|1||Schizophr. Res. 2015 Aug 166: 119-24|
|Title||De novo mutations from sporadic schizophrenia cases highlight important signaling genes in an independent sample.|
|Abstract||schizophrenia is a debilitating syndrome with high heritability. Genomic studies reveal more than a hundred genetic variants, largely nonspecific and of small effect size, and not accounting for its high heritability. De novo mutations are one mechanism whereby disease related alleles may be introduced into the population, although these have not been leveraged to explore the disease in general samples. This paper describes a framework to find high impact genes for schizophrenia. This study consists of two different datasets. First, whole exome sequencing was conducted to identify disruptive de novo mutations in 14 complete parent-offspring trios with sporadic schizophrenia from Jerusalem, which identified 5 sporadic cases with de novo gene mutations in 5 different genes (PTPRG, TGM5, SLC39A13, BTK, CDKN3). Next, targeted exome capture of these genes was conducted in 48 well-characterized, unrelated, ethnically diverse schizophrenia cases, recruited and characterized by the same research team in New York (NY sample), which demonstrated extremely rare and potentially damaging variants in three of the five genes (MAF<0.01) in 12/48 cases (25%); including PTPRG (5 cases), SCL39A13 (4 cases) and TGM5 (4 cases), a higher number than usually identified by whole exome sequencing. Cases differed in cognition and illness features based on which mutation-enriched gene they carried. Functional de novo mutations in protein-interaction domains in sporadic schizophrenia can illuminate risk genes that increase the propensity to develop schizophrenia across ethnicities.|
|2||EBioMedicine 2016 Apr 6: 206-14|
|Title||Phenotypically distinct subtypes of psychosis accompany novel or rare variants in four different signaling genes.|
|Abstract||Rare gene variants are important sources of schizophrenia vulnerability that likely interact with polygenic susceptibility loci. This study examined if novel or rare missense coding variants in any of four different signaling genes in sporadic schizophrenia cases were associated with clinical phenotypes in an exceptionally well-characterized sample.|
Structured interviews, cognition, symptoms and life course features were assessed in 48 ethnically-diverse cases with psychosis who underwent targeted exome sequencing of PTPRG (Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Receptor Type G), SLC39A13 (Solute Carrier Family 39 (Zinc Transporter) Member 13), TGM5 (transglutaminase 5) and ARMS/KIDINS220 (Ankyrin repeat-rich membrane spanning protein or Kinase D-Interacting Substrate of 220kDa). Cases harboring rare missense coding polymorphisms or novel mutations in one or more of these genes were compared to other cases not carrying any rare missense coding polymorphisms or novel mutations in these genes and healthy controls.
Fifteen of 48 cases (31.25%) carried rare or novel missense coding variants in one or more of these genes. The subgroups significantly differed in important features, including specific working memory deficits for PTPRG (n=5); severe negative symptoms, global cognitive deficits and poor educational attainment, suggesting a developmental disorder, for SLC39A13 (n=4); slow processing speed, childhood attention deficit disorder and milder symptoms for TGM5 (n=4); and global cognitive deficits with good educational attainment suggesting neurodegeneration for ARMS/KIDINS220 (n=5). Case vignettes are included in the appendix.
Genes prone to missense coding polymorphisms and/or mutations in sporadic cases may highlight influential genes for psychosis and illuminate heterogeneous pathways to schizophrenia. Ethnicity appears less important at the level of genetic variability. The sequence variations that potentially alter the function of specific genes or their signaling partners may contribute to particular subtypes of psychosis. This approach may be applicable to other complex disorders.