1Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry 2008 Apr 32: 761-4
PMID18201810
TitleYi-gan san for the treatment of neuroleptic-induced tardive dyskinesia: an open-label study.
AbstractRecent studies indicate that the traditional Japanese herbal medicine yi-GAN san (YGS, yokukan-san in Japanese), a serotonin modulator, may be safe and useful in treating behavioral and psychological symptoms in dementia and borderline personality disorder patients. The authors examined the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of YGS in patients with tardive dyskinesia.
Twenty-two patients with schizophrenia who had neuroleptic-induced tardive dyskinesia were given 7.5 g/day of YGS for 12 weeks in an open-label study.
Administration of YGS resulted in a statistically significant improvement in tardive dyskinesia and psychotic symptoms.
YGS may be an effective and safe therapy to control tardive dyskinesia and psychosis in patients with schizophrenia, that should be further tested in double-blind, placebo-controlled trials.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
2J Brain Dis 2009 -1 1: 1-6
PMID23818802
TitleYi-gan san restores behavioral alterations and a decrease of brain glutathione level in a mouse model of schizophrenia.
AbstractThe traditional Chinese herbal medicine yi-GAN san has been used to cure neuropsychological disorders. schizophrenia can be one of the target diseases of yi-GAN san. We aimed at evaluating the possible use of yi-GAN san in improving the schizophrenic symptoms of an animal model. Yi-GAN san or distilled water was administered to mice born from pregnant mice injected with polyinosinic-polycytidilic acid or phosphate buffered saline. The former is a model of schizophrenia based on the epidemiological data that maternal infection leads to psychotic disorders including schizophrenia in the offspring. Prepulse inhibition and sensitivity to methamphetamine in open field tests were analyzed and the total glutathione content of whole brains was measured. Yi-GAN san reversed the decrease in prepulse inhibition, hypersensitivity to methamphetamine and cognitive deficits found in the model mice to the level of control mice. Total glutathione content in whole brains was reduced in the model mice but was restored to normal levels by yi-GAN san treatment. These results suggest that yi-GAN san may have ameliorating effects on the pathological symptoms of schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
3J Brain Dis 2009 -1 1: 1-6
PMID23818802
TitleYi-gan san restores behavioral alterations and a decrease of brain glutathione level in a mouse model of schizophrenia.
AbstractThe traditional Chinese herbal medicine yi-GAN san has been used to cure neuropsychological disorders. schizophrenia can be one of the target diseases of yi-GAN san. We aimed at evaluating the possible use of yi-GAN san in improving the schizophrenic symptoms of an animal model. Yi-GAN san or distilled water was administered to mice born from pregnant mice injected with polyinosinic-polycytidilic acid or phosphate buffered saline. The former is a model of schizophrenia based on the epidemiological data that maternal infection leads to psychotic disorders including schizophrenia in the offspring. Prepulse inhibition and sensitivity to methamphetamine in open field tests were analyzed and the total glutathione content of whole brains was measured. Yi-GAN san reversed the decrease in prepulse inhibition, hypersensitivity to methamphetamine and cognitive deficits found in the model mice to the level of control mice. Total glutathione content in whole brains was reduced in the model mice but was restored to normal levels by yi-GAN san treatment. These results suggest that yi-GAN san may have ameliorating effects on the pathological symptoms of schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
4Seishin Shinkeigaku Zasshi 2012 -1 114: 708-18
PMID23094294
Title[Clinical usage of Yi-gan san-schizophrenia, borderline personality disorder, dyskinesia etc-].
AbstractYi-GAN san (YGS, yokukan-san in Japanese) was developed in 1555 by Xue Kai as a remedy for restlessness and agitation in children. Prompted by the increasing life expectancy of the Japanese population, geriatricians have begun to use this traditional regimen for behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia in the elderly. Moreover, we reported that YGS therapy is a well-tolerated and effective remedy that improves the symptoms of schizophrenia., borderline personality disorder, Charles Bonnet Syndrome, pervasive developmental disorder. Asperger's disorder, neuroleptics induced tardive dyskinesia, and restless legs syndrome. In a pilot investigation, we administered YGS as an open-label adjunct to antipsychotic medication to patients with treatment-resistant shizophrenia, borderline personality disorder, Charles Bonnet Syndrome, pervasive developmental disorder, Asperger's disorder, neuroleptics induced tardive dyskinesia. The present lecture summarizes the available data based on the above our data. In addition, we extend our discussion to the potential applications of YGS for combining this treatment with cellular and molecular therapy.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
5Neurochem. Res. 2014 Jan 39: 59-67
PMID24190599
TitleGeissoschizine methyl ether, an alkaloid from the Uncaria hook, improves remyelination after cuprizone-induced demyelination in medial prefrontal cortex of adult mice.
AbstractAccumulating evidence indicates that the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is a site of myelin and oligodendrocyte abnormalities that contribute to psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia. The development of therapeutic approaches to enhance remyelination, a regenerative process in which new myelin sheaths are formed on demyelinated axons, may be an attractive remedial strategy. Geissoschizine methyl ether (GM) in the Uncaria hook, a galenical constituent of the traditional Japanese medicine yokukansan (Yi-GAN san), is one of the active components responsible for the psychotropic effects of yokukansan, though little is known about the mechanisms underlying the effects of either that medicine or GM itself. In the present study, we employed a cuprizone (CPZ)-induced demyelination model and examined the cellular changes in response to GM administration during the remyelination phase in the mPFC of adult mice. Using the mitotic marker 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU), we demonstrated that CPZ treatment significantly increased the number of BrdU-positive NG2 cells, as well as microglia and mature oligodendrocytes in the mPFC. Newly formed oligodendrocytes were increased by GM administration after CPZ exposure. In addition, GM attenuated a decrease in myelin basic protein immunoreactivity caused by CPZ administration. Taken together, our findings suggest that GM administration ameliorated the myelin deficit by mature oligodendrocyte formation and remyelination in the mPFC of CPZ-fed mice. The present findings provide experimental evidence supporting the role for GM and its possible use as a remedy for schizophrenia symptoms by promoting the differentiation of progenitor cells to and myelination by oligodendrocytes.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
6Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2014 -1 10: 1629-34
PMID25210456
TitleYokukansan and its ingredients as possible treatment options for schizophrenia.
Abstractschizophrenia is a debilitating psychotic mental disorder that affects almost the entire range of human mental function. The devastating effect of the illness is usually long-lasting and requires lifelong treatment. Despite an evolved psychopharmacological understanding, the overall therapeutic effect of antipsychotics is still not satisfactory. The choice of proper medication presents a clinical dilemma between efficacy and safety. As a result, searching for comparable treatment options with safer profiles is very important. Yokukansan (TJ-54), also called yi-GAN san in Chinese, is a traditional herbal medicine with evident therapeutic effect for neuropsychiatric disorders. There are several open-label clinical studies upholding the possibility of using yokukansan to treat schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like psychosis. Evidence from animal studies and neurobiology also sheds light on the antipsychotic implications of yokukansan and its ingredients. Nevertheless, correlations between the experimental environment and clinical settings may be complicated by a number of confounders. Clinical trials with more sophisticated designs are required to fill the gap between the experimental environment and clinical settings.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic