichiometry do not alter binding to the assembled receptor, but rather intracellular processing. In situ hybridization for AMPA-trafficking molecules showed decreased expression of PICK1 and increased expression of stargazin in DLPFC in schizophrenia, both restricted to large cells of cortical layer III. These data suggest that AMPA-mediated glutamatergic neurotransmission is compromised in schizophrenia, particularly at the level of AMPA-related PSD proteins that mediate AMPA receptor trafficking, synaptic surface expression, and intracellular signaling.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
20J. Neurochem. 2006 Aug 98: 1114-25
PMID16762023
TitleUp-regulation of NMDA receptor subunit and post-synaptic density protein expression in the thalamus of elderly patients with schizophrenia.
AbstractNumerous studies have described structural and functional abnormalities of the thalamus in schizophrenia, but surprisingly few studies have examined neurochemical abnormalities that accompany these pathological changes. We previously identified abnormalities of multiple molecules associated with glutamatergic neurotransmission, including changes in NMDA receptor subunit transcripts and binding sites and NMDA receptor-associated post-synaptic density (PSD) protein transcripts in the thalamus of elderly patients with schizophrenia. In the present study, we performed western blot analysis to determine whether protein levels of NMDA receptor subunits (NR1, NR2A, NR2B) and associated PSD proteins (NF-L, PSD95, SAP102) are altered in schizophrenia. Thalamic tissue from each subject was grossly dissected into two regions: a dorsomedial region containing limbic-associated dorsomedial, anterior and central medial thalamic nuclei; and a ventral thalamus region that primarily consisted of the ventral lateral nucleus. We observed increased protein expression of the NR2B NMDA receptor subunit and its associated intracellular protein, PSD95, in the dorsomedial thalamus of patients with schizophrenia, but the other molecules were unchanged, and we found no changes in the ventral thalamus. These data provide additional evidence of thalamic neurochemical abnormalities, particularly in thalamic nuclei which project to limbic regions of the brain. Further, these findings provide additional evidence of NMDA receptor alterations in schizophrenia, which may play an important role in the neurobiology of the illness.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
21J. Comp. Neurol. 2006 Jul 497: 436-50
PMID16736468
TitleDISC1 immunoreactivity at the light and ultrastructural level in the human neocortex.
AbstractDisrupted-In-schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) is one of two genes that straddle the chromosome 1 breakpoint of a translocation associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia. DISC1 has been identified in the brain of various mammalian species, but no previous immunocytochemical studies have been conducted in human neocortex. We examined DISC1 immunoreactivity in frontal and parietal cortex (BA 4, 9, 39, and 46) in normal human brain. At the light microscopic level, immunolabeling was prominent in the neuropil, in multiple populations of cells, and in the white matter. At the ultrastructural level, staining was prominent in structures associated with synaptic function. Immunolabeled axon terminals comprised 8% of all terminals and formed both asymmetric and symmetric synapses. Labeled axon terminals formed synapses with labeled spines and dendrites; in some, only the postsynaptic density (PSD) of the postsynaptic structure was labeled. The most common configuration, however, was an unlabeled axon terminal forming an asymmetric synapse with a spine that had immunoreactivity deposited on the PSD and throughout the spine. The presence of DISC1 in multiple types of synapses suggests the involvement of DISC1 in corticocortical as well as thalamocortical connections. Staining was also present in ribosomes, parts of the chromatin, in dendritic shafts, and on some microtubules. Labeling was absent from the Golgi apparatus and multivesicular bodies, which are associated with protein excretion. These anatomical localization data suggest that DISC1 participates in synaptic activity and microtubule function, and are consistent with the limited data on its adult function.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
22Curr Top Med Chem 2006 -1 6: 663-86
PMID16719808
TitleNMDA receptors are not alone: dynamic regulation of NMDA receptor structure and function by neuregulins and transient cholesterol-rich membrane domains leads to disease-specific nuances of glutamate-signalling.
AbstractGlutamate receptors of the N-methyl-D-asparate (NMDA-) subtype are tetrameric allosteric and ligand-gated calcium channels. They are modulated by a variety of endogenous ligands and ions and play a pivotal role in memory-related signal transduction due to a voltage-dependent block by magnesium, which makes them Hebbian coincidence detectors. On the structural level NMDA receptors have an enormous flexibility due to seven genes (NR1, NR2A-D and NR3A-B), alternative splicing, RNA-editing and extensive posttranslational modifications, like phosphorylation and glycosylation. NMDA receptors are thought to be responsible for excitotoxicity and subsequent downstream events like neuroinflammation and apoptosis and thus have been implicated in many important human pathologies, ranging from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer's and Parkinson' disease, depression, epilepsy, trauma and stroke to schizophrenia. This fundamental significance of NMDA receptor-related excitotoxicity is discussed in the context of the developing clinical success of Memantine, but moreover set into relation to various proteomic and genetic markers of said diseases. The very complex localisational and functional regulation of NMDA receptors appears to be dependent on neuregulins and receptor tyrosine kinases in cholesterol-rich membrane domains (lipid rafts), calcium-related mitochondrial feedback-loops and subsynaptic structural elements like PSD-95 (post-synaptic density protein of 95 kD). The flexibility and multitude of interaction partners and possibilities of these highly dynamic molecular systems are discussed in terms of drug development strategies, in particular comparing high affinity and sub-type specific ligands to currently successful or promising therapies.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
23Mol. Psychiatry 2006 Aug 11: 737-47, 705
PMID16702973
TitleChanges in NMDA receptor subunits and interacting PSD proteins in dorsolateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex indicate abnormal regional expression in schizophrenia.
AbstractAbnormal expression of the N-methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) receptor and its interacting molecules of the postsynaptic density (PSD) are thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Frontal regions of neocortex including dorsolateral prefrontal (DLPFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) are essential for cognitive and behavioral functions that are affected in schizophrenia. In this study, we have measured protein expression of two alternatively spliced isoforms of the NR1 subunit (NR1C2 and NR1C2') as well as expression of the NR2A-D subunits of the NMDA receptor in DLPFC and ACC in post-mortem samples from elderly schizophrenic patients and a comparison group. We found significantly increased expression of NR1C2' but not of NR1C2 in ACC, suggesting altered NMDA receptor cell membrane expression in this cortical area. We did not find significant changes in the expression of either of the NR1 isoforms in DLPFC. We did not detect changes of any of the NR2 subunits studied in either cortical area. In addition, we studied expression of the NMDA-interacting PSD molecules NF-L, SAP102, PSD-95 and PSD-93 in ACC and DLPFC at both transcriptional and translational levels. We found significant changes in the expression of NF-L in DLPFC, and PSD-95 and PSD-93 in ACC; increased transcript expression was associated with decreased protein expression, suggesting abnormal translation and/or accelerated protein degradation of these molecules in schizophrenia. Our findings suggest abnormal regional processing of the NMDA receptor and its associated PSD molecules, possibly involving transcription, translation, trafficking and protein stability in cortical areas in schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
24Mol. Psychiatry 2006 Aug 11: 737-47, 705
PMID16702973
TitleChanges in NMDA receptor subunits and interacting PSD proteins in dorsolateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex indicate abnormal regional expression in schizophrenia.
AbstractAbnormal expression of the N-methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) receptor and its interacting molecules of the postsynaptic density (PSD) are thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Frontal regions of neocortex including dorsolateral prefrontal (DLPFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) are essential for cognitive and behavioral functions that are affected in schizophrenia. In this study, we have measured protein expression of two alternatively spliced isoforms of the NR1 subunit (NR1C2 and NR1C2') as well as expression of the NR2A-D subunits of the NMDA receptor in DLPFC and ACC in post-mortem samples from elderly schizophrenic patients and a comparison group. We found significantly increased expression of NR1C2' but not of NR1C2 in ACC, suggesting altered NMDA receptor cell membrane expression in this cortical area. We did not find significant changes in the expression of either of the NR1 isoforms in DLPFC. We did not detect changes of any of the NR2 subunits studied in either cortical area. In addition, we studied expression of the NMDA-interacting PSD molecules NF-L, SAP102, PSD-95 and PSD-93 in ACC and DLPFC at both transcriptional and translational levels. We found significant changes in the expression of NF-L in DLPFC, and PSD-95 and PSD-93 in ACC; increased transcript expression was associated with decreased protein expression, suggesting abnormal translation and/or accelerated protein degradation of these molecules in schizophrenia. Our findings suggest abnormal regional processing of the NMDA receptor and its associated PSD molecules, possibly involving transcription, translation, trafficking and protein stability in cortical areas in schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
25Expert Rev Neurother 2007 Jan 7: 29-31
PMID17187494
TitleSchizophrenia: more evidence for less glutamate.
AbstractEvaluation of: Hahn CJ, Hoau-Yan W, Dan-Sung C et al. Altered neuregulin 1-erbB4 signaling contributes to NMDA receptor hypofunction in schizophrenia. Nat. Med. 12, 824-828 (2006). schizophrenia may be associated with deficits in glutamate transmission at the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor complex. Recent work has shown that neuregulin 1 (NRG1) acts via ErbB4 receptors to inhibit NMDA receptor currents. This is important given that NRG1 is a convincing susceptibility gene in schizophrenia. Hahn and colleagues add to our knowledge of NRG1 modulation of NMDA receptors and show intriguing differences between control and schizophrenic brains. NMDA receptors in the schizophrenic prefrontal cortex showed smaller responses to exogenously applied NMDA/glycine. Furthermore, NMDA receptors in tissue from schizophrenic patients appeared to be more sensitive to the inhibitory effects of a fixed dose of NRG1. In agreement, the ErbB4-PSD-95-NMDA complex was more tightly coupled in schizophrenic brains and NRG1-mediated stimulation of ErbB4 was markedly enhanced. These findings underscore the importance of NMDA receptors in schizophrenia and support therapeutic strategies aimed at boosting glutamate transmission.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
26Expert Rev Neurother 2007 Jan 7: 29-31
PMID17187494
TitleSchizophrenia: more evidence for less glutamate.
AbstractEvaluation of: Hahn CJ, Hoau-Yan W, Dan-Sung C et al. Altered neuregulin 1-erbB4 signaling contributes to NMDA receptor hypofunction in schizophrenia. Nat. Med. 12, 824-828 (2006). schizophrenia may be associated with deficits in glutamate transmission at the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor complex. Recent work has shown that neuregulin 1 (NRG1) acts via ErbB4 receptors to inhibit NMDA receptor currents. This is important given that NRG1 is a convincing susceptibility gene in schizophrenia. Hahn and colleagues add to our knowledge of NRG1 modulation of NMDA receptors and show intriguing differences between control and schizophrenic brains. NMDA receptors in the schizophrenic prefrontal cortex showed smaller responses to exogenously applied NMDA/glycine. Furthermore, NMDA receptors in tissue from schizophrenic patients appeared to be more sensitive to the inhibitory effects of a fixed dose of NRG1. In agreement, the ErbB4-PSD-95-NMDA complex was more tightly coupled in schizophrenic brains and NRG1-mediated stimulation of ErbB4 was markedly enhanced. These findings underscore the importance of NMDA receptors in schizophrenia and support therapeutic strategies aimed at boosting glutamate transmission.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
27Drugs Today 2007 Sep 43: 645-54
PMID17940640
TitlePostsynaptic density: a key convergent site for schizophrenia susceptibility factors and possible target for drug development.
AbstractMany studies have supported roles for both genetic and environmental factors in the etiology of schizophrenia. A major hypothesis at present is that schizophrenia is a polygenic disorder where alterations in a set of genes lead to impaired neurodevelopment, which in turn results in altered neurotransmission. Several neurotransmitters, including glutamate, dopamine, serotonin and gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA), have been implicated in schizophrenia, and, as such, there is a growing interest in trying to elucidate the mechanisms whereby alterations in the function of schizophrenia susceptibility gene products can lead to disturbance in signaling at synapses. In this article, we will summarize what is known about schizophrenia susceptibility factors that reside at postsynaptic density (PSD), a unique postsynaptic site where signals from neurotransmitters converge. PSD may be a promising target for novel classes of drugs to treat schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
28J Neural Transm (Vienna) 2007 -1 114: 423-6
PMID17093888
TitleAssociation study of polymorphisms in post-synaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95) with schizophrenia.
AbstractThe postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95) - the prototype of this family - is a modular protein that enables anchoring of NMDA receptors, modulates NMDA receptor sensitivity to glutamate and coordinates NMDA receptor-related intracellular processes. Since hypofunction of NMDA receptors has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, we explored the hypothesis that genetic variants of the PSD-95 gene were associated with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Three PSD-95 polymorphisms were studied in a sample population of 248 people with schizophrenia and 208 normal controls. One polymorphism (rs373339) was not informative in our Chinese population while the other two polymorphisms (rs2521985 and rs17203281) were analysed with chi-square tests and haplotype analysis. Results demonstrated that the two informative polymorphisms are in strong linkage disequilibrium with each other. Neither single marker nor haplotype analysis revealed an association between variants at the PSD-95 locus and schizophrenia, suggesting that it is unlikely that the PSD-95 polymorphisms investigated play a substantial role in conferring susceptibility to schizophrenia in the Chinese population. Further genetic studies in schizophrenia with other PSD-95-like molecules that interact with the glutamate system are suggested.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
29Schizophr. Res. 2007 Nov 96: 246-56
PMID17719205
TitleA reduced number of cortical neurons show increased Caldendrin protein levels in chronic schizophrenia.
AbstractCaldendrin is a neuronal calcium sensor protein that is tightly associated with the postsynaptic density (PSD) of excitatory synapses. It has an established role in synapto-dendritic Ca(2+)-signaling as a multifunctional regulator of intracellular Ca(2+) levels. Previous work has shown that expression levels of protein components involved in signaling processes at excitatory synapses are significantly altered in the brains of schizophrenic patients. Furthermore, it is widely accepted that synaptic pathology associated with the glutamatergic N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor is a feature of the disease. Here we report that in postmortem brains of chronic schizophrenics (N: 12) as compared to age-and sex-matched controls (N: 12) the number of Caldendrin-immunoreactive neurons are significantly reduced in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, a brain region prominently associated with schizophrenia. Less dramatic changes were observed in other cortical regions. However, despite the reduced number of immunoreactive neurons, absolute Caldendrin protein levels were elevated and no change in Caldendrin PSD-levels were observed as compared to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in the normal human brain. Thus, synapto-dendritic Ca(2+)-signaling via Caldendrin is altered in schizophrenic patients by a redistribution of the protein into a lower number of pyramidal neurons, which express higher Caldendrin levels. Since Caldendrin is a multivalent regulator of voltage dependent Ca(2+)-channels and Ca(2+)-release channels the loss of Caldendrin mediated synapto-dendritic Ca(2+)-signaling processes in some neurons together with its concurrent upregulation in others should profoundly change their synapto-dendritic Ca(2+)-signaling. These observations add to existing evidence for a de-regulation of neuronal Ca(2+)-signaling in schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
30Schizophr. Res. 2007 Nov 96: 246-56
PMID17719205
TitleA reduced number of cortical neurons show increased Caldendrin protein levels in chronic schizophrenia.
AbstractCaldendrin is a neuronal calcium sensor protein that is tightly associated with the postsynaptic density (PSD) of excitatory synapses. It has an established role in synapto-dendritic Ca(2+)-signaling as a multifunctional regulator of intracellular Ca(2+) levels. Previous work has shown that expression levels of protein components involved in signaling processes at excitatory synapses are significantly altered in the brains of schizophrenic patients. Furthermore, it is widely accepted that synaptic pathology associated with the glutamatergic N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor is a feature of the disease. Here we report that in postmortem brains of chronic schizophrenics (N: 12) as compared to age-and sex-matched controls (N: 12) the number of Caldendrin-immunoreactive neurons are significantly reduced in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, a brain region prominently associated with schizophrenia. Less dramatic changes were observed in other cortical regions. However, despite the reduced number of immunoreactive neurons, absolute Caldendrin protein levels were elevated and no change in Caldendrin PSD-levels were observed as compared to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in the normal human brain. Thus, synapto-dendritic Ca(2+)-signaling via Caldendrin is altered in schizophrenic patients by a redistribution of the protein into a lower number of pyramidal neurons, which express higher Caldendrin levels. Since Caldendrin is a multivalent regulator of voltage dependent Ca(2+)-channels and Ca(2+)-release channels the loss of Caldendrin mediated synapto-dendritic Ca(2+)-signaling processes in some neurons together with its concurrent upregulation in others should profoundly change their synapto-dendritic Ca(2+)-signaling. These observations add to existing evidence for a de-regulation of neuronal Ca(2+)-signaling in schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
31Schizophr. Res. 2007 Nov 96: 246-56
PMID17719205
TitleA reduced number of cortical neurons show increased Caldendrin protein levels in chronic schizophrenia.
AbstractCaldendrin is a neuronal calcium sensor protein that is tightly associated with the postsynaptic density (PSD) of excitatory synapses. It has an established role in synapto-dendritic Ca(2+)-signaling as a multifunctional regulator of intracellular Ca(2+) levels. Previous work has shown that expression levels of protein components involved in signaling processes at excitatory synapses are significantly altered in the brains of schizophrenic patients. Furthermore, it is widely accepted that synaptic pathology associated with the glutamatergic N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor is a feature of the disease. Here we report that in postmortem brains of chronic schizophrenics (N: 12) as compared to age-and sex-matched controls (N: 12) the number of Caldendrin-immunoreactive neurons are significantly reduced in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, a brain region prominently associated with schizophrenia. Less dramatic changes were observed in other cortical regions. However, despite the reduced number of immunoreactive neurons, absolute Caldendrin protein levels were elevated and no change in Caldendrin PSD-levels were observed as compared to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in the normal human brain. Thus, synapto-dendritic Ca(2+)-signaling via Caldendrin is altered in schizophrenic patients by a redistribution of the protein into a lower number of pyramidal neurons, which express higher Caldendrin levels. Since Caldendrin is a multivalent regulator of voltage dependent Ca(2+)-channels and Ca(2+)-release channels the loss of Caldendrin mediated synapto-dendritic Ca(2+)-signaling processes in some neurons together with its concurrent upregulation in others should profoundly change their synapto-dendritic Ca(2+)-signaling. These observations add to existing evidence for a de-regulation of neuronal Ca(2+)-signaling in schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
32Brain Res. Bull. 2007 Jul 73: 210-9
PMID17562386
TitleRegulation of ErbB-4 endocytosis by neuregulin in GABAergic hippocampal interneurons.
AbstractNeuregulin (NRG)/ErbB receptor signaling pathways have recently been implicated in the reversal of long-term potentiation at hippocampal glutamatergic synapses. Moreover, polymorphisms in NRG-1 and ErbB-4 genes have been linked to an increased risk for developing schizophrenia. ErbB-4 is highly expressed at glutamatergic synapses where it binds to PSD-95 via its carboxyl terminal T-V-V sequence. Here we investigated the expression, localization and trafficking of ErbB-4 in cultured hippocampal neurons by immunocytochemistry, surface protein biotinylation, and live labeling of native receptors. We show that neuronal ErbB-4 is detected at its highest levels in GABAergic interneurons, as observed in vivo. ErbB-4 immunoreactivity precedes PSD-95 expression, with ErbB-4 cluster initially forming in the absence of, but later associating with, PSD-95-positive puncta. By surface protein biotinylation, the fraction of ErbB-4 receptors on the plasma membrane increases from 30% to 65% between 6 and 16 days in vitro (DIV). Interestingly, 30 min of NRG stimulation triggers measurable ErbB-4 receptor internalization at DIV 16, despite increased colocalization with PSD-95. We also investigated the role of TNFalpha-converting enzyme (TACE)-mediated receptor processing in regulating ErbB-4 surface expression. We found that the cleavage-resistant JM-b isoform accounts for 80% of all ErbB-4 transcripts in cultured hippocampal neurons. Receptor stimulation or treatment with phorbol esters does not induce detectable ErbB-4 processing, indicating that neurons mostly rely on endocytosis of the intact receptor to regulate ErbB-4 surface expression. These results enhance our understanding of the regulation of ErbB-4--mediated signaling at glutamatergic synapses.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
33Neurosci. Lett. 2007 Apr 416: 1-5
PMID17317002
TitleKetamine-related expression of glutamatergic postsynaptic density genes: possible implications in psychosis.
AbstractSystemic administration of ketamine, a non-competitive antagonist of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R), produces a condition of NMDA-R hypofunction, which is considered one of the putative molecular mechanisms involved in psychosis. In this study, we evaluated the effect of ketamine on glutamatergic markers of the postsynaptic density (PSD), a pivotal site for dopamine-glutamate interaction. We assessed gene expression of Homer1a, alpha and betaCaMKII, and dopamine transporter (DAT) by two different doses of ketamine. These genes were chosen because of their impact on signal transduction and dopamine-glutamate interplay in postsynaptic density. Moreover, Homer1a is modulated by antipsychotics and represents a candidate gene for schizophrenia. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with saline, 12mg/kg ketamine or 50mg/kg ketamine, and sacrificed 90 minutes after injections. In situ hybridization histochemistry was used to quantitate the rate of gene expression in rat forebrain. Homer1a was induced by 50mg/kg ketamine in ventral striatum and by both 50 and 12mg/kg ketamine in nucleus accumbens, whereas gene expression was not affected in dorsal striatum. alphaCaMKII was increased by 12mg/kg ketamine against saline in almost all subregions assessed. betaCaMKII was not affected by ketamine. DAT was increased by both doses of ketamine in the ventro-tegmental area and substantia nigra pars compacta. We suggest that these changes may represent molecular adaptations to the perturbation in glutamatergic transmission induced by ketamine blockade of NMDA receptors and may be implicated in molecular alterations occurring in schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
34Brain Res. 2007 Jan 1127: 108-18
PMID17113057
TitleDecreased NR1, NR2A, and SAP102 transcript expression in the hippocampus in bipolar disorder.
Abstractschizophrenia is associated with dysfunction of glutamatergic neurotransmission, and several studies have suggested glutamatergic abnormalities in bipolar disorder. Recent data suggest involvement of the NMDA receptor signaling complex, which includes NMDA receptor subunits as well as associated intracellular interacting proteins critical for NMDA receptor assembly, trafficking, and activation; the most well-characterized being PSD93, PSD95, SAP102, and NF-L. Previously, studies from our laboratories have described changes in glutamate receptor subunit transcript and binding site expression in schizophrenia and changes in NMDA receptor binding site expression in bipolar disorder in postmortem brain tissue. In the present work, we focus on the expression of these molecules in hippocampus in schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder I.
We performed in situ hybridization to assess hippocampal expression of the transcripts encoding NMDA receptor subunits NR1, 2A, 2B, 2C and 2D, and the transcripts for the NMDA receptor associated PSD proteins PSD95, PSD93, NF-L, and SAP102 in subjects with schizophrenia, bipolar affective disorder I, and a comparison group. We also measured [(3)H]CGP39653 and [(3)H]MK-801 binding site expression in the hippocampus in schizophrenia.
There was a significant decrease in the expression of transcripts for NR1 and NR2A subunits and SAP102 in bipolar disorder. We did not detect any changes in these transcripts or in binding site expression in the hippocampus in schizophrenia.
We propose that the NMDA receptor signaling complex, including the intracellular machinery that is coupled to the NMDA receptor subunits, is abnormal in the hippocampus in bipolar disorder. These data suggest that bipolar disorder might be associated with abnormalities of glutamate-linked intracellular signaling and trafficking processes.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
35Neuropsychopharmacology 2008 Aug 33: 2175-86
PMID18033238
TitleLamina-specific abnormalities of NMDA receptor-associated postsynaptic protein transcripts in the prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
AbstractThe hypothesis of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor hypofunction in schizophrenia was initially based on observations that blockade of the NMDA subtype of glutamate receptor by noncompetitive antagonists, such as phencyclidine and ketamine, can lead to clinical symptoms similar to those present in schizophrenia. Recently, glutamate has also been implicated in the pathophysiology of the mood disorders. As impaired NMDA receptor activity may be the result of a primary defect in the NMDA receptors themselves, or secondary to dysfunction in the protein complexes that mediate their signaling, we measured expression of both NMDA subunits and associated postsynaptic density (PSD) proteins (PSD95, neurofilament-light (NF-L), and SAP102) transcripts in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in subjects with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depression, and a comparison group using tissue from the Stanley Foundation Neuropathology Consortium. We found decreased NR1 expression in all three illnesses, decreased NR2A in schizophrenia and major depression, and decreased NR2C in schizophrenia. We found no changes of NR2B or NR2D. Receptor autoradiography revealed no alterations in receptor binding in any of the illnesses, indicating no change in total receptor number, but taken with the subunit data suggests abnormal receptor stoichiometry. In the same subjects, PSD95 was unchanged in all three illnesses, while reduced NF-L expression was found in schizophrenia, especially in large cells of layer V. SAP102 expression was reduced in bipolar disorder restricted to small cells of layer II and large cells of layer III in bipolar disorder. These alterations likely reflect altered signaling cascades associated with glutamate-mediated neurotransmission within specific cortical circuits in these psychiatric illnesses.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
36PLoS ONE 2009 -1 4: e7461
PMID19829704
TitleGeneration and characterization of conditional heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor knockout mice.
AbstractRecently, neurotrophic factors and cytokines have been shown to be associated in psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depression. Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) is a member of the EGF family, serves as a neurotrophic molecular and plays a significant role in the brain. We generated mice in which HB-EGF activity is disrupted specifically in the ventral forebrain. These knockout mice showed (a) behavioral abnormalities similar to those described in psychiatric disorders, which were ameliorated by typical or atypical antipsychotics, (b) altered dopamine and serotonin levels in the brain, (c) decreases in spine density in neurons of the prefrontal cortex, (d) reductions in the protein levels of the NR1 subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor and post-synaptic protein-95 (PSD-95), (e) decreases in the EGF receptor, and in the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK II) signal cascade. These results suggest the alterations affecting HB-EGF signaling could comprise a contributing factor in psychiatric disorder.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
37Mol. Cell. Neurosci. 2009 Sep 42: 1-10
PMID19467332
TitleThe NGL family of leucine-rich repeat-containing synaptic adhesion molecules.
AbstractCell adhesion molecules at neuronal synapses regulate diverse aspects of synaptic development, including axo-dendritic contact establishment, early synapse formation, and synaptic maturation. Recent studies have identified several synaptogenic adhesion molecules. The NGL (netrin-G ligand; LRRC4) family of synaptic cell adhesion molecules belongs to the superfamily of leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins. The three known members of the NGL family, NGL-1, NGL-2, and NGL-3, are mainly localized to the postsynaptic side of excitatory synapses, and interact with the presynaptic ligands, netrin-G1, netrin-G2, and LAR, respectively. NGLs interact with the abundant postsynaptic density (PSD) protein, PSD-95, and other postsynaptic proteins, including NMDA receptors. These interactions are thought to couple synaptic adhesion events to the assembly of synaptic proteins. In addition, NGL proteins regulate axonal outgrowth and lamina-specific dendritic segmentation, suggesting that the NGL-dependent adhesion system is important for the development of axons, dendrites, and synapses. Consistent with these functions, defects in NGLs and their ligands are associated with impaired learning and memory, hyperactivity, and an abnormal acoustic startle response in transgenic mice, and schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and Rett syndrome in human patients.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
38Mol. Syst. Biol. 2009 -1 5: 269
PMID19455133
TitleTargeted tandem affinity purification of PSD-95 recovers core postsynaptic complexes and schizophrenia susceptibility proteins.
AbstractThe molecular complexity of mammalian proteomes demands new methods for mapping the organization of multiprotein complexes. Here, we combine mouse genetics and proteomics to characterize synapse protein complexes and interaction networks. New tandem affinity purification (TAP) tags were fused to the carboxyl terminus of PSD-95 using gene targeting in mice. Homozygous mice showed no detectable abnormalities in PSD-95 expression, subcellular localization or synaptic electrophysiological function. Analysis of multiprotein complexes purified under native conditions by mass spectrometry defined known and new interactors: 118 proteins comprising crucial functional components of synapses, including glutamate receptors, K+ channels, scaffolding and signaling proteins, were recovered. Network clustering of protein interactions generated five connected clusters, with two clusters containing all the major ionotropic glutamate receptors and one cluster with voltage-dependent K+ channels. Annotation of clusters with human disease associations revealed that multiple disorders map to the network, with a significant correlation of schizophrenia within the glutamate receptor clusters. This targeted TAP tagging strategy is generally applicable to mammalian proteomics and systems biology approaches to disease.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
39Neurochem. Res. 2009 Aug 34: 1405-9
PMID19224364
TitleAltered postsynaptic-density-levels of caldendrin in the para-chloroamphetamine-induced serotonin syndrome but not in the rat ketamine model of psychosis.
AbstractCaldendrin is a synaptic calcium sensor protein that is tightly associated with the postsynaptic density (PSD). Previous work has shown that the association of the protein with the synapse is highly dynamic and is increased in an activity-dependent manner. In the present study the caldendrin-association with the postsynaptic cytomatrix was analyzed in animal models of psychosis and drug abuse induced neurotoxicity. Subchronic administration of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-receptor antagonist ketamine, serving as a model of NMDA-receptor hypofunction and schizophrenia showed no significant effect on the PSD-levels of caldendrin, indicating that NMDA-receptor activity is not required to keep caldendrin at the synapse. However, administration of high doses of the serotonergic neurotoxin p-chloroamphetamine (PCA) lead to significant changes in the association of caldendrin with the PSD. These results underscore the dynamic association of caldendrin with the PSD and suggest a role of this synaptic calcium sensor in the PCA-induced serotonin syndrome.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
40Neuroscience 2009 Dec 164: 463-9
PMID19723560
TitleFunctional differences between D(1) and D(5) revealed by high resolution imaging on live neurons.
AbstractThe interaction between the dopaminergic and glutamatergic systems governs normal behavior and is perturbed in many psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. Hypofunction of the D1 family of receptors, to which the D(1) and D(5) subtypes belong, is a typical feature of schizophrenia. Here we have used confocal live cell imaging of neurons to examine the distinct roles of the D(1) and D(5) receptors in the intra-neuronal interaction with the glutamatergic system. Using fluorescently tagged D(1) or D(5) expressed in cultured striatal neurons, we show that both receptor subtypes are primarily transported via lateral diffusion in the dendritic tree. D(1) is to a much larger extent than D(5) expressed in spines. D(1) is primarily expressed in the head whereas D(5) is largely localized to the neck of the spine. Activation of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors slowed the diffusion rate and increased the number of D(1) positive spines, while no effect on D(5) diffusion or spine localization could be observed. The observed differences between D(1) and D(5) can be attributed to structural differences in the C-terminus and its capacity to interact with NMDA receptors and PSD-95. Identification of a unique role of D(1) for the intra-neuronal interaction between the dopaminergic and glutamatergic systems will have implications for the development of more specific treatments in many neuropsychiatric disorders.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
41Nihon Arukoru Yakubutsu Igakkai Zasshi 2010 Apr 45: 92-103
PMID20486561
Title[Two methods of support for methamphetamine concurrent disorder--comparison of "schizophrenia support" model and "dependence support" model].
AbstractThe coexistence of methamphetamine use disorder (MUD) and psychotic disorder (PSD) is common in clinical settings. These cases are defined as methamphetamine concurrent disorder (MCD). It is often hard to decide which type of support is suitable for a MCD case; the one used for schizophrenics ("schizophrenia-support" model) or for drug addicts ("dependence-support" model). In the present study, we compare the courses of two MCD cases; one was supported using the "schizophrenia-support" model, and the other by the "dependence-support" model. These cases suggest that it is preferable to switch the models from one to the other, based on the severity of dependence. After stabilizing the patient's life through the use of at least three to six months of pharmacotherapy and psychiatric rehabilitation, we can recommend that the patient attend self-help meetings convenient for them. If the MCD patient has no risk of methamphetamine use, the hospital should play a major role to urge the health and the welfare facilities to support the patient. If the patient has some risk of relapse or criminal behavior, the legal system as well as medical and welfare facilities should play the major roles to present suitable services and to prepare an appropriate care-system.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
42Nihon Arukoru Yakubutsu Igakkai Zasshi 2010 Apr 45: 92-103
PMID20486561
Title[Two methods of support for methamphetamine concurrent disorder--comparison of "schizophrenia support" model and "dependence support" model].
AbstractThe coexistence of methamphetamine use disorder (MUD) and psychotic disorder (PSD) is common in clinical settings. These cases are defined as methamphetamine concurrent disorder (MCD). It is often hard to decide which type of support is suitable for a MCD case; the one used for schizophrenics ("schizophrenia-support" model) or for drug addicts ("dependence-support" model). In the present study, we compare the courses of two MCD cases; one was supported using the "schizophrenia-support" model, and the other by the "dependence-support" model. These cases suggest that it is preferable to switch the models from one to the other, based on the severity of dependence. After stabilizing the patient's life through the use of at least three to six months of pharmacotherapy and psychiatric rehabilitation, we can recommend that the patient attend self-help meetings convenient for them. If the MCD patient has no risk of methamphetamine use, the hospital should play a major role to urge the health and the welfare facilities to support the patient. If the patient has some risk of relapse or criminal behavior, the legal system as well as medical and welfare facilities should play the major roles to present suitable services and to prepare an appropriate care-system.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
43Psychopharmacology (Berl.) 2010 Oct 212: 329-44
PMID20652539
TitleDivergent acute and chronic modulation of glutamatergic postsynaptic density genes expression by the antipsychotics haloperidol and sertindole.
AbstractA pivotal role for glutamate in the pathophysiology and treatment of schizophrenia has been suggested. Few reports have investigated the impact of antipsychotics on postsynaptic density (PSD) molecules involved in glutamatergic transmission and synaptic remodeling. Homer is a key PSD molecule putatively implicated in schizophrenia.
We studied the effect, in acute and chronic paradigms, of a first and a second generation antipsychotic (haloperidol and sertindole, respectively) on the expression of Homer1a and Homer-interacting PSD molecules.
In the acute paradigm, Homer1a expression was induced by haloperidol but not sertindole in the striatum, consistent with the less propensity of sertindole to affect nigrostriatal neurotransmission. The profile of expression of two other inducible genes, Ania3 and Arc, was highly similar to Homer1a. In the cortex, haloperidol reduced Homer1a and induced Ania3. In the chronic paradigm, striatal expression of Homer1a and Ania3 resembled that observed in the acute paradigm. In the cortex, haloperidol induced Homer1a, while sertindole did not. Homer1b expression was increased by haloperidol in the striatum and cortex whereas sertindole selectively induced Homer1b in the cortex. The expression of mGluR5 was increased by both antipsychotics. A modulation by haloperidol was also seen for PSD-95 and ?CaMKII.
These results suggest that haloperidol and sertindole may significantly modulate glutamatergic transcripts of the postsynaptic density. Sertindole induces constitutive genes in the cortex predominantly, which may correlate with its propensity to improve cognitive functions. Haloperidol preferentially modulates gene expression in the striatum, consistent with its action at nigrostriatal projections and its propensity to give motor side effects.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
44Biol. Psychiatry 2010 Jul 68: 25-32
PMID20385374
TitleAltered cortical CDC42 signaling pathways in schizophrenia: implications for dendritic spine deficits.
AbstractSpine density on the basilar dendrites of pyramidal neurons is lower in layer 3, but not in layers 5 and 6, in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) of subjects with schizophrenia. The expression of CDC42 (cell division cycle 42), a RhoGTPase that regulates the outgrowth of the actin cytoskeleton and promotes spine formation, is also lower in schizophrenia; however, CDC42 mRNA is lower across layers 3-6, suggesting that other lamina-specific molecular alterations are critical for the spine deficits in the illness. The CDC42 effector proteins 3 and 4 (CDC42EP3, CDC42EP4) are preferentially expressed in DLPFC layers 2 and 3, and CDC42EP3 appears to assemble septin filaments in spine necks. Therefore, alterations in CDC42EP3 could contribute to the lamina-specific spine deficits in schizophrenia.
We measured transcript levels of CDC42, CDC42EP3, CDC42EP4; their interacting proteins (septins [SEPT2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 11], anillin), and other spine-specific proteins (spinophilin, PSD-95, and synaptopodin) in the DLPFC from 31 subjects with schizophrenia and matched normal comparison subjects.
The expression of CDC42EP3 mRNA was significantly increased by 19.7%, and SEPT7 mRNA was significantly decreased by 6.9% in subjects with schizophrenia. Cortical levels of CDC42EP3 and SEPT7 mRNAs were not altered in monkeys chronically exposed to antipsychotic medications.
Activated CDC42 is thought to disrupt septin filaments transiently in spine necks, allowing the molecular translocations required for synaptic potentiation. Thus, altered CDC42 signaling via CDC42EP3 may perturb synaptic plasticity and contribute to the spine deficits observed in layer 3 pyramidal neurons in schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
45Synapse 2010 Jul 64: 495-502
PMID20175224
TitleExpression of the NR2B-NMDA receptor subunit and its Tbr-1/CINAP regulatory proteins in postmortem brain suggest altered receptor processing in schizophrenia.
AbstractSeveral lines of evidence implicate aberrant glutamate neurotransmission in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. In particular, compromised signaling through the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor has been linked to positive, negative, and cognitive symptoms of this illness. Studies in postmortem brain have identified altered expression of several structural and signaling molecules of the postsynaptic density (PSD), including the abundantly expressed protein PSD-95, which binds directly to NR2 subunits of the NMDA receptor and regulates its trafficking, membrane expression, and downstream signaling. Several mechanisms for functional regulation of the NR2B-containing NMDA receptor, which have been linked to cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia, are well known. To analyze whether early events in NR2B processing are affected in schizophrenia, we have isolated a subcellular endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-enriched fraction from postmortem brain and analyzed expression of the NR1 and NR2B NMDA receptor subunits as well as PSD-95 in two areas of prefrontal cortex. We found significantly decreased ER expression of NR2B and PSD-95 in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia. Analysis in total-cell homogenates from the same subjects of NR2B and PSD-95 expression, as well as of the CINAP and Tbr-1 transcription regulatory proteins, indicate that changes in NR2B processing in schizophrenia involve increased ER exit of NR2B containing NMDA receptors.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
46PLoS ONE 2011 -1 6: e29283
PMID22216231
TitleCatechol-O-methyltransferase Val158Met polymorphism associates with individual differences in sleep physiologic responses to chronic sleep loss.
AbstractThe COMT Val158Met polymorphism modulates cortical dopaminergic catabolism, and predicts individual differences in prefrontal executive functioning in healthy adults and schizophrenic patients, and associates with EEG differences during sleep loss. We assessed whether the COMT Val158Met polymorphism was a novel marker in healthy adults of differential vulnerability to chronic partial sleep deprivation (PSD), a condition distinct from total sleep loss and one experienced by millions on a daily and persistent basis.
20 Met/Met, 64 Val/Met, and 45 Val/Val subjects participated in a protocol of two baseline 10h time in bed (TIB) nights followed by five consecutive 4 h TIB nights. Met/Met subjects showed differentially steeper declines in non-REM EEG slow-wave energy (SWE)-the putative homeostatic marker of sleep drive-during PSD, despite comparable baseline SWE declines. Val/Val subjects showed differentially smaller increases in slow-wave sleep and smaller reductions in stage 2 sleep during PSD, and had more stage 1 sleep across nights and a shorter baseline REM sleep latency. The genotypes, however, did not differ in performance across various executive function and cognitive tasks and showed comparable increases in subjective and physiological sleepiness in response to chronic sleep loss. Met/Met genotypic and Met allelic frequencies were higher in whites than African Americans.
The COMT Val158Met polymorphism may be a genetic biomarker for predicting individual differences in sleep physiology-but not in cognitive and executive functioning-resulting from sleep loss in a healthy, racially-diverse adult population of men and women. Beyond healthy sleepers, our results may also provide insight for predicting sleep loss responses in patients with schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders, since these groups repeatedly experience chronically-curtailed sleep and demonstrate COMT-related treatment responses and risk factors for symptom exacerbation.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
47Mol. Cell. Neurosci. 2011 Jun 47: 93-9
PMID21440632
TitleKnockdown of mental disorder susceptibility genes disrupts neuronal network physiology in vitro.
Abstractschizophrenia and bipolar disorder are common diseases caused by multiple genes that disrupt brain circuits. While great progress has been made in identifying schizophrenia susceptibility genes, these studies have left two major unanswered mechanistic questions: is there a core biochemical mechanism that these genes regulate, and what are the electrophysiological consequences of the altered gene expression? Because clinical studies implicate abnormalities in neuronal networks, we developed a system for studying the neurophysiology of neuronal networks in vitro where the role of candidate disease genes can be rapidly assayed. Using this system we focused on three postsynaptic proteins DISC1, TNIK and PSD-93/DLG2 each of which is encoded by a schizophrenia susceptibility gene. We also examined the utility of this assay system in bipolar disorder (BD), which has a strong genetic overlap with schizophrenia, by examining the bipolar disorder susceptibility gene Dctn5. The global neuronal network firing behavior of primary cultures of mouse hippocampus neurons was examined on multi-electrode arrays (MEAs) and genes of interest were knocked down using RNAi interference. Measurement of multiple neural network parameters demonstrated phenotypes for these genes compared with controls. Moreover, the different genes disrupted network properties and showed distinct and overlapping effects. These data show multiple susceptibility genes for complex psychiatric disorders, regulate neural network physiology and demonstrate a new assay system with wide application.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
48J. Neurosci. 2011 Jan 31: 15-25
PMID21209185
TitleNeuregulin 1 promotes excitatory synapse development and function in GABAergic interneurons.
AbstractNeuregulin 1 (NRG1) and its receptor ErbB4 are both susceptibility genes of schizophrenia. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms of their malfunction. Although ErbB4 is enriched in GABAergic interneurons, the role of NRG1 in excitatory synapse formation in these neurons remains poorly understood. We showed that NRG1 increased both the number and size of PSD-95 puncta and the frequency and amplitude of miniature EPSCs (mEPSCs) in GABAergic interneurons, indicating that NRG1 stimulates the formation of new synapses and strengthens existing synapses. In contrast, NRG1 treatment had no effect on either the number or size of excitatory synapses in glutamatergic neurons, suggesting its synaptogenic effect is specific to GABAergic interneurons. Ecto-ErbB4 treatment diminished both the number and size of excitatory synapses, suggesting that endogenous NRG1 may be critical for basal synapse formation. NRG1 could stimulate the stability of PSD-95 in the manner that requires tyrosine kinase activity of ErbB4. Finally, deletion of ErbB4 in parvalbumin-positive interneurons led to reduced frequency and amplitude of mEPSCs, providing in vivo evidence that ErbB4 is important in excitatory synaptogenesis in interneurons. Together, our findings suggested a novel synaptogenic role of NRG1 in excitatory synapse development, possibly via stabilizing PSD-95, and this effect is specific to GABAergic interneurons. In light of the association of the genes of both NRG1 and ErbB4 with schizophrenia and dysfunction of GABAergic system in this disorder, these results provide insight into its potential pathological mechanism.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
49J. Neurosci. 2011 Nov 31: 16194-207
PMID22072671
TitleDeletion of densin-180 results in abnormal behaviors associated with mental illness and reduces mGluR5 and DISC1 in the postsynaptic density fraction.
AbstractDensin is an abundant scaffold protein in the postsynaptic density (PSD) that forms a high-affinity complex with ?CaMKII and ?-actinin. To assess the function of densin, we created a mouse line with a null mutation in the gene encoding it (LRRC7). Homozygous knock-out mice display a wide variety of abnormal behaviors that are often considered endophenotypes of schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders. At the cellular level, loss of densin results in reduced levels of ?-actinin in the brain and selective reduction in the localization of mGluR5 and DISC1 in the PSD fraction, whereas the amounts of ionotropic glutamate receptors and other prominent PSD proteins are unchanged. In addition, deletion of densin results in impairment of mGluR- and NMDA receptor-dependent forms of long-term depression, alters the early dynamics of regulation of CaMKII by NMDA-type glutamate receptors, and produces a change in spine morphology. These results indicate that densin influences the function of mGluRs and CaMKII at synapses and contributes to localization of mGluR5 and DISC1 in the PSD fraction. They are consistent with the hypothesis that mutations that disrupt the organization and/or dynamics of postsynaptic signaling complexes in excitatory synapses can cause behavioral endophenotypes of mental illness.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
50Clin Ther 2011 Dec 33: 1853-67
PMID22133697
TitleZiprasidone for psychotic disorders: a meta-analysis and systematic review of the relationship between pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and clinical profile.
AbstractAmong atypical antipsychotics, ziprasidone exhibits a unique clinical profile. However, prescription rates for this medication remain among the lowest of all atypical antipsychotics.
The present meta-analysis examined premature study discontinuation (PSD) and dose-response associated with ziprasidone. Furthermore, a systematic review of the clinical pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties and tolerability of ziprasidone was conducted to explain the meta-analytic findings.
A systematic search was performed in the electronic databases PubMed and EMBASE using the key words ziprasidone, randomized, positron emission tomography, pharmacokinetic, and tolerability. This search looked for open-label or blinded studies of oral ziprasidone use in patients with psychoses (schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and/or bipolar mania) published between January 1, 1992, and February 1, 2011. Comparisons with antipsychotics for which there were <3 studies in total were excluded. PSD (all causes) was used as a measure of overall effectiveness.
Thirty-one studies were included in the final analysis. The rates of PSD were significantly higher with ziprasidone compared with olanzapine (inefficacy and all causes, P < 0.001) and risperidone (all causes, P = 0.004). In contrast, the rates of PSD due to inefficacy and adverse events were significantly lower with ziprasidone compared with quetiapine (P = 0.03) and haloperidol (P = 0.03), respectively. On dose-response analysis, the rate of all-cause PSD was significantly lower with combined 120-160 mg/d compared with placebo (P = 0.001). Low levels of hyperprolactinemia and weight gain/metabolic adverse events, and moderate extrapyramidal symptoms and corrected QT-interval prolongation were reported with ziprasidone use. Ziprasidone exposure was increased when the medication was administered with food, irrespective of fat content. Ziprasidone 120-160 mg/d was correlated with 60% to 80% occupancy in studies of D(2) binding with the administration of multiple doses. However, the same occupancy was achieved with single-dose administration at much lower doses (20-60 mg/d).
The findings from this meta-analysis and review suggest that ziprasidone 120-160 mg/d is a less effective treatment for psychotic disorders compared with olanzapine and risperidone, but that the low levels of hyperprolactinemia and weight gain/metabolic adverse events associated with ziprasidone may make it a useful option in patients in whom antipsychotics are poorly tolerated for these reasons.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
51Semin. Cell Dev. Biol. 2011 Jul 22: 492-8
PMID21736948
TitleThe SALM/Lrfn family of leucine-rich repeat-containing cell adhesion molecules.
AbstractSynaptic adhesion molecules play important roles in various stages of neuronal development, including neurite outgrowth and synapse formation. The SALM (synaptic adhesion-like molecule) family of adhesion molecules, also known as Lrfn, belongs to the superfamily of leucine-rich repeat (LRR)-containing adhesion molecules. Proteins of the SALM family, which includes five known members (SALMs 1-5), have been implicated in the regulation of neurite outgrowth and branching, and synapse formation and maturation. Despite sharing a similar domain structure, individual SALM family proteins appear to have distinct functions. SALMs 1-3 contain a C-terminal PDZ-binding motif, which interacts with PSD-95, an abundant postsynaptic scaffolding protein, whereas SALM4 and SALM5 lack PDZ binding. SALM1 directly interacts with NMDA receptors but not with AMPA receptors, whereas SALM2 associates with both NMDA and AMPA receptors. SALMs 1-3 form homo- and heteromeric complexes with each other in a cis manner, whereas SALM4 and SALM5 do not, but instead participate in homophilic, trans-cellular adhesion. SALM3 and SALM5, but not other SALMs, possess synaptogenic activity, inducing presynaptic differentiation in contacting axons. All SALMs promote neurite outgrowth, while SALM4 uniquely increases the number of primary processes extending from the cell body. In addition to these functional diversities, the fifth member of the SALM family, SALM5/Lrfn5, has recently been implicated in severe progressive autism and familial schizophrenia, pointing to the clinical importance of SALMs.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
52PLoS ONE 2011 -1 6: e16886
PMID21390302
TitleSynaptic dysbindin-1 reductions in schizophrenia occur in an isoform-specific manner indicating their subsynaptic location.
AbstractAn increasing number of studies report associations between variation in DTNBP1, a top candidate gene in schizophrenia, and both the clinical symptoms of the disorder and its cognitive deficits. DTNBP1 encodes dysbindin-1, reduced levels of which have been found in synaptic fields of schizophrenia cases. This study determined whether such synaptic reductions are isoform-specific.
Using Western blotting of tissue fractions, we first determined the synaptic localization of the three major dysbindin-1 isoforms (A, B, and C). All three were concentrated in synaptosomes of multiple brain areas, including auditory association cortices in the posterior half of the superior temporal gyrus (pSTG) and the hippocampal formation (HF). Tests on the subsynaptic tissue fractions revealed that each isoform is predominantly, if not exclusively, associated with synaptic vesicles (dysbindin-1B) or with postsynaptic densities (dysbindin-1A and -1C). Using Western blotting on pSTG (n?=?15) and HF (n?=?15) synaptosomal fractions from schizophrenia cases and their matched controls, we discovered that synaptic dysbindin-1 is reduced in an isoform-specific manner in schizophrenia without changes in levels of synaptophysin or PSD-95. In pSTG, about 92% of the schizophrenia cases displayed synaptic dysbindin-1A reductions averaging 48% (p?=?0.0007) without alterations in other dysbindin-1 isoforms. In the HF, by contrast, schizophrenia cases displayed normal levels of synaptic dysbindin-1A, but 67% showed synaptic reductions in dysbindin-1B averaging 33% (p?=?0.0256), while 80% showed synaptic reductions in dysbindin-1C averaging 35% (p?=?0.0171).
Given the distinctive subsynaptic localization of dysbindin-1A, -1B, and -1C across brain regions, the observed pSTG reductions in dysbindin-1A are postsynaptic and may promote dendritic spine loss with consequent disruption of auditory information processing, while the noted HF reductions in dysbindin-1B and -1C are both presynaptic and postsynaptic and could promote deficits in spatial working memory.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
53PLoS ONE 2011 -1 6: e29283
PMID22216231
TitleCatechol-O-methyltransferase Val158Met polymorphism associates with individual differences in sleep physiologic responses to chronic sleep loss.
AbstractThe COMT Val158Met polymorphism modulates cortical dopaminergic catabolism, and predicts individual differences in prefrontal executive functioning in healthy adults and schizophrenic patients, and associates with EEG differences during sleep loss. We assessed whether the COMT Val158Met polymorphism was a novel marker in healthy adults of differential vulnerability to chronic partial sleep deprivation (PSD), a condition distinct from total sleep loss and one experienced by millions on a daily and persistent basis.
20 Met/Met, 64 Val/Met, and 45 Val/Val subjects participated in a protocol of two baseline 10h time in bed (TIB) nights followed by five consecutive 4 h TIB nights. Met/Met subjects showed differentially steeper declines in non-REM EEG slow-wave energy (SWE)-the putative homeostatic marker of sleep drive-during PSD, despite comparable baseline SWE declines. Val/Val subjects showed differentially smaller increases in slow-wave sleep and smaller reductions in stage 2 sleep during PSD, and had more stage 1 sleep across nights and a shorter baseline REM sleep latency. The genotypes, however, did not differ in performance across various executive function and cognitive tasks and showed comparable increases in subjective and physiological sleepiness in response to chronic sleep loss. Met/Met genotypic and Met allelic frequencies were higher in whites than African Americans.
The COMT Val158Met polymorphism may be a genetic biomarker for predicting individual differences in sleep physiology-but not in cognitive and executive functioning-resulting from sleep loss in a healthy, racially-diverse adult population of men and women. Beyond healthy sleepers, our results may also provide insight for predicting sleep loss responses in patients with schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders, since these groups repeatedly experience chronically-curtailed sleep and demonstrate COMT-related treatment responses and risk factors for symptom exacerbation.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
54PLoS ONE 2012 -1 7: e35511
PMID22545112
TitleGene expression analysis implicates a death receptor pathway in schizophrenia pathology.
AbstractAn increase in apoptotic events may underlie neuropathology in schizophrenia. By data-mining approaches, we identified significant expression changes in death receptor signaling pathways in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) of patients with schizophrenia, particularly implicating the Tumor Necrosis Factor Superfamily member 6 (FAS) receptor and the Tumor Necrosis Factor [ligand] Superfamily member 13 (TNFSF13) in schizophrenia. We sought to confirm and replicate in an independent tissue collection the noted mRNA changes with quantitative real-time RT-PCR. To test for regional and diagnostic specificity, tissue from orbital frontal cortex (OFC) was examined and a bipolar disorder group included. In schizophrenia, we confirmed and replicated significantly increased expression of TNFSF13 mRNA in the DLPFC. Also, a significantly larger proportion of subjects in the schizophrenia group had elevated FAS receptor expression in the DLPFC relative to unaffected controls. These changes were not observed in the bipolar disorder group. In the OFC, there were no significant differences in TNFSF13 or FAS receptor mRNA expression. Decreases in BH3 interacting domain death agonist (BID) mRNA transcript levels were found in the schizophrenia and bipolar disorder groups affecting both the DLPFC and the OFC. We tested if TNFSF13 mRNA expression correlated with neuronal mRNAs in the DLPFC, and found significant negative correlations with interneuron markers, parvalbumin and somatostatin, and a positive correlation with PPP1R9B (spinophilin), but not DLG4 (PSD-95). The expression of TNFSF13 mRNA in DLPFC correlated negatively with tissue pH, but decreasing pH in cultured cells did not cause increased TNFSF13 mRNA nor did exogenous TNFSF13 decrease pH. We concluded that increased TNFSF13 expression may be one of several cell-death cytokine abnormalities that contribute to the observed brain pathology in schizophrenia, and while increased TNFSF13 may be associated with lower brain pH, the change is not necessarily causally related to brain pH.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
55Neural Plast. 2012 -1 2012: 728161
PMID22548195
TitleKalirin, a key player in synapse formation, is implicated in human diseases.
AbstractSynapse formation is considered to be crucial for learning and memory. Understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms of synapse formation is a key to understanding learning and memory. Kalirin-7, a major isoform of Kalirin in adult rodent brain, is an essential component of mature excitatory synapses. Kalirin-7 interacts with multiple PDZ-domain-containing proteins including PSD95, spinophilin, and GluR1 through its PDZ-binding motif. In cultured hippocampal/cortical neurons, overexpression of Kalirin-7 increases spine density and spine size whereas reduction of endogenous Kalirin-7 expression decreases synapse number, and spine density. In Kalirin-7 knockout mice, spine length, synapse number, and postsynaptic density (PSD) size are decreased in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons; these morphological alterations are accompanied by a deficiency in long-term potentiation (LTP) and a decreased spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic current (sEPSC) frequency. Human Kalirin-7, also known as Duo or Huntingtin-associated protein-interacting protein (HAPIP), is equivalent to rat Kalirin-7. Recent studies show that Kalirin is relevant to many human diseases such as Huntington's Disease, Alzheimer's Disease, ischemic stroke, schizophrenia, depression, and cocaine addiction. This paper summarizes our recent understanding of Kalirin function.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
56Mol Brain 2012 -1 5: 22
PMID22681877
TitlePrenatal activation of Toll-like receptors-3 by administration of the viral mimetic poly(I:C) changes synaptic proteins, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors and neurogenesis markers in offspring.
AbstractThere is mounting evidence for a neurodevelopmental basis for disorders such as autism and schizophrenia, in which prenatal or early postnatal events may influence brain development and predispose the young to develop these and related disorders. We have now investigated the effect of a prenatal immune challenge on brain development in the offspring. Pregnant rats were treated with the double-stranded RNA polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C); 10 mg/kg) which mimics immune activation occurring after activation of Toll-like receptors-3 (TLR3) by viral infection. Injections were made in late gestation (embryonic days E14, E16 and E18), after which parturition proceeded naturally and the young were allowed to develop up to the time of weaning at postnatal day 21 (P21). The brains of these animals were then removed to assess the expression of 13 different neurodevelopmental molecules by immunoblotting.
Measurement of cytokine levels in the maternal blood 5 hours after an injection of poly(I:C) showed significantly increased levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), confirming immune activation. In the P21 offspring, significant changes were detected in the expression of GluN1 subunits of NMDA receptors, with no difference in GluN2A or GluN2B subunits or the postsynaptic density protein PSD-95 and no change in the levels of the related small GTPases RhoA or RhoB, or the NMDA receptor modulator EphA4. Among presynaptic molecules, a significant increase in Vesicle Associated Membrane Protein-1 (VAMP-1; synaptobrevin) was seen, with no change in synaptophysin or synaptotagmin. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA), as well as the neurogenesis marker doublecortin were unchanged, although Sox-2 levels were increased, suggesting possible changes in the rate of new cell differentiation.
The results reveal the induction by prenatal poly(I:C) of selective molecular changes in the brains of P21 offspring, affecting primarily molecules associated with neuronal development and synaptic transmission. These changes may contribute to the behavioural abnormalities that have been reported in adult animals after exposure to poly(I:C) and which resemble symptoms seen in schizophrenia and related disorders.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
57Neuropsychopharmacology 2012 Mar 37: 896-905
PMID22048463
TitleAbnormal activity of the MAPK- and cAMP-associated signaling pathways in frontal cortical areas in postmortem brain in schizophrenia.
AbstractRecent evidence suggests that schizophrenia may result from alterations of integration of signaling mediated by multiple neurotransmitter systems. Abnormalities of associated intracellular signaling pathways may contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Proteins and phospho-proteins comprising mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-associated signaling pathways may be abnormally expressed in the anterior cingulate (ACC) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in schizophrenia. Using western blot analysis we examined proteins of the MAPK- and cAMP-associated pathways in these two brain regions. Postmortem samples were used from a well-characterized collection of elderly patients with schizophrenia (ACC=36, DLPFC=35) and a comparison (ACC=33, DLPFC=31) group. Near-infrared intensity of IR-dye labeled secondary antisera bound to targeted proteins of the MAPK- and cAMP-associated signaling pathways was measured using LiCor Odyssey imaging system. We found decreased expression of Rap2, JNK1, JNK2, PSD-95, and decreased phosphorylation of JNK1/2 at T183/Y185 and PSD-95 at S295 in the ACC in schizophrenia. In the DLPFC, we found increased expression of Rack1, Fyn, Cdk5, and increased phosphorylation of PSD-95 at S295 and NR2B at Y1336. MAPK- and cAMP-associated molecules constitute ubiquitous intracellular signaling pathways that integrate extracellular stimuli, modify receptor expression and function, and regulate cell survival and neuroplasticity. These data suggest abnormal activity of the MAPK- and cAMP-associated pathways in frontal cortical areas in schizophrenia. These alterations may underlie the hypothesized hypoglutamatergic function in this illness. Together with previous findings, these data suggest that abnormalities of intracellular signaling pathways may contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
58Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 2012 -1 970: 29-61
PMID22351050
TitleScaffold proteins at the postsynaptic density.
AbstractScaffold proteins are abundant and essential components of the postsynaptic density (PSD). They play a major role in many synaptic functions including the trafficking, anchoring, and clustering of glutamate receptors and adhesion molecules. Moreover, they link postsynaptic receptors with their downstream signaling proteins and regulate the dynamics of cytoskeletal structures. By definition, PSD scaffold proteins do not have intrinsic enzymatic activities but are formed by modular and specific domains deputed to form large protein networks. Here, we will discuss the latest findings regarding the structure and functions of major PSD scaffold proteins. Given that scaffold proteins are central components of PSD architecture, it is not surprising that deletion or mutations in their human genes cause severe neuropsychiatric disorders including autism, mental retardation, and schizophrenia. Thus, their dynamic organization and regulation are directly correlated with the essential structure of the PSD and the normal physiology of neuronal synapses.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
59Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2012 May 22: 356-63
PMID21962913
TitlePerinatal phencyclidine treatment alters neuregulin 1/erbB4 expression and activation in later life.
Abstractschizophrenia is a complex and devastating mental disorder of unknown etiology. Hypofunction of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are implicated in the disorder, since phencyclidine (PCP) and other NMDA receptor antagonists mimic schizophrenia-like symptoms in humans and animals so well. Moreover, genetic linkage and post mortem studies strongly suggest a role for altered neuregulin 1 (Nrg1)/erbB4 signaling in schizophrenia pathology. This study investigated the relationship between the NMDA receptor and Nrg1 signaling pathways using the perinatal PCP animal model. Rats (n=5/group) were treated with PCP (10 mg/kg) or saline on postnatal days (PN) 7, 9 and 11 and were sacrificed on PN12, 5 weeks and 20 weeks for biochemical analyses. Western blotting was used to determine total and phosphorylated levels of proteins involved in NMDA receptor/Nrg1 signaling in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. In the cortex, PCP treatment altered Nrg1/erbB4 expression levels throughout development, including decreased Nrg1 and erbB4 at PN12 (-25-30%; p<0.05); increased erbB4 and p-erbB4 (+18-27%; p<0.01) at 5 weeks; and decreased erbB4 and p-erbB4 (-16-18%; p<0.05) along with increased Nrg1 (+33%; p<0.01) at 20 weeks. In the hippocampus, levels of Nrg1/erbB4 were largely unaffected apart from a significant decrease in p-erbB4 at 20 weeks (-13%; p<0.001); however NMDA receptor subunits and PSD-95 showed increases at PN12 and 5 weeks (+20-32%; p<0.05), and decreases at 20 weeks (-22-29%; p<0.05). This study shows that NMDA receptor antagonism early in development can have long term effects on Nrg1/erbB4 expression which could be important in understanding pathological processes which might be involved in schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
60BMC Psychiatry 2012 -1 12: 193
PMID23137171
TitleDisability and schizophrenia: a systematic review of experienced psychosocial difficulties.
Abstractschizophrenia is a significantly disabling disease that affects all major areas of life. There is a lack of comprehensive synthesis of research findings on the full extent of psychosocial difficulties (PSDs) experienced by people living with schizophrenia. This paper provides a systematic review of the literature concerning PSDs and their associated factors in schizophrenia. PSDs were conceptualized in accordance with the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) as disabilities, in particular impairments of mental functions, activity limitations and participation restrictions.
An electronic search using MEDLINE and PsychINFO plus a manual search of the literature was performed for qualitative and longitudinal studies published in English between 2005 and 2010 that examined PSDs in persons with schizophrenia. The ICF was used as a conceptual framework.
A total of 104 papers were included. The most frequent PSDs addressed in the literature were not specific ones, directly linkable to the ICF categories of mental functions, activity limitations or participation restrictions, but broad areas of psychosocial functioning, such as psychopathological symptoms (53% of papers) or global disability and functioning (37%). Among mental functions, the most extensively studied were cognitive functions (27%) and emotional functions (27%). Within the domain of activities and participation, the most widely investigated were difficulties in relationships with others (31%) and employment (20%). Of the factors associated with the intensity or course of PSDs, the most commonly identified were treatment modalities (56%), psychopathological symptoms (26%), and socio-demographic variables (24%). Medication tended to improve the most relevant PSD, but at the same time was the only consistently reported determinant of onset of PSDs (emerging as unwanted side-effects).
The present review illustrates the remarkably broad scope and diversity of psychosocial areas affected in schizophrenia and shows how these areas are interconnected and how they interact with contextual factors. The need for a shift in focus of schizophrenia research is suggested--from an excessive reliance on global measures of psychopathology and disability for defining outcomes to the creation of profiles of specific PSDs that have a more direct bearing on the disabling experience and real-world functioning of patients and can serve to guide interventions and monitoring over time.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
61J. Biol. Chem. 2012 Sep 287: 31813-22
PMID22843680
TitleCalcyon forms a novel ternary complex with dopamine D1 receptor through PSD-95 protein and plays a role in dopamine receptor internalization.
AbstractCalcyon, once known for interacting directly with the dopamine D(1) receptor (D(1)DR), is implicated in various neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Although its direct interaction with D(1)DR has been shown to be misinterpreted, it still plays important roles in D(1)DR signaling. Here, we found that calcyon interacts with the PSD-95 and subsequently forms a ternary complex with D(1)DR through PSD-95. Calcyon is phosphorylated on Ser-169 by the PKC activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate or by the D(1)DR agonist SKF-81297, and its phosphorylation increases its association with PSD-95 and recruitment to the cell surface. Interestingly, the internalization of D(1)DR at the cell surface was enhanced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and SKF-81297 in the presence of calcyon, but not in the presence of its S169A phospho-deficient mutant, suggesting that the phosphorylation of calcyon and the internalization of the surface D(1)DR are tightly correlated. Our results suggest that calcyon regulates D(1)DR trafficking by forming a ternary complex with D(1)DR through PSD-95 and thus possibly linking glutamatergic and dopamine receptor signalings. This also raises the possibility that a novel ternary complex could represent a potential therapeutic target for the modulation of related neuropsychiatric disorders.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
62Mol. Neurobiol. 2012 Oct 46: 275-96
PMID22763587
TitleCalcium-dependent networks in dopamine-glutamate interaction: the role of postsynaptic scaffolding proteins.
AbstractDopamine and glutamate systems are both involved in cognitive, behavioral, and motor processes. Dysfunction of dopamine-glutamate interplay has been suggested in several psychotic diseases, above all in schizophrenia, for which there exists a need for novel medications. Intracellular calcium-dependent transduction pathways are key determinants of dopamine-glutamate interactions, which take place mainly, albeit not exclusively, in the postsynaptic density (PSD), a highly specialized postsynaptic ultrastructure. Stimulation of dopamine and glutamate receptors modulates the gene expression and the function of specific PSD proteins, the "scaffolding" proteins (Homer, Shank, and PSD95), belonging to a complex Ca(2+)-regulated network that integrates and converges dopamine and glutamate signaling to appropriate nuclear targets. Dysfunction of scaffolding proteins leads to severe impairment of Ca(2+)-dependent signaling, which may underlie the dopamine-glutamate aberrations putatively implicated in the pathogenesis of psychotic disorders. Antipsychotic therapy has been demonstrated to directly and indirectly affect the neuronal Ca(2+)-dependent pathways through the modulation of PSD scaffolding proteins, such as Homer, therefore influencing both dopaminergic and glutamatergic functions and enforcing Ca(2+)-mediated long-term synaptic changes. In this review, we will discuss the role of PSD scaffolding proteins in routing Ca(2+)-dependent signals to the nucleus. In particular, we will address the implication of PSD scaffolding proteins in the intracellular connections between dopamine and glutamate pathways, which involve both Ca(2+)-dependent and Ca(2+)-independent mechanisms. Finally, we will discuss how new strategies for the treatment of psychosis aim at developing antipsychotics that may impact both glutamate and dopamine signaling, and what should be the possible role of PSD scaffolding proteins.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
63Mol. Psychiatry 2012 Feb 17: 142-53
PMID22083728
TitleDe novo CNV analysis implicates specific abnormalities of postsynaptic signalling complexes in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.
AbstractA small number of rare, recurrent genomic copy number variants (CNVs) are known to substantially increase susceptibility to schizophrenia. As a consequence of the low fecundity in people with schizophrenia and other neurodevelopmental phenotypes to which these CNVs contribute, CNVs with large effects on risk are likely to be rapidly removed from the population by natural selection. Accordingly, such CNVs must frequently occur as recurrent de novo mutations. In a sample of 662 schizophrenia proband-parent trios, we found that rare de novo CNV mutations were significantly more frequent in cases (5.1% all cases, 5.5% family history negative) compared with 2.2% among 2623 controls, confirming the involvement of de novo CNVs in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Eight de novo CNVs occurred at four known schizophrenia loci (3q29, 15q11.2, 15q13.3 and 16p11.2). De novo CNVs of known pathogenic significance in other genomic disorders were also observed, including deletion at the TAR (thrombocytopenia absent radius) region on 1q21.1 and duplication at the WBS (Williams-Beuren syndrome) region at 7q11.23. Multiple de novos spanned genes encoding members of the DLG (discs large) family of membrane-associated guanylate kinases (MAGUKs) that are components of the postsynaptic density (PSD). Two de novos also affected EHMT1, a histone methyl transferase known to directly regulate DLG family members. Using a systems biology approach and merging novel CNV and proteomics data sets, systematic analysis of synaptic protein complexes showed that, compared with control CNVs, case de novos were significantly enriched for the PSD proteome (P=1.72 10??. This was largely explained by enrichment for members of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) (P=4.24 10??) and neuronal activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (ARC) (P=3.78 10??) postsynaptic signalling complexes. In an analysis of 18?492 subjects (7907 cases and 10?585 controls), case CNVs were enriched for members of the NMDAR complex (P=0.0015) but not ARC (P=0.14). Our data indicate that defects in NMDAR postsynaptic signalling and, possibly, ARC complexes, which are known to be important in synaptic plasticity and cognition, play a significant role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
64J. Neurochem. 2012 Feb 120: 396-407
PMID22044428
TitleClozapine functions through the prefrontal cortex serotonin 1A receptor to heighten neuronal activity via calmodulin kinase II-NMDA receptor interactions.
AbstractAberrant dopamine release in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is believed to underlie schizophrenia, but the mechanistic pathway through which a widely used antipsychotic, clozapine (Clz), evokes neurotransmitter-releasing electrical stimulation is unclear. We analyzed Clz-evoked regulation of neuronal activity in the PFC by stimulating axons in layers IV and V and recording the electrical effect in the post-synaptic pyramidal cells of layers II and III. We observed a Clz-evoked increase in population spike (PS), which was mediated by serotonin 1A receptor (5-HT(1A)-R), phospholipase C?, and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). Immunoblotting demonstrated that the Clz-activation of CaMKII was 5-HT(1A)-R-mediated. Intriguingly, the NMDA receptor (NMDA-R) antagonist ()2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (APV) eliminated the Clz-mediated increase in PS, suggesting that the 5-HT(1A)-R, NMDA-R and CaMKII form a synergistic triad, which boosts excitatory post-synaptic potential (EPSP), thereby enhancing PS. In corroboration, Clz as well as NMDA augmented field EPSP (fEPSP), and WAY100635 (a 5-HT(1A)-R antagonist), APV, and a CaMKII inhibitor eliminated this increase. As previously shown, CaMKII binds to the NMDA-R 2B (NR2B) subunit to become constitutively active, thereby inducing ?-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate (AMPA) receptor recruitment to the post-synaptic membrane and an increase in fEPSP. Co-immunoprecipitation demonstrated that Clz potentiates interactions among CaMKII, NR2B, and 5-HT(1A)-R, possibly in the membrane rafts of the post-synaptic density (PSD), because pretreatment with methyl-?-cyclodextrin (MCD), an agent that disrupts rafts, inhibited both co-immunoprecipitation as well as fEPSP. In summary, Clz functions in the PFC by orchestrating a synergism among 5-HT(1A)-R, CaMKII, and NMDA-R, which augments excitability in the PFC neurons of layers II/III.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
65Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry 2013 Oct 46: 1-12
PMID23800465
TitleDifferent effects of the NMDA receptor antagonists ketamine, MK-801, and memantine on postsynaptic density transcripts and their topography: role of Homer signaling, and implications for novel antipsychotic and pro-cognitive targets in psychosis.
AbstractAdministration of NMDA receptor antagonists, such as ketamine and MK-801, may induce psychotic-like behaviors in preclinical models of schizophrenia. Ketamine has also been observed to exacerbate psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia patients. However, memantine, a non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist approved for Alzheimer's disease and proposed for antipsychotic augmentation, may challenge this view. To date, the molecular mechanisms by which these NMDA receptor antagonists cause different neurochemical, behavioral, and clinical effects are still a matter of debate. Here, we investigated by molecular imaging whether these agents could differently modulate gene expression and topographical distribution of glutamatergic postsynaptic density (PSD) proteins. We focused on Homer1a/Homer1b/PSD-95 signaling network, which may be implicated in glutamate-dependent synaptic plasticity, as well as in psychosis pathophysiology and treatment. Ketamine (25 and 50mg/kg) and MK-801 (0.8mg/kg) significantly induced the transcripts of immediate-early genes (Arc, c-fos, and Homer1a) in cortical regions compared to vehicle, whereas they reduced Homer1b and PSD-95 expression in cortical and striatal regions. Differently, memantine (5mg/kg) did not increase Homer1a signal compared to vehicle, whereas it induced c-fos in the somatosensory and in the medial agranular cortices. Moreover, memantine did not affect Homer1b and PSD-95 expression. When compared to ketamine and MK-801, memantine significantly increased the expression of c-fos, Homer1b and PSD-95. Overall, ketamine and MK-801 prominently increased Homer1a/Homer1b expression ratio, whereas memantine elicited the opposite effect. These data may support the view that ketamine, MK-801 and memantine exert divergent effects on PSD transcripts, which may contribute to their partially different behavioral and clinical effects.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
66Neuroscience 2013 Dec 254: 241-59
PMID24076085
TitleChanges in synaptic transmission and protein expression in the brains of adult offspring after prenatal inhibition of the kynurenine pathway.
AbstractDuring early brain development, N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are involved in cell migration, neuritogenesis, axon guidance and synapse formation, but the mechanisms which regulate NMDA receptor density and function remain unclear. The kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism includes an agonist (quinolinic acid) and an antagonist (kynurenic acid) at NMDA receptors and we have previously shown that inhibition of the pathway using the kynurenine-3-monoxygenase inhibitor Ro61-8048 in late gestation produces rapid changes in protein expression in the embryos and effects on synaptic transmission lasting until postnatal day 21 (P21). The present study sought to determine whether any of these effects are maintained into adulthood. After prenatal injections of Ro61-8048 the litter was allowed to develop to P60 when some offspring were euthanized and the brains removed for examination. Analysis of protein expression by Western blotting revealed significantly reduced expression of the GluN2A subunit (32%) and the morphogenetic protein sonic hedgehog (31%), with a 29% increase in the expression of doublecortin, a protein associated with neurogenesis. No changes were seen in mRNA abundance using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Neuronal excitability was normal in the CA1 region of hippocampal slices but paired-pulse stimulation revealed less inhibition at short interpulse intervals. The amount of long-term potentiation was decreased by 49% in treated pups and recovery after low-frequency stimulation was delayed. The results not only strengthen the view that basal, constitutive kynurenine metabolism is involved in normal brain development, but also show that changes induced prenatally can affect the brains of adult offspring and those changes are quite different from those seen previously at weaning (P21). Those changes may be mediated by altered expression of NMDAR subunits and sonic hedgehog.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
67Mol. Cell. Neurosci. 2013 Sep 56: 128-39
PMID23628905
TitlePredicting protein-protein interactions in the post synaptic density.
AbstractThe post synaptic density (PSD) is a specialization of the cytoskeleton at the synaptic junction, composed of hundreds of different proteins. Characterizing the protein components of the PSD and their interactions can help elucidate the mechanism of long-term changes in synaptic plasticity, which underlie learning and memory. Unfortunately, our knowledge of the proteome and interactome of the PSD is still partial and noisy. In this study we describe a computational framework to improve the reconstruction of the PSD network. The approach is based on learning the characteristics of PSD protein interactions from a set of trusted interactions, expanding this set with data collected from large scale repositories, and then predicting novel interaction with proteins that are suspected to reside in the PSD. Using this method we obtained thirty predicted interactions, with more than half of which having supporting evidence in the literature. We discuss in details two of these new interactions, Lrrtm1 with PSD-95 and Src with Capg. The first may take part in a mechanism underlying glutamatergic dysfunction in schizophrenia. The second suggests an alternative mechanism to regulate dendritic spines maturation.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
68Psychiatr. Genet. 2013 Dec 23: 247-50
PMID23921260
TitleAssociation study on the DLG4 gene and schizophrenia in the Chinese Han population.
AbstractAbnormal expressions of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor and its interacting postsynaptic density (PSD) molecules have been hypothesized to be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Few studies have carried out association studies with DLG4 gene (coding PSD-95 protein) and sought to validate the results with Asian schizophrenia patients.
To further investigate the significance of DLG4 in Asian schizophrenic patients, we examined seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within this gene in 1504 unrelated Chinese mainland individuals (893 patients and 611 controls).
No association was found between these seven SNPs and schizophrenia within our sample. No significant differences in allele or genotype frequencies between schizophrenic paranoid patients and controls were found.
Although no allelic or genotypic variances of this gene were observed, the possibility that SNPs within DLG4 represent a positive schizophrenia risk gene cannot be excluded. Our research provided a reference for further research into this gene in other populations.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
69J. Biol. Chem. 2013 May 288: 15023-34
PMID23576434
TitleRole of SAP97 protein in the regulation of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1 endocytosis and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 signaling.
AbstractThe corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor 1 (CRFR1) is a target for the treatment of psychiatric diseases such as depression, schizophrenia, anxiety disorder, and bipolar disorder. The carboxyl-terminal tail of the CRFR1 terminates in a PDZ-binding motif that provides a potential site for the interaction of PSD-95/Discs Large/Zona Occludens 1 (PDZ) domain-containing proteins. In this study, we found that CRFR1 interacts with synapse-associated protein 97 (SAP97; also known as DLG1) by co-immunoprecipitation in human embryonic 293 (HEK 293) cells and cortical brain lysates and that this interaction is dependent upon an intact PDZ-binding motif at the end of the CRFR1 carboxyl-terminal tail. Similarly, we demonstrated that SAP97 is recruited to the plasma membrane in HEK 293 cells expressing CRFR1 and that mutation of the CRFR1 PDZ-binding motif results in the redistribution of SAP97 into the cytoplasm. Overexpression of SAP97 antagonized agonist-stimulated CRFR1 internalization, whereas single hairpin (shRNA) knockdown of endogenous SAP97 in HEK 293 cells resulted in increased agonist-stimulated CRFR1 endocytosis. CRFR1 was internalized as a complex with SAP97 resulting in the redistribution of SAP97 to endocytic vesicles. Overexpression or shRNA knockdown of SAP97 did not significantly affect CRFR1-mediated cAMP formation, but SAP97 knockdown did significantly attenuate CRFR1-stimulated ERK1/2 phosphorylation in a PDZ interaction-independent manner. Taken together, our studies show that SAP97 interactions with CRFR1 attenuate CRFR1 endocytosis and that SAP97 is involved in coupling G protein-coupled receptors to the activation of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
70PLoS ONE 2013 -1 8: e70302
PMID23936182
TitlePopulation-specific haplotype association of the postsynaptic density gene DLG4 with schizophrenia, in family-based association studies.
AbstractThe post-synaptic density (PSD) of glutamatergic synapses harbors a multitude of proteins critical for maintaining synaptic dynamics. Alteration of protein expression levels in this matrix is a marked phenomenon of neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, where cognitive functions are impaired. To investigate the genetic relationship of genes expressed in the PSD with schizophrenia, a family-based association analysis of genetic variants in PSD genes such as DLG4, DLG1, PICK1 and MDM2, was performed, using Japanese samples (124 pedigrees, n = 376 subjects). Results showed a significant association of the rs17203281 variant from the DLG4 gene, with preferential transmission of the C allele (p = 0.02), although significance disappeared after correction for multiple testing. Replication analysis of this variant, found no association in a Chinese schizophrenia cohort (293 pedigrees, n = 1163 subjects) or in a Japanese case-control sample (n = 4182 subjects). The DLG4 expression levels between postmortem brain samples from schizophrenia patients showed no significant changes from controls. Interestingly, a five marker haplotype in DLG4, involving rs2242449, rs17203281, rs390200, rs222853 and rs222837, was enriched in a population specific manner, where the sequences A-C-C-C-A and G-C-C-C-A accumulated in Japanese (p = 0.0009) and Chinese (p = 0.0007) schizophrenia pedigree samples, respectively. However, this could not be replicated in case-control samples. None of the variants in other examined candidate genes showed any significant association in these samples. The current study highlights a putative role for DLG4 in schizophrenia pathogenesis, evidenced by haplotype association, and warrants further dense screening for variants within these haplotypes.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
71Expert Opin Drug Discov 2013 Dec 8: 1515-27
PMID24147578
TitleGlutamate drugs and pharmacogenetics of OCD: a pathway-based exploratory approach.
AbstractNeuropharmacology research in glutamate-modulating drugs supports their development and use in the management of neuropsychiatric disorders, including major depression, Alzheimer's disorder and schizophrenia. Concomitantly, there is a growing use of these agents used in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).
This article provides a review of glutamate-modulating drugs used in the treatment of OCD. Specifically, the authors examine riluzole, N-acetylcysteine, d-cycloserine, glycine, ketamine, memantine and acamprosate as treatments. Furthermore, recent genetic epidemiology research findings are presented with a focus on the positional candidate genes SLC1A1 (a glutamate transporter), ADAR3 (an RNA-editing enzyme), RYR3 (a Ca(2+) channel), PBX1 (a homeobox transcription factor) and a GWAS candidate gene, DLGAP1 (a protein interacting with post-synaptic density). These genetic findings are submitted to a curated bioinformatics database to conform a biological network for discerning potential pharmacological targets.
In the genetically informed network, known genes and identified key connecting components, including DLG4 (a developmental gene), PSD-95 (a synaptic scaffolding protein) and PSEN1 (presenilin, a regulator of secretase), conform a group of potential pharmacological targets. These potential targets can be explored, in the future, to deliver new therapeutic approaches to OCD. There is also the need to develop a better understanding of neuroprotective mechanisms as a foundation for future OCD drug discovery.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
72Synapse 2013 Aug 67: 532-40
PMID23436724
TitleProtein interacting with C kinase and neurological disorders.
AbstractBest known for its interaction with the ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor subunit GluA2 and for its influence on excitatory synapse activity, the protein interacting with C kinase, PICK1, is the focus of considerable attention from neurobiologists. Indeed, this PSD-95/DlgA/ZO-1 (PDZ) domain-containing protein has been shown to interact with a wide variety of neurotransmitter receptors, transporters, and enzymes, including glutamate and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, dopamine and glutamate transporters, and the enzyme serine racemase. Through its lipid binding domain, PICK1 is targeted to the inner surface of the cell membrane where it contributes to anchoring these partners and thereby influences their synaptic localization and function. Under pathological conditions, the regulation of some PICK1-interacting partners is altered, pointing to an involvement of PICK1 in neurological disorders. Also, genetic or pharmacological manipulations of PICK1 expression, localization, or function have been shown to influence several physiological or pathological processes in which putative PICK1 partners are involved. This review will summarize recent experimental observations that highlight the involvement of PICK1 in neurological disorders, including schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, chronic pain, drug abuse, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
73Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 2013 Jul 108: 44-53
PMID23603030
TitleEnhanced interaction among ErbB4, PSD-95 and NMDAR by chronic MK-801 treatment is associated with behavioral abnormalities.
AbstractThe neuregulin 1 (NRG1)-ErbB4 signaling pathway has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Recent studies suggest that this pathway may interact with the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) via the postsynaptic scaffold protein PSD-95. This interaction is of particular interest given the leading role of the NMDAR hypofunction in schizophrenia. The present study investigated the short- and long-term effects of chronic NMDAR blockade on the functional interaction between the two systems in rat prefrontal cortex and hippocampus using immunoprecipitation. Adult male Wistar rats were treated intraperitoneally with MK-801 (0.25 mg/kg) or saline for 28 days. Twenty-four hours after the last injection, the associations of ErbB4 with PSD-95 and NMDAR were enhanced in the prefrontal cortex, whereas only phosphorylated-ErbB4 relative to ErbB4 was increased in the hippocampus. These effects, however, were not detectable 12 days after the last MK-801 treatment, indicating the reversible nature of these changes. We also investigated the effects of chronic MK-801 treatment on locomotion, prepulse inhibition, recognition memory, and spatial working memory. The results showed that this treatment led to decreased locomotor activity, reduced exploration in the center arena, and elevated startle magnitudes, indicating an anxiety-like phenotype. Taken together, our findings suggest that the NRG1-ErbB4 signaling could be modulated by repeated NMDAR blockade, and provide further evidence for the cross-talk between the two signaling pathways.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
74Psychiatr. Genet. 2013 Dec 23: 247-50
PMID23921260
TitleAssociation study on the DLG4 gene and schizophrenia in the Chinese Han population.
AbstractAbnormal expressions of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor and its interacting postsynaptic density (PSD) molecules have been hypothesized to be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Few studies have carried out association studies with DLG4 gene (coding PSD-95 protein) and sought to validate the results with Asian schizophrenia patients.
To further investigate the significance of DLG4 in Asian schizophrenic patients, we examined seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within this gene in 1504 unrelated Chinese mainland individuals (893 patients and 611 controls).
No association was found between these seven SNPs and schizophrenia within our sample. No significant differences in allele or genotype frequencies between schizophrenic paranoid patients and controls were found.
Although no allelic or genotypic variances of this gene were observed, the possibility that SNPs within DLG4 represent a positive schizophrenia risk gene cannot be excluded. Our research provided a reference for further research into this gene in other populations.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
75Nature 2013 Nov 503: 267-71
PMID24132240
TitleSHANK3 and IGF1 restore synaptic deficits in neurons from 22q13 deletion syndrome patients.
AbstractPhelan-McDermid syndrome (PMDS) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay, severely impaired speech, intellectual disability, and an increased risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). PMDS is caused by heterozygous deletions of chromosome 22q13.3. Among the genes in the deleted region is SHANK3, which encodes a protein in the postsynaptic density (PSD). Rare mutations in SHANK3 have been associated with idiopathic ASDs, non-syndromic intellectual disability, and schizophrenia. Although SHANK3 is considered to be the most likely candidate gene for the neurological abnormalities in PMDS patients, the cellular and molecular phenotypes associated with this syndrome in human neurons are unknown. We generated induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from individuals with PMDS and autism and used them to produce functional neurons. We show that PMDS neurons have reduced SHANK3 expression and major defects in excitatory, but not inhibitory, synaptic transmission. Excitatory synaptic transmission in PMDS neurons can be corrected by restoring SHANK3 expression or by treating neurons with insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1). IGF1 treatment promotes formation of mature excitatory synapses that lack SHANK3 but contain PSD95 and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors with fast deactivation kinetics. Our findings provide direct evidence for a disruption in the ratio of cellular excitation and inhibition in PMDS neurons, and point to a molecular pathway that can be recruited to restore it.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
76Psychopharmacology (Berl.) 2013 Jan 225: 1-19
PMID23179966
TitleSerotonin-glutamate and serotonin-dopamine reciprocal interactions as putative molecular targets for novel antipsychotic treatments: from receptor heterodimers to postsynaptic scaffolding and effector proteins.
AbstractThe physical and functional interactions between serotonin-glutamate and serotonin-dopamine signaling have been suggested to be involved in psychosis pathophysiology and are supposed to be relevant for antipsychotic treatment. Type II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) and serotonin 5-HT(2A) receptors have been reported to form heterodimers that modulate G-protein-mediated intracellular signaling differentially compared to mGluR2 and 5-HT(2A) homomers. Additionally, direct evidence has been provided that D(2) and 5-HT(2A) receptors form physical heterocomplexes which exert a functional cross-talk, as demonstrated by studies on hallucinogen-induced signaling. Moving from receptors to postsynaptic density (PSD) scenario, the scaffolding protein PSD-95 is known to interact with N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), D(2) and 5-HT(2) receptors, regulating their activation state. Homer1a, the inducible member of the Homer family of PSD proteins that is implicated in glutamatergic signal transduction, is induced in striatum by antipsychotics with high dopamine receptor affinity and in the cortex by antipsychotics with mixed serotonergic/dopaminergic profile. Signaling molecules, such as Akt and glycogen-synthase-kinase-3 (GSK-3), could be involved in the mechanism of action of antipsychotics, targeting dopamine, serotonin, and glutamate neurotransmission. Altogether, these proteins stand at the crossroad of glutamate-dopamine-serotonin signaling pathways and may be considered as valuable molecular targets for current and new antipsychotics. The aim of this review is to provide a critical appraisal on serotonin-glutamate and serotonin-dopamine interplay to support the idea that next generation schizophrenia pharmacotherapy should not exclusively rely on receptor targeting strategies.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
77Eur. Psychiatry 2013 May 28: 225-34
PMID22944337
TitleReduced thalamic volume in men with antisocial personality disorder or schizophrenia and a history of serious violence and childhood abuse.
AbstractViolent behaviour has been associated with presence of certain mental disorders, most notably antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and schizophrenia, childhood abuse, and multiple brain abnormalities. This study examined for the first time, to the authors' knowledge, the role of psychosocial deprivation (PSD), including childhood physical and sexual abuse, in structural brain volumes of violent individuals with ASPD or schizophrenia.
Fifty-six men (26 with ASPD or schizophrenia and a history of serious violence, 30 non-violent) underwent magnetic resonance imaging and were assessed on PSD. Stereological volumetric brain ratings were examined for group differences and their association with PSD ratings. PSD-brain associations were examined further using voxel-based-morphometry.
The findings revealed: reduced thalamic volume in psychosocially-deprived violent individuals, relative to non-deprived violent individuals and healthy controls; negative association between thalamic volume and abuse ratings (physical and sexual) in violent individuals; and trend-level negative associations between PSD and hippocampal and prefrontal volumes in non-violent individuals. The voxel-based-morphometry analysis detected a negative association between PSD and localised grey matter volumes in the left inferior frontal region across all individuals, and additionally in the left middle frontal and precentral gyri in non-violent individuals.
Violent mentally-disordered individuals with PSD, relative to those with no or minimal PSD, suffer from an additional brain deficit, i.e., reduced thalamic volume; this may affect sensory information processing, and have implications for management, of these individuals. PSD may have a stronger relationship with volumetric loss of stress-linked regions, namely the frontal cortex, in non-violent individuals.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
78Front Neurosci 2014 -1 8: 331
PMID25414627
TitleNeuroinformatic analyses of common and distinct genetic components associated with major neuropsychiatric disorders.
AbstractMajor neuropsychiatric disorders are highly heritable, with mounting evidence suggesting that these disorders share overlapping sets of molecular and cellular underpinnings. In the current article we systematically test the degree of genetic commonality across six major neuropsychiatric disorders-attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety disorders (Anx), autistic spectrum disorders (ASD), bipolar disorder (BD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and schizophrenia (SCZ). We curated a well-vetted list of genes based on large-scale human genetic studies based on the NHGRI catalog of published genome-wide association studies (GWAS). A total of 180 genes were accepted into the analysis on the basis of low but liberal GWAS p-values (<10(-5)). 22% of genes overlapped two or more disorders. The most widely shared subset of genes-common to five of six disorders-included ANK3, AS3MT, CACNA1C, CACNB2, CNNM2, CSMD1, DPCR1, ITIH3, NT5C2, PPP1R11, SYNE1, TCF4, TENM4, TRIM26, and ZNRD1. Using a suite of neuroinformatic resources, we showed that many of the shared genes are implicated in the postsynaptic density (PSD), expressed in immune tissues and co-expressed in developing human brain. Using a translational cross-species approach, we detected two distinct genetic components that were both shared by each of the six disorders; the 1st component is involved in CNS development, neural projections and synaptic transmission, while the 2nd is implicated in various cytoplasmic organelles and cellular processes. Combined, these genetic components account for 20-30% of the genetic load. The remaining risk is conferred by distinct, disorder-specific variants. Our systematic comparative analysis of shared and unique genetic factors highlights key gene sets and molecular processes that may ultimately translate into improved diagnosis and treatment of these debilitating disorders.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
79Neurochem. Int. 2014 Sep 75: 76-8
PMID24915645
TitleChronic D-serine reverses arc expression and partially rescues dendritic abnormalities in a mouse model of NMDA receptor hypofunction.
AbstractActivity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc) is an immediate early gene that is expressed almost exclusively in glutamatergic neurons. Arc protein is enriched in the postsynaptic density (PSD) and colocalizes with the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) complex. Arc transcription is positively modulated by NMDAR activity and is important for dendritic spine plasticity. Genetic ablation of serine racemase (SR-/-), the enzyme that converts L-serine to D-serine, a coagonist at the NMDAR, reduces dendritic spine density in the hippocampus. Here we demonstrate that SR deficient (SR-/-) mice also have reduced Arc protein expression in the hippocampus that can be reversed with chronic D-serine administration in adulthood. Furthermore, D-serine treatment partially rescues the hippocampal spine deficit in SR-/- mice. These results demonstrate the importance of D-serine in regulating the hippocampal expression of Arc in vivo. In addition, our findings underscore the potential utility of using the glycine modulatory site agonist D-serine to treat disorders that exhibit Arc and dendritic spine dysregulation as a consequence of NMDAR hypofunction, such as schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
80J. Biol. Chem. 2014 Oct 289: 29631-41
PMID25164819
TitleSerine racemase regulated by binding to stargazin and PSD-95: potential N-methyl-D-aspartate-?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (NMDA-AMPA) glutamate neurotransmission cross-talk.
AbstractD-Serine, an endogenous co-agonist for the glycine site of the synaptic NMDA glutamate receptor, regulates synaptic plasticity and is implicated in schizophrenia. Serine racemase (SR) is the enzyme that converts L-serine to D-serine. In this study, we demonstrate that SR interacts with the synaptic proteins, postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95) and stargazin, forming a ternary complex. SR binds to the PDZ3 domain of PSD-95 through the PDZ domain ligand at its C terminus. SR also binds to the C terminus of stargazin, which facilitates the cell membrane localization of SR and inhibits its activity. AMPA receptor activation internalizes SR and disrupts its interaction with stargazin, therefore derepressing SR activity, leading to more D-serine production and potentially facilitating NMDA receptor activation. These interactions regulate the enzymatic activity as well as the intracellular localization of SR, potentially coupling the activities of NMDA and AMPA receptors. This shuttling of a neurotransmitter synthesizing enzyme between two receptors appears to be a novel mode of synaptic regulation.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
81Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen 2014 Jun 29: 303-10
PMID24421411
TitleThe Potential Role of Insulin on the Shank-Postsynaptic Platform in Neurodegenerative Diseases Involving Cognition.
AbstractLoss of synaptic function is critical in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other central nervous system (CNS) degenerations. A promising candidate in the regulation of synaptic function is Shank, a protein that serves as a scaffold for excitatory synaptic receptors and proteins. Loss of Shank alters structure and function of the postsynaptic density (PSD). Shank proteins are associated with N-methyl-d-aspartate and ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor loss at the PSD in AD; mutations in Shank also lead to autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and schizophrenia, both of which affect cognition, suggesting that Shank may play a common pathologic role in AD, ASD, and schizophrenia. Shank protein directly associates with insulin receptor substrate protein p53 in PSD. Insulin and insulin sensitizers have been used in clinical trials for these diseases; this suggests that insulin signals may alter protein homeostasis at the shank-postsynaptic platform in PSDs; insulin could improve the function of synapses in these diseases.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
82Exp. Neurol. 2014 Mar 253: 126-37
PMID24382453
TitleThe PSD protein ProSAP2/Shank3 displays synapto-nuclear shuttling which is deregulated in a schizophrenia-associated mutation.
AbstractRecently, mutations in ProSAP2/Shank3 have been discovered as one of the genetic factors for schizophrenia (SCZ). Here, we show that the postsynaptic density protein ProSAP2/Shank3 undergoes activity dependent synapse-to-nucleus shuttling in hippocampal neurons. Our study shows that the de novo mutation (R1117X) in ProSAP2/Shank3 that was identified in a patient with SCZ leads to an accumulation of mutated ProSAP2/Shank3 within the nucleus independent of synaptic activity. Furthermore, we identified novel nuclear ProSAP2/Shank3 interaction partners. Nuclear localization of mutated ProSAP2/Shank3 alters transcription of several genes, among them already identified genetic risk factors for SCZ such as Synaptotagmin 1 and LRRTM1. Comparing the SCZ mutation of ProSAP2/Shank3 to the knockdown of ProSAP2/Shank3 we found some shared features such as reduced synaptic density in neuronal cultures. However, hippocampal neurons expressing the ProSAP2/Shank3 SCZ mutation furthermore show altered E/I ratio and reduced dendritic branching. Thus, we conclude that the uncoupling of ProSAP2/Shank3 nuclear shuttling from synaptic activity may represent a molecular mechanism that contributes to the pathology of SCZ in patients with mutations in ProSAP2/Shank3.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
83Mol. Psychiatry 2014 Oct 19: 1115-24
PMID25178163
TitleThe NAP motif of activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP) regulates dendritic spines through microtubule end binding proteins.
AbstractThe NAP motif of activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP) enhanced memory scores in patients suffering from mild cognitive impairment and protected activities of daily living in schizophrenia patients, while fortifying microtubule (MT)-dependent axonal transport, in mice and flies. The question is how does NAP fortify MTs? Our sequence analysis identified the MT end-binding protein (EB1)-interacting motif SxIP (SIP, Ser-Ile-Pro) in ADNP/NAP and showed specific SxIP binding sites in all members of the EB protein family (EB1-3). Others found that EB1 enhancement of neurite outgrowth is attenuated by EB2, while EB3 interacts with postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95) to modulate dendritic plasticity. Here, NAP increased PSD-95 expression in dendritic spines, which was inhibited by EB3 silencing. EB1 or EB3, but not EB2 silencing inhibited NAP-mediated cell protection, which reflected NAP binding specificity. NAPVSKIPQ (SxIP=SKIP), but not NAPVAAAAQ mimicked NAP activity. ADNP, essential for neuronal differentiation and brain formation in mouse, a member of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex and a major protein mutated in autism and deregulated in schizophrenia in men, showed similar EB interactions, which were enhanced by NAP treatment. The newly identified shared MT target of NAP/ADNP is directly implicated in synaptic plasticity, explaining the breadth and efficiency of neuroprotective/neurotrophic capacities.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
84Neuroscience 2014 Jan 258: 174-83
PMID24231734
TitleAdolescent social isolation enhances the plasmalemmal density of NMDA NR1 subunits in dendritic spines of principal neurons in the basolateral amygdala of adult mice.
AbstractSocial isolation during the vulnerable period of adolescence produces emotional dysregulation manifested by abnormalities in adult behaviors that require emotional processing. The affected brain regions may include the basolateral amygdala (BLA), where plasticity of glutamatergic synapses in principal neurons plays a role in conditioned emotional responses. This plasticity is dependent on NMDA receptor trafficking denoted by intracellular mobilization of the obligatory NR1 NMDA subunit. We tested the hypothesis that the psychosocial stress of adolescent social isolation (ASI) produces a lasting change in NMDA receptor distribution in principal neurons in the BLA of adults that express maladaptive emotional responses to sensory cues. For this, we used behavioral testing and dual electron microscopic immunolabeling of NR1 and calcium calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), a protein predominantly expressed in principal neurons of the BLA in adult C57Bl/6 mice housed in isolation or in social groups from post-weaning day 22 until adulthood (?3 months of age). The isolates showed persistent deficits in sensorimotor gating evidenced by altered prepulse inhibition (PPI) of acoustic startle and hyperlocomotor activity in a novel environment. Immunogold-silver labeling for NR1 alone or together with CaMKII was seen in many somatodendritic profiles in the BLA of all mice irrespective of rearing conditions. However, isolates compared with group-reared mice had a significantly lower cytoplasmic (4.72 0.517 vs 6.31 0.517) and higher plasmalemmal (0.397 0.0779 vs 0.216 0.026) density of NR1 immunogold particles in CaMKII-containing dendritic spines. There was no rearing-dependent difference in the size or number of these spines or those of other dendritic profiles within the neuropil, which also failed to show an impact of ASI on NR1 immunogold labeling. These results provide the first evidence that ASI enhances the surface trafficking of NMDA receptors in dendritic spines of principal neurons in the BLA of adult mice showing maladaptive behaviors that are consistent with emotional dysregulation.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
85Mol. Neurobiol. 2014 Feb 49: 484-511
PMID23999870
TitleGlutamatergic postsynaptic density protein dysfunctions in synaptic plasticity and dendritic spines morphology: relevance to schizophrenia and other behavioral disorders pathophysiology, and implications for novel therapeutic approaches.
AbstractEmerging researches point to a relevant role of postsynaptic density (PSD) proteins, such as PSD-95, Homer, Shank, and DISC-1, in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders. The PSD is a thickness, detectable at electronic microscopy, localized at the postsynaptic membrane of glutamatergic synapses, and made by scaffolding proteins, receptors, and effector proteins; it is considered a structural and functional crossroad where multiple neurotransmitter systems converge, including the dopaminergic, serotonergic, and glutamatergic ones, which are all implicated in the pathophysiology of psychosis. Decreased PSD-95 protein levels have been reported in postmortem brains of schizophrenia patients. Variants of Homer1, a key PSD protein for glutamate signaling, have been associated with schizophrenia symptoms severity and therapeutic response. Mutations in Shank gene have been recognized in autism spectrum disorder patients, as well as reported to be associated to behaviors reminiscent of schizophrenia symptoms when expressed in genetically engineered mice. Here, we provide a critical appraisal of PSD proteins role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders. Then, we discuss how antipsychotics may affect PSD proteins in brain regions relevant to psychosis pathophysiology, possibly by controlling synaptic plasticity and dendritic spine rearrangements through the modulation of glutamate-related targets. We finally provide a framework that may explain how PSD proteins might be useful candidates to develop new therapeutic approaches for schizophrenia and related disorders in which there is a need for new biological treatments, especially against some symptom domains, such as negative symptoms, that are poorly affected by current antipsychotics.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
86Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry 2014 Oct 54: 299-314
PMID25025505
TitleRegulation of postsynaptic plasticity genes' expression and topography by sustained dopamine perturbation and modulation by acute memantine: relevance to schizophrenia.
AbstractA relevant role for dopamine-glutamate interaction has been reported in the pathophysiology and treatment of psychoses. Dopamine and glutamate may interact at multiple levels, including the glutamatergic postsynaptic density (PSD), an electron-dense thickening that has gained recent attention as a switchboard of dopamine-glutamate interactions and for its role in synaptic plasticity. Recently, glutamate-based strategies, such as memantine add-on to antipsychotics, have been proposed for refractory symptoms of schizophrenia, e.g. cognitive impairment. Both antipsychotics and memantine regulate PSD transcripts but sparse information is available on memantine's effects under dopamine perturbation. We tested gene expression changes of the Homer1 and PSD-95 PSD proteins in models of sustained dopamine perturbation, i.e. subchronic treatment by: a) GBR-12909, a dopamine receptor indirect agonist; b) haloperidol, a D2R antagonist; c) SCH-23390, a dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) antagonist; and d) SCH-23390+haloperidol. On the last day of treatment, rats were acutely treated with vehicle or memantine. The Homer1a immediate-early gene was significantly induced by haloperidol and by haloperidol+SCH-23390. The gene was not induced by SCH-23390 per se or by GBR-12909. Expression of the constitutive genes Homer1b/c and PSD-95 was less affected by these dopaminergic paradigms. Acute memantine administration significantly increased Homer1a expression by the dopaminergic compounds used herein. Both haloperidol and haloperidol+SCH-23390 shifted Homer1a/Homer1b/c ratio of expression toward Homer1a. This pattern was sharpened by acute memantine. Dopaminergic compounds and acute memantine also differentially affected topographic distribution of gene expression and coordinated expression of Homer1a among cortical-subcortical regions. These results indicate that dopaminergic perturbations may affect glutamatergic signaling in different directions. Memantine may help partially revert dopamine-mediated glutamatergic dysfunctions.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
87Curr Neuropharmacol 2014 May 12: 219-38
PMID24851087
TitleThe glutamatergic aspects of schizophrenia molecular pathophysiology: role of the postsynaptic density, and implications for treatment.
Abstractschizophrenia is one of the most debilitating psychiatric diseases with a lifetime prevalence of approximately 1%. Although the specific molecular underpinnings of schizophrenia are still unknown, evidence has long linked its pathophysiology to postsynaptic abnormalities. The postsynaptic density (PSD) is among the molecular structures suggested to be potentially involved in schizophrenia. More specifically, the PSD is an electron-dense thickening of glutamatergic synapses, including ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors, cytoskeletal and scaffolding proteins, and adhesion and signaling molecules. Being implicated in the postsynaptic signaling of multiple neurotransmitter systems, mostly dopamine and glutamate, the PSD constitutes an ideal candidate for studying dopamine-glutamate disturbances in schizophrenia. Recent evidence suggests that some PSD proteins, such as PSD-95, Shank, and Homer are implicated in severe behavioral disorders, including schizophrenia. These findings, further corroborated by genetic and animal studies of schizophrenia, offer new insights for the development of pharmacological strategies able to overcome the limitations in terms of efficacy and side effects of current schizophrenia treatment. Indeed, PSD proteins are now being considered as potential molecular targets against this devastating illness. The current paper reviews the most recent hypotheses on the molecular mechanisms underlying schizophrenia pathophysiology. First, we review glutamatergic dysfunctions in schizophrenia and we provide an update on postsynaptic molecules involvement in schizophrenia pathophysiology by addressing both human and animal studies. Finally, the possibility that PSD proteins may represent potential targets for new molecular interventions in psychosis will be discussed.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
88PLoS ONE 2014 -1 9: e85373
PMID24416398
TitleRole of the DLGAP2 gene encoding the SAP90/PSD-95-associated protein 2 in schizophrenia.
AbstractAberrant synaptic dysfunction is implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. The DLGAP2 gene encoding the SAP90/PSD-95-associated protein 2 (SAPAP2) located at the post-synaptic density of neuronal cells is involved in the neuronal synaptic function. This study aimed to investigate whether the DLGAP2 gene is associated with schizophrenia. We resequenced the putative promoter region and all the exons of the DLGAP2 gene in 523 patients with schizophrenia and 596 non-psychotic controls from Taiwan and conducted a case-control association analysis. We identified 19 known SNPs in this sample. Association analysis of 9 SNPs with minor allele frequency greater than 5% showed no association with schizophrenia. However, we found a haplotype (CCACCAACT) significantly associated with schizophrenia (odds ratio:2.5, p<0.001). We also detected 16 missense mutations and 1 amino acid-insertion mutation in this sample. Bioinformatic analysis showed some of these mutations were damaging or pathological to the protein function, but we did not find increased burden of these mutations in the patient group. Notably, we identified 5 private rare variants in 5 unrelated patients, respectively, including c.-69+9C>T, c.-69+13C>T, c.-69+47C>T, c.-69+55C>T at intron 1 and c.-32A>G at untranslated exon 2 of the DLGAP2 gene. These rare variants were not detected in 559 control subjects. Further reporter gene assay of these rare variants except c.-69+13C>T showed significantly elevated promoter activity than the wild type, suggesting increased DLGAP2 gene expression may contribute to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Our results indicate that DLGAP2 is a susceptible gene of schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
89Cell Death Differ. 2015 Sep 22: 1425-36
PMID25678324
TitleReduced SNAP-25 increases PSD-95 mobility and impairs spine morphogenesis.
AbstractImpairment of synaptic function can lead to neuropsychiatric disorders collectively referred to as synaptopathies. The SNARE protein SNAP-25 is implicated in several brain pathologies and, indeed, brain areas of psychiatric patients often display reduced SNAP-25 expression. It has been recently found that acute downregulation of SNAP-25 in brain slices impairs long-term potentiation; however, the processes through which this occurs are still poorly defined. We show that in vivo acute downregulation of SNAP-25 in CA1 hippocampal region affects spine number. Consistently, hippocampal neurons from SNAP-25 heterozygous mice show reduced densities of dendritic spines and defective PSD-95 dynamics. Finally, we show that, in brain, SNAP-25 is part of a molecular complex including PSD-95 and p140Cap, with p140Cap being capable to bind to both SNAP-25 and PSD-95. These data demonstrate an unexpected role of SNAP-25 in controlling PSD-95 clustering and open the possibility that genetic reductions of the protein levels - as occurring in schizophrenia - may contribute to the pathology through an effect on postsynaptic function and plasticity.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
90Neuroscience 2015 Nov 309: 233-42
PMID26211447
TitleSchizophrenia: Evidence implicating hippocampal GluN2B protein and REST epigenetics in psychosis pathophysiology.
AbstractThe hippocampus is strongly implicated in the psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia. Functionally, basal hippocampal activity (perfusion) is elevated in schizophrenic psychosis, as measured with positron emission tomography (PET) and with magnetic resonance (MR) perfusion techniques, while hippocampal activation to memory tasks is reduced. Subfield-specific hippocampal molecular pathology exists in human psychosis tissue which could underlie this neuronal hyperactivity, including increased GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors in hippocampal CA3, along with increased postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95) along with augmented dendritic spines on the pyramidal neuron apical dendrites. We interpret these observations to implicate a reduction in the influence of a ubiquitous gene repressor, repressor element-1 silencing transcription factor (REST) in psychosis; REST is involved in the age-related maturation of the NMDA receptor from GluN2B- to GluN2A-containing NMDA receptors through epigenetic remodeling. These CA3 changes in psychosis leave the hippocampus liable to pathological increases in neuronal activity, feedforward excitation and false memory formation, sometimes with psychotic content.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
91J. Neurochem. 2015 Nov -1: -1
PMID26560964
TitleSevere learning deficits of IRSp53 mutant mice are caused by altered NMDA receptor dependent signal transduction.
AbstractLearning and memory is dependent on postsynaptic architecture and signaling processes in forebrain regions. The insulin receptor substrate protein of 53 kDa (IRSp53, also known as Baiap2) is a signaling and adapter protein in forebrain excitatory synapses. Mice deficient in IRSp53 display enhanced levels of postsynaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) and long-term potentiation (LTP) associated with severe learning deficits. In humans, reduced IRSp53/Baiap2 expression is associated with a variety of neurological disorders including autism, schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. Here we analyzed mice lacking one copy of the gene coding for IRSp53 using behavioural tests including contextual fear conditioning and the puzzle box. We show that a 50% reduction in IRSp53 levels strongly affects the performance in fear-evoking learning paradigms. This correlates with increased targeting of NMDARs to the postsynaptic density (PSD) in hippocampi of both heterozygous and knock out (ko) mice at the expense of extrasynaptic NMDARs. As hippocampal NMDAR dependent LTP is enhanced in IRSp53-deficient mice, we investigated signaling cascades important for the formation of fear evoked memories. Here we observed a dramatic increase in cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) dependent signaling in heterozygous and IRSp53 deficient mice, necessary for the transcriptional dependent phase of LTP. In contrast, activation of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and Akt kinase pathways required for translation dependent phase of LTP are reduced. Our data suggest that loss or even the reduction of IRSp53 increases NMDAR dependent CREB activation in the hippocampus, and interferes with the ability of mice to learn upon anxiety-related stimuli. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
92Psychopharmacology (Berl.) 2015 Jun 232: 2181-9
PMID25575489
TitleReductions in synaptic proteins and selective alteration of prepulse inhibition in male C57BL/6 mice after postnatal administration of a VIP receptor (VIPR2) agonist.
AbstractAn abundance of genetic and epidemiologic evidence as well as longitudinal neuroimaging data point to developmental origins for schizophrenia and other mental health disorders. Recent clinical studies indicate that microduplications of VIPR2, encoding the vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) receptor VPAC2, confer significant risk for schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder. Lymphocytes from patients with these mutations exhibited higher VIPR2 gene expression and VIP responsiveness (cAMP induction), but mechanisms by which overactive VPAC2 signaling may lead to these psychiatric disorders are unknown.
We subcutaneously administered the highly selective VPAC2 receptor agonist Ro 25-1553 to C57BL/6 mice from postnatal day 1 (P1) to P14 to determine if overactivation of VPAC2 receptor signaling during postnatal brain maturation affects synaptogenesis and selected behaviors.
Western blot analyses on P21 revealed significant reductions of synaptophysin and postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95) in the prefrontal cortex, but not in the hippocampus in Ro 25-1553-treated mice. The same postnatally restricted treatment resulted in a disruption in prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle measured in adult mice. No effects were observed in open-field locomotor activity, sociability in the three-chamber social interaction test, or fear conditioning or extinction.
Overactivation of the VPAC2 receptor in the postnatal mouse results in a reduction in synaptic proteins in the prefrontal cortex and selective alterations in prepulse inhibition. These findings suggest that the VIPR2-linkage to mental health disorders may be due in part to overactive VPAC2 receptor signaling during a critical time of synaptic maturation.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
93Mol. Psychiatry 2015 Sep 20: 1120-31
PMID25869807
TitleNOMA-GAP/ARHGAP33 regulates synapse development and autistic-like behavior in the mouse.
AbstractNeuropsychiatric developmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and schizophrenia, are typically characterized by alterations in social behavior and have been linked to aberrant dendritic spine and synapse development. Here we show, using genetically engineered mice, that the Cdc42 GTPase-activating multiadaptor protein, NOMA-GAP, regulates autism-like social behavior in the mouse, as well as dendritic spine and synapse development. Surprisingly, we were unable to restore spine morphology or autism-associated social behavior in NOMA-GAP-deficient animals by Cre-mediated deletion of Cdc42 alone. Spine morphology can be restored in vivo by re-expression of wild-type NOMA-GAP or a mutant of NOMA-GAP that lacks the RhoGAP domain, suggesting that other signaling functions are involved. Indeed, we show that NOMA-GAP directly interacts with several MAGUK (membrane-associated guanylate kinase) proteins, and that this modulates NOMA-GAP activity toward Cdc42. Moreover, we demonstrate that NOMA-GAP is a major regulator of PSD-95 in the neocortex. Loss of NOMA-GAP leads to strong upregulation of serine 295 phosphorylation of PSD-95 and moreover to its subcellular mislocalization. This is associated with marked loss of surface ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor and defective synaptic transmission, thereby providing a molecular basis for autism-like social behavior in the absence of NOMA-GAP.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
94J. Comp. Neurol. 2015 Sep 523: 1913-24
PMID25753355
TitleOrganization of TNIK in dendritic spines.
AbstractTumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2)- and noncatalytic region of tyrosine kinase (NCK)-interacting kinase (TNIK) has been identified as an interactor in the psychiatric risk factor, Disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1). As a step toward deciphering its function in the brain, we performed high-resolution light and electron microscopic immunocytochemistry. We demonstrate here that TNIK is expressed in neurons throughout the adult mouse brain. In striatum and cerebral cortex, TNIK concentrates in dendritic spines, especially in the vicinity of the lateral edge of the synapse. Thus, TNIK is highly enriched at a microdomain critical for glutamatergic signaling.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
95Mol. Psychiatry 2015 Sep 20: 1091-100
PMID25330739
TitleSrc kinase as a mediator of convergent molecular abnormalities leading to NMDAR hypoactivity in schizophrenia.
AbstractNumerous investigations support decreased glutamatergic signaling as a pathogenic mechanism of schizophrenia, yet the molecular underpinnings for such dysregulation are largely unknown. In the post-mortem dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), we found striking decreases in tyrosine phosphorylation of N-methyl-D aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunit 2 (GluN2) that is critical for neuroplasticity. The decreased GluN2 activity in schizophrenia may not be because of downregulation of NMDA receptors as MK-801 binding and NMDA receptor complexes in postsynaptic density (PSD) were in fact increased in schizophrenia cases. At the postreceptor level, however, we found striking reductions in the protein kinase C, Pyk 2 and Src kinase activity that in tandem can decrease GluN2 activation. Given that Src serves as a hub of various signaling mechanisms affecting GluN2 phosphorylation, we postulated that Src hypoactivity may result from convergent alterations of various schizophrenia susceptibility pathways and thus mediate their effects on NMDA receptor signaling. Indeed, the DLPFC of schizophrenia cases exhibit increased PSD-95 and erbB4 and decreased receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase-? (RPTP?) and dysbindin-1, each of which reduces Src activity via protein interaction with Src. To test genomic underpinnings for Src hypoactivity, we examined genome-wide association study results, incorporating 13?394 cases and 34?676 controls. We found no significant association of individual variants of Src and its direct regulators with schizophrenia. However, a protein-protein interaction-based network centered on Src showed significant enrichment of gene-level associations with schizophrenia compared with other psychiatric illnesses. Our results together demonstrate striking decreases in NMDA receptor signaling at the postreceptor level and propose Src as a nodal point of convergent dysregulations affecting NMDA receptor pathway via protein-protein associations.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
96Neuroscience 2015 Nov 309: 233-42
PMID26211447
TitleSchizophrenia: Evidence implicating hippocampal GluN2B protein and REST epigenetics in psychosis pathophysiology.
AbstractThe hippocampus is strongly implicated in the psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia. Functionally, basal hippocampal activity (perfusion) is elevated in schizophrenic psychosis, as measured with positron emission tomography (PET) and with magnetic resonance (MR) perfusion techniques, while hippocampal activation to memory tasks is reduced. Subfield-specific hippocampal molecular pathology exists in human psychosis tissue which could underlie this neuronal hyperactivity, including increased GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors in hippocampal CA3, along with increased postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95) along with augmented dendritic spines on the pyramidal neuron apical dendrites. We interpret these observations to implicate a reduction in the influence of a ubiquitous gene repressor, repressor element-1 silencing transcription factor (REST) in psychosis; REST is involved in the age-related maturation of the NMDA receptor from GluN2B- to GluN2A-containing NMDA receptors through epigenetic remodeling. These CA3 changes in psychosis leave the hippocampus liable to pathological increases in neuronal activity, feedforward excitation and false memory formation, sometimes with psychotic content.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
97Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2015 Apr 25: 566-82
PMID25649681
TitleProgressive recruitment of cortical and striatal regions by inducible postsynaptic density transcripts after increasing doses of antipsychotics with different receptor profiles: insights for psychosis treatment.
AbstractAntipsychotics may modulate the transcription of multiple gene programs, including those belonging to postsynaptic density (PSD) network, within cortical and subcortical brain regions. Understanding which brain region is activated progressively by increasing doses of antipsychotics and how their different receptor profiles may impact such an activation could be relevant to better correlate the mechanism of action of antipsychotics both with their efficacy and side effects. We analyzed the differential topography of PSD transcripts by incremental doses of two antipsychotics: haloperidol, the prototypical first generation antipsychotic with prevalent dopamine D2 receptors antagonism, and asenapine, a second generation antipsychotic characterized by multiple receptors occupancy. We investigated the expression of PSD genes involved in synaptic plasticity and previously demonstrated to be modulated by antipsychotics: Homer1a, and its related interacting constitutive genes Homer1b/c and PSD95, as well as Arc, C-fos and Zif-268, also known to be induced by antipsychotics administration. We found that increasing acute doses of haloperidol induced immediate-early genes (IEGs) expression in different striatal areas, which were progressively recruited by incremental doses with a dorsal-to-ventral gradient of expression. Conversely, increasing acute asenapine doses progressively de-recruited IEGs expression in cortical areas and increased striatal genes signal intensity. These effects were mirrored by a progressive reduction in locomotor animal activity by haloperidol, and an opposite increase by asenapine. Thus, we demonstrated for the first time that antipsychotics may progressively recruit PSD-related IEGs expression in cortical and subcortical areas when administered at incremental doses and these effects may reflect a fine-tuned dose-dependent modulation of the PSD.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
98Schizophr. Res. 2015 Dec 169: 83-8
PMID26545297
TitleChanges in cholinergic and glutamatergic markers in the striatum from a sub-set of subjects with schizophrenia.
AbstractHaving separated a sub-group of people with schizophrenia based on a marked loss of cortical [(3)H]pirenzepine binding (MRDS); we wished to determine if MRDS had lower levels of [(3)H]pirenzepine and other muscarinic receptor antagonist binding to the striatum and if this was due to loss of pre- or post-synaptic neurons or glia measured using surrogate markers (25 kilodalton synaptosomal-associated protein (SNAP 25), postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD 95), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) 41/43) of cell number.
[(3)H]pirenzepine, [(3)H]AF-DX 384 and [(3)H]4-DAMP binding to the striatum from 37 subjects with schizophrenia (19 MRDS) and 20 controls as well as SNAP 25, PSD 95 and GFAP 41/43 in crude particulate membrane were measured.
[(3)H]pirenzepine and [(3)H]AF-DX 384 binding to the striatum were significantly lower in schizophrenia due to lower binding of both radioligands in the striatum from MRDS. Levels of PSD 95 were higher in schizophrenia, predominantly due to higher levels in MRDS.
Our data suggest muscarinic M1 ([(3)H]pirenzepine) and M2 and/or M4 receptors ([(3)H]AF-DX 384) are lower in the striatum from MRDS which could mediate inappropriate adaption to internal and external cues which, in turn, would affect motivation, cognition and motor control. Increased levels of PSD 95 could indicate increased post-synaptic boutons or changes in NMDA receptor-mediated signalling in MRDS.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
99Mol. Psychiatry 2015 Apr 20: 424-32
PMID25048004
TitleProteomic and genomic evidence implicates the postsynaptic density in schizophrenia.
AbstractThe postsynaptic density (PSD) contains a complex set of proteins of known relevance to neuropsychiatric disorders, and schizophrenia specifically. We enriched for this anatomical structure, in the anterior cingulate cortex, of 20 schizophrenia samples and 20 controls from the Stanley Medical Research Institute, and used unbiased shotgun proteomics incorporating label-free quantitation to identify differentially expressed proteins. Quantitative investigation of the PSD revealed more than 700 protein identifications and 143 differentially expressed proteins. Prominent among these were altered expression of proteins involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) (Dynamin-1, adaptor protein 2) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-interacting proteins such as CYFIP2, SYNPO, SHANK3, ESYT and MAPK3 (all P<0.0015). Pathway analysis of the differentially expressed proteins implicated the cellular processes of endocytosis, long-term potentiation and calcium signaling. Both single-gene and gene-set enrichment analyses in genome-wide association data from the largest schizophrenia sample to date of 13,689 cases and 18,226 controls show significant association of HIST1H1E and MAPK3, and enrichment of our PSD proteome. Taken together, our data provide robust evidence implicating PSD-associated proteins and genes in schizophrenia, and suggest that within the PSD, NMDA-interacting and endocytosis-related proteins contribute to disease pathophysiology.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
100Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry 2015 Oct 62: 35-43
PMID25979765
TitleD-aspartate dysregulation in Ddo(-/-) mice modulates phencyclidine-induced gene expression changes of postsynaptic density molecules in cortex and striatum.
AbstractN-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) hypofunction has been considered a key alteration in schizophrenia pathophysiology. Thus, several strategies aimed at enhancing glutamatergic transmission, included the introduction in therapy of D-amino acids, such as D-serine and D-cycloserine augmentation, have been proposed to counteract difficult-to-treat symptoms or treatment-resistant forms of schizophrenia. Another D-amino acid, D-aspartate, has recently gained increasing interest for its role in NMDAR activation and has been found reduced in post-mortem cortex of schizophrenia patients. NMDAR is the core of the postsynaptic density (PSD), a postsynaptic site involved in glutamate signaling and responsive to antipsychotic treatment. In this study, we investigated striatal and cortical gene expression of key PSD transcripts (i.e. Homer1a, Homer1b/c, and PSD-95) in mice with persistently elevated brain D-aspartate-levels, i.e. the D-aspartate-oxidase knockout mice (Ddo(-/-)). These animal models were analyzed both in naive condition and after phencyclidine (PCP) treatment. Naive Ddo(-/-) mice showed decreased Homer1a expression in the prefrontal cortex, increased Homer1b/c expression in the striatum, and decreased PSD-95 expression in the striatum and in the cortex. Acute PCP treatment restored, and even potentiated, Homer1a expression in the prefrontal cortex of mutant mice, while it had limited effects on the other genes. These results suggest that persistently elevated D-aspartate, by enhancing NMDA transmission, may cause complex adaptive mechanisms affecting Homer1a, which in turn may explain the recently demonstrated protective effects of this D-amino acid against PCP-induced behavioral alterations, such as ataxic behavior.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
101Front Synaptic Neurosci 2015 -1 7: 3
PMID25745399
TitleGenetic targeting of NRXN2 in mice unveils role in excitatory cortical synapse function and social behaviors.
AbstractHuman genetics has identified rare copy number variations and deleterious mutations for all neurexin genes (NRXN1-3) in patients with neurodevelopmental diseases, and electrophysiological recordings in animal brains have shown that Nrxns are important for synaptic transmission. While several mouse models for Nrxn1? inactivation have previously been studied for behavioral changes, very little information is available for other variants. Here, we validate that mice lacking Nrxn2? exhibit behavioral abnormalities, characterized by social interaction deficits and increased anxiety-like behavior, which partially overlap, partially differ from Nrxn1? mutant behaviors. Using patch-clamp recordings in Nrxn2? knockout brains, we observe reduced spontaneous transmitter release at excitatory synapses in the neocortex. We also analyse at this cellular level a novel NRXN2 mouse model that carries a combined deletion of Nrxn2? and Nrxn2?. Electrophysiological analysis of this Nrxn2-mutant mouse shows surprisingly similar defects of excitatory release to Nrxn2?, indicating that the ?-variant of Nrxn2 has no strong function in basic transmission at these synapses. Inhibitory transmission as well as synapse densities and ultrastructure remain unchanged in the neocortex of both models. Furthermore, at Nrxn2? and Nrxn2-mutant excitatory synapses we find an altered facilitation and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) function because NMDAR-dependent decay time and NMDAR-mediated responses are reduced. As Nrxn can indirectly be linked to NMDAR via neuroligin and PSD-95, the trans-synaptic nature of this complex may help to explain occurrence of presynaptic and postsynaptic effects. Since excitatory/inhibitory imbalances and impairment of NMDAR function are alledged to have a role in autism and schizophrenia, our results support the idea of a related pathomechanism in these disorders.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
102Behav. Brain Res. 2015 Jan 276: 130-42
PMID24747658
TitleModeling combined schizophrenia-related behavioral and metabolic phenotypes in rodents.
Abstractschizophrenia is a chronic, debilitating disorder with a complex behavioral and cognitive phenotype underlined by a similarly complex etiology involving an interaction between susceptibility genes and environmental factors during early development. Limited progress has been made in developing novel pharmacotherapy, partly due to a lack of valid animal models. The recent recognition of the potentially causal role of central and peripheral energy metabolism in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia raises the need of research on animal models that combine both behavioral and metabolic phenotypic domains, similar to what have been identified in humans. In this review we focus on selected genetic (DBA/2J mice, leptin receptor mutants, and PSD-93 knockout mice), early neurodevelopmental (maternal protein deprivation) and pharmacological (acute phencyclidine) animal models that capture the combined behavioral and metabolic abnormalities shown by schizophrenic patients. In reviewing behavioral phenotypes relevant to schizophrenia we apply the principles established by the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) for better translation. We demonstrate that etiologically diverse manipulations such as specific breeding, deletion of genes that are primarily involved in metabolic regulation and in synaptic plasticity, as well as early metabolic deprivation and adult pharmacological challenge of the glutamate system can lead to schizophrenia-related behavioral and metabolic phenotypes, which suggest that these pathways might be interlinked. We propose that using animal models that combine different domains of schizophrenia can be used as a translationally valid approach to capture the system-level complex interplay between peripheral and central processes in the development of psychopathology.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
103Neuropsychopharmacology 2015 Nov 40: 2666-75
PMID25953359
TitleFunctional Uncoupling NMDAR NR2A Subunit from PSD-95 in the Prefrontal Cortex: Effects on Behavioral Dysfunction and Parvalbumin Loss after Early-Life Stress.
AbstractExposure to early-life stress increases vulnerability to psychiatric disorders, including depression, schizophrenia, and anxiety. Growing evidence implicates aberrant development of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in the effects of early-life stress, which often emerge in adolescence or young adulthood. Specifically, early-life stress in the form of maternal separation (MS) in rodents has been shown to decrease parvalbumin (PVB)-positive interneurons in the adolescent PFC; however, the mechanism underpinning behavioral dysfunction and PVB loss is not yet known. We recently reported that MS causes overexpression of the NMDA subunit NR2A in the PFC of adolescent rats. Elevated PFC NR2A is also found in developmental models of schizophrenia and is correlated with behavioral deficits, acting largely through its association with the postsynaptic protein PSD-95. In addition, adolescent maturation of PVB-positive interneurons relies on NR2A-driven NMDA activity. Therefore, it is possible that the NR2A/PSD-95 signaling complex has a role in adolescent MS effects. Here, we aimed to determine whether a discrete manipulation of PFC NR2A could prevent MS effects on PFC-controlled behaviors, including cognition, anxiety, and novelty-induced hyperlocomotion, as well as PVB loss in adolescence. We intracranially infused the NR2A-specific blocking peptide TAT2A in order to uncouple NR2A from PSD-95 in the early-adolescent PFC, without antagonizing the NMDA receptor. We demonstrated that MS rats treated with TAT2A during early adolescence were protected from MS-induced PVB loss and exhibited less anxious behavior than those infused with control peptide. These data implicate NR2A-related N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor development in adolescent behavioral and neural consequences of early-life stress.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
104PLoS ONE 2015 -1 10: e0141322
PMID26675663
TitleDeterminants of Psychosocial Difficulties Experienced by Persons with Brain Disorders: Towards a 'Horizontal Epidemiology' Approach.
AbstractPersons with brain disorders experience significant psychosocial difficulties (PSD) in daily life, e.g. problems with managing daily routine or emotional lability, and the level of the PSD depends on social, physical and political environments, and psychologic-personal determinants. Our objective is to determine a brief set of environmental and psychologic-personal factors that are shared determinants of PSD among persons with different brain disorders.
Cross-sectional study, convenience sample of persons with either dementia, stroke, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, migraine, depression, schizophrenia, substance dependence or Parkinson's disease. Random forest regression and classical linear regression were used in the analyses.
722 subjects were interviewed in four European countries. The brief set of determinants encompasses presence of comorbidities, health status appraisal, stressful life events, personality changes, adaptation, self-esteem, self-worth, built environment, weather, and health problems in the family.
The identified brief set of common determinants of PSD can be used to support the implementation of cross-cutting interventions, social actions and policy tools to lower PSD experienced by persons with brain disorders. This set complements a recently proposed reliable and valid direct metric of PSD for brain disorders called PARADISE24.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
105PLoS ONE 2015 -1 10: e0136271
PMID26352911
TitleUnderstanding the Impact of Brain Disorders: Towards a 'Horizontal Epidemiology' of Psychosocial Difficulties and Their Determinants.
AbstractTo test the hypothesis of 'horizontal epidemiology', i.e. that psychosocial difficulties (PSDs), such as sleep disturbances, emotional instability and difficulties in personal interactions, and their environmental determinants are experienced in common across neurological and psychiatric disorders, together called brain disorders.
A multi-method study involving systematic literature reviews, content analysis of patient-reported outcomes and outcome instruments, clinical input and a qualitative study was carried out to generate a pool of PSD and environmental determinants relevant for nine different brain disorders, namely epilepsy, migraine, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, stroke, dementia, depression, schizophrenia and substance dependency. Information from these sources was harmonized and compiled, and after feedback from external experts, a data collection protocol including PSD and determinants common across these nine disorders was developed. This protocol was implemented as an interview in a cross-sectional study including a convenience sample of persons with one of the nine brain disorders. PSDs endorsed by at least 25% of patients with a brain disorder were considered associated with the disorder. PSD were considered common across disorders if associated to 5 out of the 9 brain disorders and if among the 5 both neurological and psychiatric conditions were represented.
The data collection protocol with 64 PSDs and 20 determinants was used to collect data from a convenience sample of 722 persons in four specialized health care facilities in Europe.
57 of the PSDs and 16 of the determinants included in the protocol were found to be experienced across brain disorders.
This is the first evidence that supports the hypothesis of horizontal epidemiology in brain disorders. This result challenges the brain disorder-specific or vertical approach in which clinical and epidemiological research about psychosocial difficulties experienced in daily life is commonly carried in neurology and psychiatry and the way in which the corresponding health care delivery is practiced in many countries of the world.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
106Schizophr. Res. 2015 Oct 168: 554-62
PMID26260078
TitleMolecular evidence for decreased synaptic efficacy in the postmortem olfactory bulb of individuals with schizophrenia.
AbstractMultiple lines of evidence suggest altered synaptic plasticity/connectivity as a pathophysiologic mechanism for various symptom domains of schizophrenia. Olfactory dysfunction, an endophenotype of schizophrenia, reflects altered activity of the olfactory circuitry, which conveys signals from olfactory receptor neurons to the olfactory cortex via synaptic connections in the glomeruli of the olfactory bulb. The olfactory system begins with intranasal olfactory receptor neuron axons synapsing with mitral and tufted cells in the glomeruli of the olfactory bulb, which then convey signals directly to the olfactory cortex. We hypothesized that olfactory dysfunction in schizophrenia is associated with dysregulation of synaptic efficacy in the glomeruli of the olfactory bulb. To test this, we employed semi-quantitative immunohistochemistry to examine the olfactory bulbs of 13 postmortem samples from schizophrenia and their matched control pairs for glomerular expression of 5 pre- and postsynaptic proteins that are involved in the integrity and function of synapses. In the glomeruli of schizophrenia cases compared to their matched controls, we found significant decreases in three presynaptic proteins which play crucial roles in vesicular glutamate transport - synapsin IIa (-18.05%, p=0.019), synaptophysin (-24.08% p=0.0016) and SNAP-25 (-23.9%, p=0.046). Two postsynaptic proteins important for spine formation and glutamatergic signaling were also decreased-spinophilin (-17.40%, p=0.042) and PSD-95 (-34.06%, p=0.015). These findings provide molecular evidence for decreased efficacy of synapses within the olfactory bulb, which may represent a synaptic mechanism underlying olfactory dysfunction in schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
107Mol Autism 2015 -1 6: 17
PMID25780553
TitleThe association of GPR85 with PSD-95-neuroligin complex and autism spectrum disorder: a molecular analysis.
AbstractAutism spectrum disorder (ASD) has a complex genetic etiology. Some symptoms and mutated genes, including neuroligin (NLGN), neurexin (NRXN), and SH3 and multiple ankyrin repeat domains protein (SHANK), are shared by schizophrenia and ASD. Little is known about the molecular pathogenesis of ASD. One of the possible molecular pathogenesis is an imbalance of excitatory and inhibitory receptors linked with the NLGN-PSD-95-SHANK complex via postsynaptic density protein/Drosophila disc large tumor suppressor/zonula occludens-1 protein (PDZ) binding. In the present study, we focused on GPR85 as a candidate gene for ASD because the C-terminal amino acid sequence of GPR85 [Thr-Cys-Val-Ile (YCVI)] is classified as a type II PDZ-binding motif, and GPR85 is a risk factor for schizophrenia. GPR85 is an orphan receptor that regulates neural and synaptic plasticity and modulates diverse behaviors, including learning and memory. While searching for molecules that associate with GPR85, we found that GPR85 was associated with postsynaptic density protein (PSD)-95 linked with NLGN in the brain.
We examined the proteins that associate with the C-terminal sequence of GPR85 by pull-down assay and immunoblot analysis and searched for a mutation of the GPR85 gene in patients with ASD. We used immunostaining to examine the intracellular localization of mutated GPR85 and its influence on the morphology of cells and neurons.
The C-terminal sequence of GPR85 interacted with PSD-95 at PDZ1, while NLGN interacted with PSD-95 at PDZ3. Two male patients with ASD from independent Japanese families possessed inherited missense mutations at conserved sites in GPR85: one had T1033C (M152T) and the other had G1239T (V221L). These mutations were located in a domain related to G protein interaction and signal transduction. In contrast to wild-type GPR85, mutated GPR85 was more preferentially accumulated, causing endoplasmic reticulum stress, and disturbed the dendrite formation of hippocampal neurons.
GPR85 associated with the PSD-95 linked with NLGN, which is related to ASD. GPR85 carrying the mutations detected in ASD patients disturbed dendrite formation that could be the candidate for molecular pathogenesis of ASD through the associated NLGN-PSD-95 receptor complex.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
108Mol. Neurobiol. 2015 Dec 52: 1771-90
PMID25394379
TitleMicroRNAs in Schizophrenia: Implications for Synaptic Plasticity and Dopamine-Glutamate Interaction at the Postsynaptic Density. New Avenues for Antipsychotic Treatment Under a Theranostic Perspective.
AbstractDespite dopamine-glutamate aberrant interaction that has long been considered a relevant landmark of psychosis pathophysiology, several aspects of these two neurotransmitters reciprocal interaction remain to be defined. The emerging role of postsynaptic density (PSD) proteins at glutamate synapse as a molecular "lego" making a functional hub where different signals converge may add a new piece of information to understand how dopamine-glutamate interaction may work with regard to schizophrenia pathophysiology and treatment. More recently, compelling evidence suggests a relevant role for microRNA (miRNA) as a new class of dopamine and glutamate modulators with regulatory functions in the reciprocal interaction of these two neurotransmitters. Here, we aimed at addressing the following issues: (i) Do miRNAs have a role in schizophrenia pathophysiology in the context of dopamine-glutamate aberrant interaction? (ii) If miRNAs are relevant for dopamine-glutamate interaction, at what level this modulation takes place? (iii) Finally, will this knowledge open the door to innovative diagnostic and therapeutic tools? The biogenesis of miRNAs and their role in synaptic plasticity with relevance to schizophrenia will be considered in the context of dopamine-glutamate interaction, with special focus on miRNA interaction with PSD elements. From this framework, implications both for biomarkers identification and potential innovative interventions will be considered.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
109Biol. Psychiatry 2015 Jan 77: 52-8
PMID25152434
TitleGenetic risk for schizophrenia: convergence on synaptic pathways involved in plasticity.
AbstractRecent large-scale genomic studies have revealed two broad classes of risk alleles for schizophrenia: a polygenic component of risk mediated through multiple common risk variants and rarer more highly penetrant submicroscopic chromosomal deletions and duplications, known as copy number variants. The focus of this review is on the emerging findings from the latter and subsequent exome sequencing data of smaller, deleterious single nucleotide variants and indels. In these studies, schizophrenia patients were found to have enriched de novo mutations in genes belonging to the postsynaptic density at glutamatergic synapses, particularly components of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor signaling complex, including the PSD-95 complex, activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein interactors, the fragile X mental retardation protein complex, voltage-gated calcium channels, and genes implicated in actin cytoskeletal dynamics. The convergence of these implicated genes onto a coherent biological pathway at the synapse, with a specific role in plasticity, provides a significant advance in understanding pathogenesis and points to new targets for biological investigation. We consider the implications of these studies in the context of existing genetic data and the potential need to reassess diagnostic boundaries of neuropsychiatric disorders before discussing ways forward for more directed mechanistic studies to develop stratified, novel therapeutic approaches in the future.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
110Behav. Brain Res. 2015 Jan 276: 130-42
PMID24747658
TitleModeling combined schizophrenia-related behavioral and metabolic phenotypes in rodents.
Abstractschizophrenia is a chronic, debilitating disorder with a complex behavioral and cognitive phenotype underlined by a similarly complex etiology involving an interaction between susceptibility genes and environmental factors during early development. Limited progress has been made in developing novel pharmacotherapy, partly due to a lack of valid animal models. The recent recognition of the potentially causal role of central and peripheral energy metabolism in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia raises the need of research on animal models that combine both behavioral and metabolic phenotypic domains, similar to what have been identified in humans. In this review we focus on selected genetic (DBA/2J mice, leptin receptor mutants, and PSD-93 knockout mice), early neurodevelopmental (maternal protein deprivation) and pharmacological (acute phencyclidine) animal models that capture the combined behavioral and metabolic abnormalities shown by schizophrenic patients. In reviewing behavioral phenotypes relevant to schizophrenia we apply the principles established by the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) for better translation. We demonstrate that etiologically diverse manipulations such as specific breeding, deletion of genes that are primarily involved in metabolic regulation and in synaptic plasticity, as well as early metabolic deprivation and adult pharmacological challenge of the glutamate system can lead to schizophrenia-related behavioral and metabolic phenotypes, which suggest that these pathways might be interlinked. We propose that using animal models that combine different domains of schizophrenia can be used as a translationally valid approach to capture the system-level complex interplay between peripheral and central processes in the development of psychopathology.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
111Brain Res. Bull. 2016 May -1: -1
PMID27237129
TitleResearch progress in NOS1AP in neurological and psychiatric diseases.
AbstractNitric Oxide Synthase 1 Adaptor Protein (NOS1AP, previously named CAPON) was firstly identified in rat brain in 1998. Structurally, NOS1AP consists of a phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domain at its N-terminal and a PDZ (PSD-95/discs-large/ZO-1) ligand motif at its C-terminal. The PTB domain of NOS1AP mediates the interactions with Dexras1, scribble, and synapsins. The PDZ ligand motif of NOS1AP binds to the PDZ domain of NOS1, the enzyme responsible for nitric oxide synthesis in the nervous system. NOS1AP is implicated in Dexras1 activation, neuronal nitric oxide production, Hippo pathway signaling, and dendritic development through the association with these important partners. An increasing body of evidence is pointing to the significant roles of NOS1AP in excitotoxic neuronal damage, traumatic nervous system injury, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia. However, the study progress in NOS1AP in neurological or psychiatric diseases, has not been systematically reviewed. Here we introduce the expression, structure, and isoforms of NOS1AP, then summarize the physiological roles of NOS1AP, and discuss the relationships between NOS1AP alterations and the pathophysiology of some neurological and psychiatric disorders. The review will promote the further investigation of NOS1AP in brain disorders and the development of drugs targeting the NOS1AP PTB domain or PDZ-binding motif in the future.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
112Neurochem. Int. 2016 Mar -1: -1
PMID26970394
TitleMultiple faces of protein interacting with C kinase 1 (PICK1): Structure, function, and diseases.
AbstractProtein interacting with C-kinase 1 (PICK1) has received considerable attention because it is the only protein that contains both PSD-95/DlgA/ZO-1 (PDZ) domain and Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs (BAR) domain. Through PDZ and BAR domains, PICK1 binds to a large number of membrane proteins and lipid molecules, and is thereby of multiple functions. PICK1 is widely expressed in various tissues, particularly abundant in the brain and testis. In the central nervous system (CNS), PICK1 interacts with numerous neurotransmitters receptors, transporters, ion channels, and enzymes, and controls their trafficking. The best characterized function of PICK1 is that it regulates trafficking of ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid receptor (AMPAR) subunit GluA2 during long-term depression and long-term potentiation. Recent evidence shows that PICK1 participates in various diseases including neurobiological disorders, such as chronic pain, epilepsy, oxidative stress, stroke, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, schizophrenia, and non-neurological disorders, such as globozoospermia, breast cancer, and heart failure. In this review, we will summarize recent advances focusing on the structure and regulation of PICK1 and its functions in protein trafficking, neurological and non-neurological diseases.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
113J Neurodev Disord 2016 -1 8: 14
PMID27134685
TitleEffects of sex and DTNBP1 (dysbindin) null gene mutation on the developmental GluN2B-GluN2A switch in the mouse cortex and hippocampus.
AbstractNeurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia differentially impact males and females and are highly heritable. The ways in which sex and genetic vulnerability influence the pathogenesis of these disorders are not clearly understood. The n-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor pathway has been implicated in schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders and changes dramatically across postnatal development at the level of the GluN2B-GluN2A subunit "switch" (a shift from reliance on GluN2B-containing receptors to reliance on GluN2A-containing receptors). We investigated whether sex and genetic vulnerability (specifically, null mutation of DTNBP1 [dysbindin; a possible susceptibility gene for schizophrenia]) influence the developmental GluN2B-GluN2A switch.
Subcellular fractionation to enrich for postsynaptic density (PSD), together with Western blotting and kinase assay, were used to investigate the GluN2B-GluN2A switch in the cortex and hippocampus of male and female DTNBP1 null mutant mice and their wild-type littermates. Main effects of sex and DTNBP1 genotype, and interactions with age, were assessed using factorial ANOVA.
Sex differences in the GluN2B-GluN2A switch emerged across development at the frontal cortical synapse, in parameters related to GluN2B. Males across genotypes displayed higher GluN2B:GluN2A and GluN2B:GluN1 ratios (p?Sex and DTNBP1 mutation influence the GluN2B-GluN2A switch at the synapse in a brain-region-specific fashion involving pY1472-GluN2B, Fyn, and PLC?. This highlights the possible mechanisms through which risk factors may mediate their effects on vulnerability to disorders of NMDA receptor dysfunction.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
114Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry 2016 May 70: 24-38
PMID27177972
TitleSwitching antipsychotics: Imaging the differential effect on the topography of postsynaptic density transcripts in antipsychotic-nave vs. antipsychotic-exposed rats.
AbstractThe postsynaptic density (PSD) has been regarded as a functional switchboard at the crossroads of a dopamine-glutamate interaction, and it is putatively involved in the pathophysiology of psychosis. Indeed, it has been demonstrated that antipsychotics may modulate several PSD transcripts, such as PSD-95, Shank, and Homer. Despite switching antipsychotics is a frequent strategy to counteract lack of efficacy and/or side effect onset in clinical practice, no information is available on the effects of sequential treatments with different antipsychotics on PSD molecules. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a previous exposure to a typical antipsychotic and a switch to an atypical one may affect the expression of PSD transcripts, in order to evaluate potential neurobiological correlates of this common clinical practice, with specific regards to putative synaptic plasticity processes. We treated male Sprague-Dawley rats intraperitoneally for 15days with haloperidol or vehicle, then from the sixteenth day we switched the animals to amisulpride or continued to treat them with vehicle or haloperidol for 15 additional days. In this way we got six first treatment/second treatment groups: vehicle/vehicle, vehicle/haloperidol, vehicle/amisulpride, haloperidol/vehicle, haloperidol/haloperidol, haloperidol/amisulpride. In this paradigm, we evaluated the expression of brain transcripts belonging to relevant and interacting PSD proteins, both of the Immediate-Early Gene (Homer1a, Arc) and the constitutive classes (Homer1b/c and PSD-95). The major finding was the differential effect of amisulpride on gene transcripts when administered in nave vs. antipsychotic-pretreated rats, with modifications of the ratio between Homer1a/Homer1b transcripts and differential effects in cortex and striatum. These results suggest that the neurobiological effects on PSD transcripts of amisulpride, and possibly of other antipsychotics, may be greatly affected by prior antipsychotic treatments and may impact significantly on the switching procedure.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
115Front Cell Neurosci 2016 -1 10: 34
PMID26941605
TitleD-Serine and Serine Racemase Are Associated with PSD-95 and Glutamatergic Synapse Stability.
AbstractD-serine is an endogenous coagonist at the glycine site of synaptic NMDA receptors (NMDARs), synthesized by serine racemase (SR) through conversion of L-serine. It is crucial for synaptic plasticity and is implicated in schizophrenia. Our previous studies demonstrated specific loss of SR, D-serine-responsive synaptic NMDARs, and glutamatergic synapses in cortical neurons lacking ?7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, which promotes glutamatergic synapse formation and maturation during development. We thus hypothesize that D-serine and SR (D-serine/SR) are associated with glutamatergic synaptic development. Using morphological and molecular studies in cortical neuronal cultures, we demonstrate that D-serine/SR are associated with PSD-95 and NMDARs in postsynaptic neurons and with glutamatergic synapse stability during synaptic development. Endogenous D-serine and SR colocalize with PSD-95, but not presynaptic vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGLUT1), in glutamatergic synapses of cultured cortical neurons. Low-density astrocytes in cortical neuronal cultures lack SR expression but contain enriched D-serine in large vesicle-like structures, suggesting possible synthesis of D-serine in postsynaptic neurons and storage in astrocytes. More interestingly, endogenous D-serine and SR colocalize with PSD-95 in the postsynaptic terminals of glutamatergic synapses during early and late synaptic development, implicating involvement of D-serine/SR in glutamatergic synaptic development. Exogenous application of D-serine enhances the interactions of SR with PSD-95 and NR1, and increases the number of VGLUT1- and PSD-95-positive glutamatergic synapses, suggesting that exogenous D-serine enhances postsynaptic SR/PSD-95 signaling and stabilizes glutamatergic synapses during cortical synaptic development. This is blocked by NMDAR antagonist 2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (AP5) and 7-chlorokynurenic acid (7-CK), a specific antagonist at the glycine site of NMDARs, demonstrating that D-serine effects are mediated through postsynaptic NMDARs. Conversely, exogenous application of glycine has no such effects, suggesting D-serine, rather than glycine, modulates postsynaptic events. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that D-serine/SR are associated with PSD-95 and NMDARs in postsynaptic neurons and with glutamatergic synapse stability during synaptic development, implicating D-serine/SR as regulators of cortical synaptic and circuit development.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics