1Mol. Psychiatry 2009 Mar 14: 308-17
PMID18195716
TitleAssociation between the insulin-induced gene 2 (INSIG2) and weight gain in a German sample of antipsychotic-treated schizophrenic patients: perturbation of SREBP-controlled lipogenesis in drug-related metabolic adverse effects?
AbstractAtypical antipsychotics are nowadays the most widely used drugs to treat schizophrenia and other psychosis. Unfortunately, some of them can cause major metabolic adverse effects, such as weight gain, dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes. The underlying lipogenic mechanisms of the antipsychotic drugs are not known, but several studies have focused on a central effect in the hypothalamic control of appetite regulation and energy expenditure. In a functional convergent genomic approach we recently used a cellular model and demonstrated that orexigenic antipsychotics that induce weight gain activate the expression of lipid biosynthesis genes controlled by the sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) transcription factors. We therefore hypothesized that the major genes involved in the SREBP activation of fatty acids and cholesterol production (SREBF1, SREBF2, SCAP, INSIG1 and INSIG2) would be strong candidate genes for interindividual variation in drug-induced weight gain. We genotyped a total of 44 HapMap-selected tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms in a sample of 160 German patients with schizophrenia that had been monitored with respect to changes in body mass index during antipsychotic drug treatment. We found a strong association (P=0.0003-0.00007) between three markers localized within or near the INSIG2 gene (rs17587100, rs10490624 and rs17047764) and antipsychotic-related weight gain. Our finding is supported by the recent involvement of the INSIG2 gene in obesity in the general population and implicates SREBP-controlled lipogenesis in drug-induced metabolic adverse effects.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
2Mol. Psychiatry 2009 Mar 14: 308-17
PMID18195716
TitleAssociation between the insulin-induced gene 2 (INSIG2) and weight gain in a German sample of antipsychotic-treated schizophrenic patients: perturbation of SREBP-controlled lipogenesis in drug-related metabolic adverse effects?
AbstractAtypical antipsychotics are nowadays the most widely used drugs to treat schizophrenia and other psychosis. Unfortunately, some of them can cause major metabolic adverse effects, such as weight gain, dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes. The underlying lipogenic mechanisms of the antipsychotic drugs are not known, but several studies have focused on a central effect in the hypothalamic control of appetite regulation and energy expenditure. In a functional convergent genomic approach we recently used a cellular model and demonstrated that orexigenic antipsychotics that induce weight gain activate the expression of lipid biosynthesis genes controlled by the sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) transcription factors. We therefore hypothesized that the major genes involved in the SREBP activation of fatty acids and cholesterol production (SREBF1, SREBF2, SCAP, INSIG1 and INSIG2) would be strong candidate genes for interindividual variation in drug-induced weight gain. We genotyped a total of 44 HapMap-selected tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms in a sample of 160 German patients with schizophrenia that had been monitored with respect to changes in body mass index during antipsychotic drug treatment. We found a strong association (P=0.0003-0.00007) between three markers localized within or near the INSIG2 gene (rs17587100, rs10490624 and rs17047764) and antipsychotic-related weight gain. Our finding is supported by the recent involvement of the INSIG2 gene in obesity in the general population and implicates SREBP-controlled lipogenesis in drug-induced metabolic adverse effects.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
3Mol. Psychiatry 2010 May 15: 463-72
PMID18936756
TitlePolymorphisms in SREBF1 and SREBF2, two antipsychotic-activated transcription factors controlling cellular lipogenesis, are associated with schizophrenia in German and Scandinavian samples.
AbstractSeveral studies have reported structural brain abnormalities, decreased myelination and oligodendrocyte dysfunction in schizophrenia. In the central nervous system, glia-derived de novo synthesized cholesterol is essential for both myelination and synaptogenesis. Previously, we demonstrated in glial cell lines that antipsychotic drugs induce the expression of genes involved in cholesterol and fatty acids biosynthesis through activation of the sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) transcription factors, encoded by the sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 (SREBF1) and sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 2 (SREBF2) genes. Considering the importance of these factors in the lipid biosynthesis and their possible involvement in antipsychotic drug effects, we hypothesized that genetic variants of SREBF1 and/or SREBF2 could affect schizophrenia susceptibility. We therefore conducted a HapMap-based association study in a large German sample, and identified association between schizophrenia and five markers in SREBF1 and five markers in SREBF2. Follow-up studies in two independent samples of Danish and Norwegian origin (part of the Scandinavian collaboration of psychiatric etiology study, SCOPE) replicated the association for the five SREBF1 markers and for two markers in SREBF2. A combined analysis of all samples resulted in highly significant genotypic P-values of 9 x 10(-4) for SREBF1 (rs11868035, odd ration (OR)=1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.09-1.45)) and 4 x 10(-5) for SREBF2 (rs1057217, OR=1.39, 95% CI (1.19-1.63)). This finding strengthens the hypothesis that SREBP-controlled cholesterol biosynthesis is involved in the etiology of schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
4Pharmacogenomics 2014 Jan 15: 61-7
PMID24329191
TitlePharmacogenomics of sterol synthesis and statin use in schizophrenia subjects treated with antipsychotics.
AbstractPatients with schizophrenia treated with antipsychotics often develop metabolic side effects including dyslipidemia. Antipsychotics potentially upregulate gene expression of a lipid metabolism pathway protein called SREBP via SREB transcription factors (SREBFs). Genetic variation within SREBF may contribute to dyslipidemias and lipid medication efficacy within schizophrenia.
A cross-sectional study of 157 patients were genotyped for SREBF1 (rs11868035) and SREBF2 (rs1057217) variants, and assessed for fasting lipids. The cohort's mean age was 46.6 years, was 64% male and 86% were using atypical antipsychotics. When stratified by statin use, those receiving a statin and carrying the SREBF1 T allele exhibited higher total cholesterol levels (p = 0.01), triglyceride levels (p = 0.04) and low-density lipoprotein levels (p = 0.03). A regression analysis controlling for gender differences in lipids showed that the SREBF1 T allele and statin interaction remained only for total cholesterol levels (F[4,149] = 5.8; p < 0.0001).
For schizophrenia individuals with the SREBF1 rs11868035 T allele, incomplete response to statin medications may be seen. Future investigations may allow for personalizing dyslipidemia treatment based on pharmacogenetics within schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
5Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry 2015 Jan 56: 136-41
PMID25201120
TitleAssociation between SREBF2 gene polymorphisms and metabolic syndrome in clozapine-treated patients with schizophrenia.
AbstractPatients with schizophrenia using antipsychotics often develop metabolic side effects, especially with clozapine. Previous studies indicated that antipsychotics could activate the pathway of the sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP). The sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 2 (SREBF2) gene mainly regulates the cholesterol biosynthetic gene. Therefore, we hypothesized that the SREBF2 gene would be a candidate gene for interindividual variation in drug-induced metabolic syndrome (MetS). In this genetic case-control study, we examined the SREBF2 gene polymorphisms in the risk of MetS patients treated with clozapine.
Ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of SREBF2 were genotyped in a CHB (Han Chinese in Beijing, China) population, a sample of 621 schizophrenia patients treated with clozapine. Patients were evaluated for metabolic parameters and screened for the MetS criteria.
The incidence of MetS among all subjects was 41.8% (260/621). Two markers of SREBF2 were associated with MetS induced by clozapine after False Discovery Rate (FDR) correction (rs1052717, corrected Pallele=0.010, corrected Pgenotype=0.022; and rs2267443, corrected Pgenotype=0.015). Patients who received clozapine and carried the A-allele of rs2267443 or rs1052717 had an increased risk of MetS (rs2267443, odds ratio (OR)=1.67, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.20-2.34; and rs1052717, OR=1.81, 95% CI: 1.15-1.98), adjusted by logistic regression for clinical characteristics.
The results suggest that the genetic polymorphisms of SREBF2 gene may be associated with MetS in patients treated with clozapine.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic