1Neuropsychopharmacology 2009 Aug 34: 2156-66
TitleAltered M(1) muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (CHRM1)-Galpha(q/11) coupling in a schizophrenia endophenotype.
AbstractAlterations in muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (CHRM) populations have been implicated in the pathology of schizophrenia. Here we have assessed whether the receptor function of the M(1) subtype (CHRM1) is altered in a sub-population of patients with schizophrenia, defined by marked (60-80%) reductions in cortical [3H]-pirenzepine (PZP) binding, and termed 'muscarinic receptor-deficit schizophrenia' (MRDS). Using a [35S]-GTPgammaS-Galpha(q/11) immunocapture method we have assessed whether CHRM1 signalling in human cortex (Brodmann area 9 (BA9)) is altered in post mortem tissue from a MRDS group compared with a subgroup of patients with schizophrenia displaying normal PZP binding, and controls with no known history of psychiatric or neurological disorders. The CHRM agonist (oxotremorine-M) and a CHRM1-selective agonist (AC-42) increased Galpha(q/11)-[35S]-GTPgammaS binding, with AC-42 producing responses that were approximately 50% of those maximally evoked by the full agonist, oxotremorine-M, in control and subgroups of patients with schizophrenia. However, the potency of oxotremorine-M to stimulate Galpha(q/11)-[35S]-GTPgammaS binding was significantly decreased in the MRDS group (pEC(50) (M)=5.69+/-0.16) compared with the control group (6.17+/-0.10) and the non-MRDS group (6.05+/-0.07). The levels of Galpha(q/11) protein present in BA9 did not vary with diagnosis. Maximal oxotremorine-M-stimulated Galpha(q/11)-[35S]-GTPgammaS binding in BA9 membranes was significantly increased in the MRDS group compared with the control group. Similar, though non-statistically significant, trends were observed for AC-42. These data provide evidence that both orthosterically and allosterically acting CHRM agonists can stimulate a receptor-driven functional response ([35S]-GTPgammaS binding to Galpha(q/11)) in membranes prepared from post mortem human dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of patients with schizophrenia and controls . Furthermore, in a subgroup of patients with schizophrenia displaying markedly decreased PZP binding (MRDS) we have shown that although agonist potency may decrease, the efficacy of CHRM1-Galpha(q/11) coupling increases, suggesting an adaptative change in receptor-G protein coupling efficiency in this endophenotype of patients with schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia
2Schizophr. Res. 2014 Sep 158: 247-54
TitleAn investigation of the factors that regulate muscarinic receptor expression in schizophrenia.
AbstractWe previously identified a group of subjects with schizophrenia who, on average, have a 75% decrease in cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 1 (CHRM1) in Brodmann's area (BA) 9. To extend this finding, we determined i) if the decrease in CHRM1 was present in another functionally related CNS region (BA6), ii) whether the marked decrease in CHRM1 was accompanied by changes in levels of other CHRMs and iii) potential factors responsible for the decreased CHRM1 expression. We measured CHRM1 and CHRM3 using in situ radioligand binding with [(3)H]pirenzepine and [(3)H]4-DAMP respectively in BA6 from 20 subjects with schizophrenia who had low levels of CHRM1 in BA9 (SzLow[(3)H]PZP), 18 subjects with schizophrenia whose levels of CHRM1 were similar to controls (SzNormal[(3)H]PZP) and 20 control subjects. Levels of CHRM1, 3 and 4 mRNA were measured using qPCR and levels of the transcription factors, SP1 and SP3, were determined using Western blots. In BA6, the density of [(3)H]pirenzepine binding was decreased in subjects with SzLow[(3)H]PZP (p<0.001) compared to controls. The density of [(3)H]4-DAMP binding, levels of CHRM1, 3 and 4 mRNA and levels of SP1 and SP3 was not significantly different between the three groups. This study shows that the previously identified decrease in CHRM1 expression is not confined to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex but is present in other cortical areas. The effect shows some specificity to CHRM1, with no change in levels of binding to CHRM3. Furthermore, this decrease in CHRM1 does not appear to be associated with low levels of CHRM1 mRNA or to simply be regulated by the transcription factors, SP1 and SP3, suggesting that other mechanisms are responsible for the decreased CHRM1 in these subjects.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia