1J. Neurosci. 2011 Jul 31: 11088-95
TitleExpression of GABA signaling molecules KCC2, NKCC1, and GAD1 in cortical development and schizophrenia.
AbstractGABA signaling molecules are critical for both human brain development and the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. We examined the expression of transcripts derived from three genes related to GABA signaling [GAD1 (GAD67 and GAD25), SLC12A2 (NKCC1), and SLC12A5 (KCC2)] in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampal formation of a large cohort of nonpsychiatric control human brains (n = 240) across the lifespan (from fetal week 14 to 80 years) and in patients with schizophrenia (n = 30-31), using quantitative RT-PCR. We also examined whether a schizophrenia risk-associated promoter SNP in GAD1 (rs3749034) is related to expression of these transcripts. Our studies revealed that development and maturation of both the PFC and hippocampal formation are characterized by progressive switches in expression from GAD25 to GAD67 and from NKCC1 to KCC2. Previous studies have demonstrated that the former leads to GABA synthesis, and the latter leads to switching from excitatory to inhibitory neurotransmission. In the hippocampal formation, GAD25/GAD67 and NKCC1/KCC2 ratios are increased in patients with schizophrenia, reflecting a potentially immature GABA physiology. Remarkably, GAD25/GAD67 and NKCC1/KCC2 expression ratios are associated with rs3749034 genotype, with risk alleles again predicting a relatively less mature pattern. These findings suggest that abnormalities in GABA signaling critical to brain development contribute to genetic risk for schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia
2J. Neurosci. 2012 Apr 32: 5216-22
TitleTranscript-specific associations of SLC12A5 (KCC2) in human prefrontal cortex with development, schizophrenia, and affective disorders.
AbstractThe neuron-specific K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter SLC12A5, also known as KCC2, helps mediate the electrophysiological effects of GABA. The pattern of KCC2 expression during early brain development suggests that its upregulation drives the postsynaptic switch of GABA from excitation to inhibition. We previously found decreased expression of full-length KCC2 in the postmortem hippocampus of patients with schizophrenia, but not in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Using PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends, we discovered several previously unrecognized alternative KCC2 transcripts in both human adult and fetal brain in addition to the previously identified full-length (NM_020708.3) and truncated (AK098371) transcripts. We measured the expression levels of four relatively abundant truncated splice variants, including three novel transcripts (?EXON6, EXON2B, and EXON6B) and one previously described transcript (AK098371), in a large human cohort of nonpsychiatric controls across the lifespan, and in patients with schizophrenia and affective disorders. In SH-SY5Y cell lines, these transcripts were translated into proteins and expressed at their predicted sizes. Expression of the EXON6B transcript is increased in the DLPFC of patients with schizophrenia (p = 0.03) but decreased in patients with major depression (p = 0.04). The expression of AK098371 is associated with a GAD1 single nucleotide polymorphism (rs3749034) that previously has been associated with GAD67 expression and risk for schizophrenia. Our data confirm the developmental regulation of KCC2 expression, and provide evidence that KCC2 transcripts are differentially expressed in schizophrenia and affective disorders. Alternate transcripts from KCC2 may participate in the abnormal GABA signaling in the DLPFC associated with schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia
3Front Cell Neurosci 2015 -1 9: 386
TitleRegulatory domain or CpG site variation in SLC12A5, encoding the chloride transporter KCC2, in human autism and schizophrenia.
AbstractMany encoded gene products responsible for neurodevelopmental disorders (NDs) like autism spectrum disorders (ASD), schizophrenia (SCZ), intellectual disability (ID), and idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) converge on networks controlling synaptic function. An increase in KCC2 (SLC12A5) Cl(-) transporter activity drives the developmental GABA excitatory-inhibitory sequence, but the role of KCC2 in human NDs is essentially unknown. Here, we report two rare, non-synonymous (NS), functionally-impairing variants in the KCC2 C-terminal regulatory domain (CTRD) in human ASD (R952H and R1049C) and SCZ (R952H) previously linked with IGE and familial febrile seizures, and another novel NS KCC2 variant in ASD (R1048W) with highly-predicted pathogenicity. Exome data from 2517 simplex families in the ASD Simon Simplex Collection (SSC) revealed significantly more KCC2 CTRD variants in ASD cases than controls, and interestingly, these were more often synonymous and predicted to disrupt or introduce a CpG site. Furthermore, full gene analysis showed ASD cases are more likely to contain rare KCC2 variants affecting CpG sites than controls. These data suggest genetically-encoded dysregulation of KCC2-dependent GABA signaling may contribute to multiple human NDs.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia