1Mol. Psychiatry 2011 Apr 16: 362-4
Title'The missing genes: what happened to the heritability of psychiatric disorders?'.
AbstractLess than 2% of the 80-90% heritability of major psychiatric disease, for example, schizophrenia and manic-depressive illness is attributable to genes identified by linkage and association. Where is the missing heritability? The recently described PRDM9 gene imposes epigenetic stability on the XY body in male meiosis including Sapiens-specific variation relating to a gene pair (Protocadherin11XY) created by X to Y duplication at 6MYA. Thus sexually dimorphic variation that distinguishes the species may be transmitted between generations in epigenetic form that evades detection by linkage and association.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia
2Transl Psychiatry 2015 -1 5: e680
TitleBrain-specific epigenetic markers of schizophrenia.
AbstractEpigenetics plays a crucial role in schizophrenia susceptibility. In a previous study, we identified over 4500 differentially methylated sites in prefrontal cortex (PFC) samples from schizophrenia patients. We believe this was the first genome-wide methylation study performed on human brain tissue using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 Bead Chip. To understand the biological significance of these results, we sought to identify a smaller number of differentially methylated regions (DMRs) of more functional relevance compared with individual differentially methylated sites. Since our schizophrenia whole genome methylation study was performed, another study analysing two separate data sets of post-mortem tissue in the PFC from schizophrenia patients has been published. We analysed all three data sets using the bumphunter function found in the Bioconductor package minfi to identify regions that are consistently differentially methylated across distinct cohorts. We identified seven regions that are consistently differentially methylated in schizophrenia, despite considerable heterogeneity in the methylation profiles of patients with schizophrenia. The regions were near CERS3, DPPA5, PRDM9, DDX43, REC8, LY6G5C and a region on chromosome 10. Of particular interest is PRDM9 which encodes a histone methyltransferase that is essential for meiotic recombination and is known to tag genes for epigenetic transcriptional activation. These seven DMRs are likely to be key epigenetic factors in the aetiology of schizophrenia and normal brain neurodevelopment.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia