1Neurocirugia (Astur) 2004 Apr 15: 109-18
PMID15159788
Title[Neurotransmitters, calcium signalling and neuronal communication].
AbstractIn this article we show some recent findings that constitute a great progress in the molecular knowledge of synaptic dynamics. To communicate, neurons use a code that includes electrical (action potentials) and chemical signals (neurotransmitters, neuromodulators). At the moment a great variety of molecules are known, whose neurotransmitter function in brain and the peripheral nervous system are out of question. Monoamines like acetylcholine, dopamine, noradrenaline, adrenaline, histamine, serotonin, glutamate, aspartate, glycine, ATP and GABA are good examples. Opioid neuropeptides, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), neurokinines (substance P), somatostatin, neurotensin, neuropeptide Y, cholecystokinine, vasopressin or oxitocin have been related to the control of the stress response, sexual behaviour, food intake, pain, learning and memory, qualities that are also related to nitric oxide (NO). A great part of the molecular structure of the secretory machinery is known to be responsible for fast neurotransmitter release at the synapse, in response to action potentials. Proteins like sinaptobrevin (located in the membrane of the synaptic vesicle), sintaxin and SNAP-25 (both located at the presynaptic plasma membrane) constitute a trimeric complex which is responsible of the vesicular docking at the active sites for exocytosis. From this strategic location, vesicles release their neurotransmitter within few milliseconds, when the action potential invades the nerve terminal and activates the opening of the different subtypes of voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels. The asymmetric geographical distribution of each type of channel, in different neurons, rose the hypothesis that Ca2+ that enters through each subtype of channel is compartmentalised, thus favouring the generation of Ca2+ microdomains, in the cytosol and the nucleus, involved in different cellular functions. This great biochemical synaptic heterogeneity is facilitating the selection of many biological targets to develop drugs with potential therapeutic applications in neuropsychiatric diseases i.e. Alzheimer's, Parkinson, epilepsies, stroke, vascular dementia, depression, schizophrenia, anxiety and so on.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
2Int. Rev. Neurobiol. 2007 -1 78: 327-76
PMID17349866
TitleInvolvement of neuropeptide systems in schizophrenia: human studies.
AbstractNeuropeptides are heterogeneously distributed throughout the digestive, circulatory, and nervous systems and serve as neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, and hormones. Neuropeptides are phylogenetically conserved and have been demonstrated to regulate numerous behaviors. They have been hypothesized to be pathologically involved in several psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. On the basis of preclinical data, numerous studies have sought to examine the role of neuropeptide systems in schizophrenia. This chapter reviews the clinical data, linking alterations in neuropeptide systems to the etiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of schizophrenia. Data for the following neuropeptide systems are included: arginine-vasopressin, cholecystokinin (CCK), corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), interleukins, neuregulin 1 (NRG1), neurotensin (NT), neuropeptide Y (NPY), opioids, secretin, somatostatin, tachykinins, thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). Data from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), postmortem and genetic studies, as well as clinical trials are described. Despite the inherent difficulties associated with human studies (including small sample size, variable duration of illness, medication status, the presence of comorbid psychiatric disorders, and diagnostic heterogeneity), several findings are noteworthy. Postmortem studies support disease-related alterations in several neuropeptide systems in the frontal and temporal cortices. The strongest genetic evidence supporting a role for neuropeptides in schizophrenia are those studies linking polymorphisms in NRG1 and the CCKA receptor with schizophrenia. Finally, the only compounds that act directly on neuropeptide systems that have demonstrated therapeutic efficacy in schizophrenia are neurokinin receptor antagonists. Clearly, additional investigation into the role of neuropeptide systems in the etiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of schizophrenia is warranted.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
3Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007 -1 -1: CD006346
PMID17253588
TitleMorita therapy for schizophrenia.
AbstractMorita therapy was founded in 1919 by Shoma Morita (1874-1938). The therapy involves a behavioural structured programme to encourage an outward perspective on life and hence an increased social functioning.
To evaluate the effects of Morita therapy for schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like psychoses.
We searched the Cochrane schizophrenia Groups Trials Register, the Chongqing VIP Database, the Wanfang Database (August 2006), all relevant references and contacted the first author of each included study.
We included all randomised clinical trials comparing Morita therapy with any other treatment.
We reliably selected studies and extracted data. For homogenous dichotomous data we calculated random effects, relative risk (RR), 95% confidence intervals (CI) and, where appropriate, numbers needed to treat (NNT) on an intention-to-treat basis. For continuous data, we calculated weighted mean differences (WMD).
We found 11 small, studies of medium-poor quality (total n=1041). The standard care versus Morita therapy comparison (total n=679 people) had very low attrition (<2%, 9 RCTs, RR 1.02 CI 0.3 to 3.1). Mental state did tend to improve with Morita therapy (n=76, 1 RCT, RR no >25-30% decline in BPRS RR 0.36 CI 0.1 to 0.9, NNT 5 CI 4 to 25). For negative symptoms data were inconsistent, with data from three trials favouring Morita therapy (n=243, RR -10.87 CI -20.5 to -1.2), but heterogeneity was considerable (I(2) =92%). Morita therapy plus standard treatment did significantly improve the ability of daily living compared with standard treatment alone (n=104, 1 RCT, WMD -4.1 CI -7.7 to -0.6). Compared with a rehabilitation programme Morita therapy did not promote attrition (n=302, 2 RCTs, RR 1.00 CI 0.5 to 2.1). In two very similar studies Morita therapy showed better effect on mental state with lower BPRS score (n=278, 2 RCTs, WMD -6.95 CI 9.3 to 4.6, I(2) =0%) insight (n=278, 2 RCTs, WMD -1.11 CI -1.3 to -0.9, I(2) = 0%) and social functioning (n=278, WMD average IPROS score -18.14 CI -21.3 to -15.0, I(2) =0%).
Currently trial based data on Morita therapy is inconclusive. Morita therapy for schizophrenia remains an experimental intervention, new trials are justified and specific outlines for design of future studies are outlined in additional tables.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
4Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 2010 Aug 90: 2020-5
PMID21029636
Title[P50 sensory gating studies in schizophrenics: a systematic review].
AbstractTo conduct a systematic review of P50 sensory gating studies in schizophrenics and the change between before and after treatment.
Standard search strategy for the Cochrane Review Group was performed by two review authors. Searches were made in PubMed, EMBase, Web of knowledge, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, CNKI, Wanfang, VIP and CBMDisc databases. STROBE (strengthening the reporting of observational studies in epidemiology) was used to assess the methodological quality of the studies. RevMan 5.0.23 software was employed to conduct a Meta analysis.
Seventy-one literatures were reviewed and 7 studies met the inclusion criteria for a Meta analysis. The meta-analysis of random effects showed that S1 amplitude was lower in the schizophrenia group than in the normal control group (P = 0.02). And S2 amplitude was significant higher in schizophrenia group than the normal control group (P = 0.001). There were no statistical significance in S1 and S2 latency between two groups (P = 0.34 and P = 0.19 respectively). P50 Ratio in schizophrenia group was significantly higher than the normal control group. And the difference was statistically significant [Z = 11.46, P < 0.00001, combined SMD = 44.18, 95%CI (36.62, 51.74)]. However the P50 difference showed no significant difference (P = 0.14). An analysis of fixed effects showed that the P50 Ratio difference was not statistically significant in schizophrenics between before and after treatment (P = 0.19).
The schizophrenics have a sensory gating dysfunction. P50 Ratio is a stable and reliable indicator of sensory gating function. Antipsychotics may partly enhance P50 sensory gating in schizophrenics, but can not completely reverse the defect of P50 suppression.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
5Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 2010 Aug 90: 2020-5
PMID21029636
Title[P50 sensory gating studies in schizophrenics: a systematic review].
AbstractTo conduct a systematic review of P50 sensory gating studies in schizophrenics and the change between before and after treatment.
Standard search strategy for the Cochrane Review Group was performed by two review authors. Searches were made in PubMed, EMBase, Web of knowledge, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, CNKI, Wanfang, VIP and CBMDisc databases. STROBE (strengthening the reporting of observational studies in epidemiology) was used to assess the methodological quality of the studies. RevMan 5.0.23 software was employed to conduct a Meta analysis.
Seventy-one literatures were reviewed and 7 studies met the inclusion criteria for a Meta analysis. The meta-analysis of random effects showed that S1 amplitude was lower in the schizophrenia group than in the normal control group (P = 0.02). And S2 amplitude was significant higher in schizophrenia group than the normal control group (P = 0.001). There were no statistical significance in S1 and S2 latency between two groups (P = 0.34 and P = 0.19 respectively). P50 Ratio in schizophrenia group was significantly higher than the normal control group. And the difference was statistically significant [Z = 11.46, P < 0.00001, combined SMD = 44.18, 95%CI (36.62, 51.74)]. However the P50 difference showed no significant difference (P = 0.14). An analysis of fixed effects showed that the P50 Ratio difference was not statistically significant in schizophrenics between before and after treatment (P = 0.19).
The schizophrenics have a sensory gating dysfunction. P50 Ratio is a stable and reliable indicator of sensory gating function. Antipsychotics may partly enhance P50 sensory gating in schizophrenics, but can not completely reverse the defect of P50 suppression.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
6Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 2011 Feb 18: 61-7
PMID21157320
TitleVIP and PACAP: recent insights into their functions/roles in physiology and disease from molecular and genetic studies.
AbstractVasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) as well as the three classes of G-protein-coupled receptors mediating their effects, are widely distributed in the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral tissues. These peptides are reported to have many effects in different tissues, which are physiological or pharmacological, and which receptor mediates which effect, has been difficult to determine, primarily due to lack of potent, stable, selective agonists/antagonists. Recently the use of animals with targeted knockout of the peptide or a specific receptor has provided important insights into their role in normal physiology and disease states.
During the review period, considerable progress and insights has occurred in the understanding of the role of VIP/PACAP as well as their receptors in a number of different disorders/areas. Particularly, insights into their roles in energy metabolism, glucose regulation, various gastrointestinal processes including gastrointestinal inflammatory conditions and motility and their role in the CNS as well as CNS diseases has greatly expanded.
PACAP/VIP as well as their three classes of receptors are important in many physiological/pathophysiological processes, some of which are identified in these studies using knockout animals. These studies may lead to new novel treatment approaches. Particularly important are their roles in glucose metabolism and on islets leading to possible novel approaches in diabetes; their novel anti-inflammatory, cytoprotective effects, their CNS neuroprotective effects, and their possible roles in diseases such as schizophrenia and chronic depression.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
7Br. J. Pharmacol. 2012 May 166: 4-17
PMID22289055
TitlePharmacology and functions of receptors for vasoactive intestinal peptide and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide: IUPHAR review 1.
AbstractVasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) are members of a superfamily of structurally related peptide hormones that includes glucagon, glucagon-like peptides, secretin, gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP) and growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH). VIP and PACAP exert their actions through three GPCRs - PAC(1) , VPAC(1) and VPAC(2) - belonging to class B (also referred to as class II, or secretin receptor-like GPCRs). This family comprises receptors for all peptides structurally related to VIP and PACAP, and also receptors for parathyroid hormone, corticotropin-releasing factor, calcitonin and related peptides. PAC(1) receptors are selective for PACAP, whereas VPAC(1) and VPAC(2) respond to both VIP and PACAP with high affinity. VIP and PACAP play diverse and important roles in the CNS, with functions in the control of circadian rhythms, learning and memory, anxiety and responses to stress and brain injury. Recent genetic studies also implicate the VPAC(2) receptor in susceptibility to schizophrenia and the PAC(1) receptor in post-traumatic stress disorder. In the periphery, VIP and PACAP play important roles in the control of immunity and inflammation, the control of pancreatic insulin secretion, the release of catecholamines from the adrenal medulla and as co-transmitters in autonomic and sensory neurons. This article, written by members of the International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology Committee on Receptor Nomenclature and Drug Classification (NC-IUPHAR) subcommittee on receptors for VIP and PACAP, confirms the existing nomenclature for these receptors and reviews our current understanding of their structure, pharmacology and functions and their likely physiological roles in health and disease. More detailed information has been incorporated into newly revised pages in the IUPHAR database (http://www.iuphar-db.org/DATABASE/FamilyMenuForward?familyId=67).
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
8Mol Biosyst 2012 Oct 8: 2664-71
PMID22797129
TitleLabel-free quantitative proteomic analysis reveals dysfunction of complement pathway in peripheral blood of schizophrenia patients: evidence for the immune hypothesis of schizophrenia.
Abstractschizophrenia is a complex mental disease caused by a combination of serial alterations in genetic and environmental factors. Although the brain is usually considered as the most relevant organ in schizophrenia, accumulated evidence suggests that peripheral tissues also contribute to this disease. In particular, abnormalities of the immune system have been identified in the peripheral blood of schizophrenia patients. To screen the serum proteomic signature of schizophrenia patients, we conducted shotgun proteomic analysis on serum samples of schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. High-abundance proteins were eliminated by immunoaffinity before LC-MS/MS analysis. The multivariate statistical test partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was applied to build models for screening out variable importance in the projection (VIP) and 27 proteins were identified as being responsible for discriminating between the proteomic profiles of schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. Pathway analysis based on these 27 proteins revealed that complement and coagulation cascades was the most significant pathway. ELISA-based activity analyses indicated that the alternative complement pathway was suppressed in schizophrenia patients. Ingenuity pathways analysis was used to conduct the interaction network of 27 proteins. The network exhibited common features such as, nervous system development and function, humoral immune response and inflammatory response, and highlighted some proteins with important roles in the immune system, such as hub nodes. Our findings indicate dysregulation of the alternative complement pathway in schizophrenia patients. The protein interaction network enhances the interpretation of proteomic data and provides evidence that the immune system may contribute to schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
9Neuropeptides 2013 Dec 47: 421-30
PMID24220567
TitlePACAP and PAC1 receptor in brain development and behavior.
AbstractPituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) act through three class B G-protein coupled receptors, PAC1, VPAC1 and VPAC2, initiating multiple signaling pathways. In addition to natural peptides ligands, a number of synthetic peptides and a small molecular antagonist have been generated. Genetically modified animals have been produced for the neuropeptides and receptors. Neuroanatomical, electrophysiological, behavioral and pharmacological characterization of the mutants and transgenic mice uncovered diverse roles of PACAP-PAC1-VAPC2 signaling in peripheral tissues and in the central nervous system. Human genetic studies suggest that the PACAP-PAC1-VPAC2 signaling can be associated with psychiatric illness via mechanisms of not only loss-of-function, but also gain-of-function. For example, a duplication of chromosome 7q36.3 (encoding the VPAC2 receptor) was shown to be associated with schizophrenia, and high levels of PACAP-PAC1 signaling are associated with posttraumatic stress disorder. Whereas knockout animals are appropriate to address loss-of-function of human genetics, transgenic mice overexpressing human transgenes in native environment using artificial chromosomes are particularly valuable and essential to address the consequences of gain-of-function. This review focuses on role of PACAP and PAC1 receptor in brain development, behavior of animals and potential implication in human neurodevelopmental disorders. It also encourages keeping an open mind that alterations of VIP/PACAP signaling may associate with psychiatric illness without overt neuroanatomic changes, and that tuning of VIP/PACAP signaling may represent a novel avenue for the treatment of the psychiatric illness.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
10Arch Clin Neuropsychol 2014 Mar 29: 164-72
PMID24002172
TitleEffort testing in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder: validity indicator profile and test of memory malingering performance characteristics.
AbstractWhile the Validity Indicator Profile (VIP) and the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) are designed to limit the influence of actual cognitive impairment on successful performance, the extent to which cognitive dysfunction does play a role in the assessment of effort should be verified in distinct clinical groups. To date, little research has been conducted on VIP performance in individuals diagnosed with a psychotic disorder. Fifty-four patients with either schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were administered the VIP, TOMM, Short Test of Mental Status, and the Wide Range Achievement Test-4 Reading subtest. Specificity rates were compared between tests, with normative data, and with published specificity rates in psychiatric samples. Results indicate that the use of the VIP with psychotic-disordered individuals will generate increased invalid performance profiles, whereas the TOMM is more resilient in this population. Significantly, mental status and estimated intellectual ability were predictive of classifications on the VIP Verbal subtest and the TOMM.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
11Oral Dis 2014 Apr 20: e90-6
PMID23731177
TitleParasympathetic vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP): a likely contributor to clozapine-induced sialorrhoea.
AbstractThe parasympathetic transmitter vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) increases salivary gland blood flow and evokes protein secretion and, in some species, such as rats, a small fluid secretion. It interacts synergistically with muscarinics for protein and fluid output. Human salivary acini are supplied with VIP-containing nerves. We hypothesise that VIP and clozapine, acting together, evoke a volume of saliva greater than the sum of those induced by each drug given separately. It was further considered whether, in the current test situation, circulatory events influenced the magnitude of the secretory response.
Saliva from parotid glands deprived of their autonomic innervation, and saliva and blood from innervated submandibular glands were collected in adrenoceptor antagonist-pretreated pentobarbitone-anaesthetised rats. Initially, the individual and then the combined effects of intravenous doses of VIP and clozapine were established.
The submandibular volume response to the combination was 2-3 times higher, while blood pressure and glandular blood flow did not differ from those to VIP alone. The synergism occurred independent of nerves as shown in denervated parotid glands.
From the current preclinical data, we speculate that VIP of parasympathetic origin, by its synergistic interaction with clozapine, may contribute to the clozapine (muscarinic M1-receptor)-induced sialorrhoea in schizophrenics.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
12Oral Dis 2014 Apr 20: e90-6
PMID23731177
TitleParasympathetic vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP): a likely contributor to clozapine-induced sialorrhoea.
AbstractThe parasympathetic transmitter vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) increases salivary gland blood flow and evokes protein secretion and, in some species, such as rats, a small fluid secretion. It interacts synergistically with muscarinics for protein and fluid output. Human salivary acini are supplied with VIP-containing nerves. We hypothesise that VIP and clozapine, acting together, evoke a volume of saliva greater than the sum of those induced by each drug given separately. It was further considered whether, in the current test situation, circulatory events influenced the magnitude of the secretory response.
Saliva from parotid glands deprived of their autonomic innervation, and saliva and blood from innervated submandibular glands were collected in adrenoceptor antagonist-pretreated pentobarbitone-anaesthetised rats. Initially, the individual and then the combined effects of intravenous doses of VIP and clozapine were established.
The submandibular volume response to the combination was 2-3 times higher, while blood pressure and glandular blood flow did not differ from those to VIP alone. The synergism occurred independent of nerves as shown in denervated parotid glands.
From the current preclinical data, we speculate that VIP of parasympathetic origin, by its synergistic interaction with clozapine, may contribute to the clozapine (muscarinic M1-receptor)-induced sialorrhoea in schizophrenics.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
13Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2015 Mar 40: 241-9
PMID25832526
Title[Risk factors for schizophrenia patients with type 2 diabetes: a metaanalysis].
AbstractTo investigate risk factors for schizophrenia patients with complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus and to provide scientific evidence for prevention and management of this disease.
Relevant studies on schizophrenia with type 2 diabetes mellitus in China were searched through PubMed, Medline, CBM, CNKI and VIP from 1997 to 2014. Meta-analysis was performed using RevMan 5.2 soft ware.
A total of 26 studies involving 6 373 participants (including 957 cases and 5 416 controls) were included. The results of Meta-analysis showed that the risk factors for schizophrenic patients with complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus were: gender (female) (OR=1.28, 95%CI: 1.09-1.50), age (? 40 year) (OR=6.02, 95%CI: 4.48-8.09), overweight (OR=2.32, 95%CI: 1.52-2.88), family history of diabetes (OR=6.12, 95%CI: 3.16-11.86), duration of schizophrenia (>10 years) (OR=3.60, 95%CI: 2.39-5.41), triglycerides (MD=0.38, 95%CI: 0.05-0.71).
Male, old age, overweight, family history of diabetes, longer duration and high level of triglycerides are risk factors for schizophrenic patients with complication of diabetes mellitus.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
14Psychopharmacology (Berl.) 2015 Jun 232: 2181-9
PMID25575489
TitleReductions in synaptic proteins and selective alteration of prepulse inhibition in male C57BL/6 mice after postnatal administration of a VIP receptor (VIPR2) agonist.
AbstractAn abundance of genetic and epidemiologic evidence as well as longitudinal neuroimaging data point to developmental origins for schizophrenia and other mental health disorders. Recent clinical studies indicate that microduplications of VIPR2, encoding the vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) receptor VPAC2, confer significant risk for schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder. Lymphocytes from patients with these mutations exhibited higher VIPR2 gene expression and VIP responsiveness (cAMP induction), but mechanisms by which overactive VPAC2 signaling may lead to these psychiatric disorders are unknown.
We subcutaneously administered the highly selective VPAC2 receptor agonist Ro 25-1553 to C57BL/6 mice from postnatal day 1 (P1) to P14 to determine if overactivation of VPAC2 receptor signaling during postnatal brain maturation affects synaptogenesis and selected behaviors.
Western blot analyses on P21 revealed significant reductions of synaptophysin and postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95) in the prefrontal cortex, but not in the hippocampus in Ro 25-1553-treated mice. The same postnatally restricted treatment resulted in a disruption in prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle measured in adult mice. No effects were observed in open-field locomotor activity, sociability in the three-chamber social interaction test, or fear conditioning or extinction.
Overactivation of the VPAC2 receptor in the postnatal mouse results in a reduction in synaptic proteins in the prefrontal cortex and selective alterations in prepulse inhibition. These findings suggest that the VIPR2-linkage to mental health disorders may be due in part to overactive VPAC2 receptor signaling during a critical time of synaptic maturation.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
15Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2015 Mar 40: 241-9
PMID25832526
Title[Risk factors for schizophrenia patients with type 2 diabetes: a metaanalysis].
AbstractTo investigate risk factors for schizophrenia patients with complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus and to provide scientific evidence for prevention and management of this disease.
Relevant studies on schizophrenia with type 2 diabetes mellitus in China were searched through PubMed, Medline, CBM, CNKI and VIP from 1997 to 2014. Meta-analysis was performed using RevMan 5.2 soft ware.
A total of 26 studies involving 6 373 participants (including 957 cases and 5 416 controls) were included. The results of Meta-analysis showed that the risk factors for schizophrenic patients with complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus were: gender (female) (OR=1.28, 95%CI: 1.09-1.50), age (? 40 year) (OR=6.02, 95%CI: 4.48-8.09), overweight (OR=2.32, 95%CI: 1.52-2.88), family history of diabetes (OR=6.12, 95%CI: 3.16-11.86), duration of schizophrenia (>10 years) (OR=3.60, 95%CI: 2.39-5.41), triglycerides (MD=0.38, 95%CI: 0.05-0.71).
Male, old age, overweight, family history of diabetes, longer duration and high level of triglycerides are risk factors for schizophrenic patients with complication of diabetes mellitus.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
16Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2015 Nov 44: 689-702
PMID26822054
Title[Efficacy of family intervention in management of schizophrenic patients in China: a meta-analysis].
AbstractTo assess the efficacy of family intervention in management of schizophrenic patients in China.
Chinese databases CNKI, VIP, WANFANG, CBM and English databases OVID Medline, Science Direct, Web of science, EBSCO were searched systematically from inception to January 2015. Quantitative and empirical studies on the outcomes of social disability screening scale (SDSS), brief psychiatric rating scale (BPRS) and positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) of family intervention for Chinese schizophrenic patients were selected. The effect size was derived from the standardized mean difference (SMD), and meta-analysis was conducted to compare effects of family intervention by intervention types, time of intervention, durations of illness and severity of schizophrenia.
The study included 57 articles that met inclusion criteria. SDSS and PANSS scores revealed that the effect was positively associated with the length of intervention time (P<0.0001, P=0.0025); the effect of single family intervention was better than that of combined single and multiple family intervention (P<0.0001, P=0.0131); the effect was better for patients with severe conditions than those with less severe conditions (P<0.0001, P=0.0280). The SDSS showed that the effect was better for patients with shorter disease duration (P<0.0001).
The results suggest that the long single family intervention would benefit to schizophrenic patients, particularly for severe patients with short disease duration.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
17Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2015 Nov 44: 689-702
PMID26822054
Title[Efficacy of family intervention in management of schizophrenic patients in China: a meta-analysis].
AbstractTo assess the efficacy of family intervention in management of schizophrenic patients in China.
Chinese databases CNKI, VIP, WANFANG, CBM and English databases OVID Medline, Science Direct, Web of science, EBSCO were searched systematically from inception to January 2015. Quantitative and empirical studies on the outcomes of social disability screening scale (SDSS), brief psychiatric rating scale (BPRS) and positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) of family intervention for Chinese schizophrenic patients were selected. The effect size was derived from the standardized mean difference (SMD), and meta-analysis was conducted to compare effects of family intervention by intervention types, time of intervention, durations of illness and severity of schizophrenia.
The study included 57 articles that met inclusion criteria. SDSS and PANSS scores revealed that the effect was positively associated with the length of intervention time (P<0.0001, P=0.0025); the effect of single family intervention was better than that of combined single and multiple family intervention (P<0.0001, P=0.0131); the effect was better for patients with severe conditions than those with less severe conditions (P<0.0001, P=0.0280). The SDSS showed that the effect was better for patients with shorter disease duration (P<0.0001).
The results suggest that the long single family intervention would benefit to schizophrenic patients, particularly for severe patients with short disease duration.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
18Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2015 -1 11: 1817-34
PMID26229477
TitlePaliperidone extended-release tablets in Chinese patients with schizophrenia: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
AbstractPrevious meta-analyses have compared paliperidone extended-release (ER) tablets with other antipsychotics, but none have involved Chinese patients or studies from People's Republic of China. Further, the results of these meta-analyses may not be applicable to Chinese patients. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy, safety, and acceptability of paliperidone ER compared with other second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) for Chinese patients with schizophrenia.
Randomized controlled studies of paliperidone ER and other SGAs as oral monotherapy in the acute phase treatment of schizophrenia were retrieved from Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library (CENTRAL), as well as from Chinese databases including the China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang, and VIP Information/Chinese Scientific Journals Database. We pooled data on response rates, chance of withdrawal due to adverse events, probability of adverse events, and odds of withdrawal for any reason.
Fifty randomized controlled trials were identified. The response rate for paliperidone ER was significantly higher than that of other pooled SGAs (risk ratio [RR] 0.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.72-0.96) and ziprasidone (RR 0.57, 95% CI 0.39-0.82). Paliperidone ER significantly reduced the chance of withdrawal due to adverse events and the chance of any adverse events compared with other pooled SGAs (RR 0.32, 95% CI 0.17-0.58 and RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.79-0.97) and risperidone (RR 0.31, 95% CI 0.14-0.67 and RR 0.70, 95% CI 0.57-0.86). The incidence of extrapyramidal symptoms on paliperidone ER was comparable with other pooled SGAs (RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.66-1.35) and significantly lower than that of risperidone (RR 0.56, 0.41-0.77) but higher than that of olanzapine (RR 1.88, 95% CI 1.05-3.36). Paliperidone ER was superior to other pooled SGAs (RR 0.32, 95% CI 0.21-0.49 and RR 0.50, 95% CI 0.35-0.72) and olanzapine (RR 0.23, 95% CI 0.15-0.33 and RR 0.33, 95% CI 0.23-0.47) as far as weight gain and somnolence were concerned. Further, prolactin-related adverse events caused by paliperidone ER were comparable with other pooled SGAs (RR 1.30, 95% CI 0.73-2.33), but outnumbered those caused by olanzapine (RR 7.53, 95% CI 2.05-27.71).
Paliperidone ER is efficacious, safe, and well accepted when compared with other pooled SGAs for the treatment of Chinese patients with schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics