1Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. 2004 Mar 28: 374-84
TitlePossible interaction of alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase genes with the dopamine D2 receptor gene in anxiety-depressive alcohol dependence.
AbstractThe role of the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene in the development of alcohol abuse or dependence is controversial. The controversy is due in part to the disparate definitions pertaining to the control groups used and to the definitions of subtypes in alcohol dependence. In the Han Chinese population, the alcohol dehydrogenase 1B*2/*2 (ADH1B*2/*2) genotype and the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2*2 (ALDH2*2) allele have been considered as protective factors against alcohol abuse or dependence. Moreover, the ADH1B and ALDH2 genes might be involved in dopamine metabolism. We hypothesized that the ADH1B and ALDH2 genes might interact with the DRD2 gene and that the association between the DRD2 gene and alcohol dependence might be affected by different ADH1B and ALDH2 genotypes. This study examined whether the DRD2 gene is associated with specific subtypes of alcohol dependence and evaluated the relationship between the DRD2 gene and alcohol-metabolizing genes in a specific subtype of alcohol dependence.
Of the 465 Han Chinese subjects who were recruited for the study, 71 were classified with pure alcohol dependence, 113 with both alcohol dependence and anxiety-depression (ANX/DEP ALC), and 129 with anxiety-depression but without alcohol dependence (ANX/DEP). The remaining 152 subjects were supernormal controls. All subjects were interviewed with the Chinese version of the modified Schedule of Affective Disorders and schizophrenia-Lifetime; all alcohol dependence, anxiety, and major depressive diagnoses were made according to DSM-IV criteria.
The DRD2 gene was not found to be associated with pure alcohol dependence or ANX/DEP, but was found to be associated with ANX/DEP ALC. Furthermore, the association between the DRD2 gene and ANX/DEP ALC was shown to be under the control of the ALDH2*1/*1 and ADH1B*1/*2 genotypes.
ANX/DEP ALC is a specific subtype of alcohol dependence. Because ANX/DEP ALC was associated with the DRD2 gene only under the stratification of ADH1B*1/*2 or ALDH2*1/*1, the DRD2 gene might interact with the ADH1B gene and the ALDH2 gene, respectively, in the development of ANX/DEP ALC in the Taiwan Han Chinese population.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia
2Hum. Genet. 2006 Jun 119: 558-70
TitleGenome scans and gene expression microarrays converge to identify gene regulatory loci relevant in schizophrenia.
AbstractMultiple linkage regions have been reported in schizophrenia, and some appear to harbor susceptibility genes that are differentially expressed in postmortem brain tissue derived from unrelated individuals. We combined traditional genome-wide linkage analysis in a multiplex family with lymphocytic genome-wide expression analysis. A genome scan suggested linkage to a chromosome 4q marker (D4S1530, LOD 2.17, theta = 0) using a dominant model. Haplotype analysis using flanking microsatellite markers delineated a 14 Mb region that cosegregated with all those affected. Subsequent genome-wide scan with SNP genotypes supported the evidence of linkage to 4q33-35.1 (LOD = 2.39) using a dominant model. Genome-wide microarray analysis of five affected and five unaffected family members identified two differentially expressed genes within the haplotype AGA and GALNT7 (aspartylglucosaminidase and UDP-N-acetyl-alpha-D-galactosamine: polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 7) with nominal significance; however, these genes did not remain significant following analysis of covariance. We carried out genome-wide linkage analyses between the quantitative expression phenotype and genetic markers. AGA expression levels showed suggestive linkage to multiple markers in the haplotype (maximum LOD = 2.37) but to no other genomic region. GALNT7 expression levels showed linkage to regulatory loci at 4q28.1 (maximum LOD = 3.15) and in the haplotype region at 4q33-35.1 (maximum LOD = 2.37). ADH1B (alcohol dehydrogenase IB) was linked to loci at 4q21-q23 (maximum LOD = 3.08) and haplotype region at 4q33-35.1 (maximum LOD = 2.27). Seven differentially expressed genes were validated with RT-PCR. Three genes in the 4q33-35.1 haplotype region were also differentially expressed in schizophrenia in postmortem dorsolateral prefrontal cortex: AGA, HMGB2, and SCRG1. These results indicate that combining differential gene expression with linkage analysis may help in identifying candidate genes and potential regulatory sites. Moreover, they also replicate recent findings of complex trans- and cis- regulation of genes.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia
3Hum. Genet. 2013 Jul 132: 735-43
TitleAssociation between common alcohol dehydrogenase gene (ADH) variants and schizophrenia and autism.
AbstractHumans express at least seven alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isoforms that are encoded by ADH gene cluster (ADH7-ADH1C-ADH1B-ADH1A-ADH6-ADH4-ADH5) at chromosome 4. ADHs are key catabolic enzymes for retinol and ethanol. The functional ADH variants (mostly rare) have been implicated in alcoholism risk. In addition to catalyzing the oxidation of retinol and ethanol, ADHs may be involved in the metabolic pathways of several neurotransmitters that are implicated in the neurobiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. In the present study, we comprehensively examined the associations between common ADH variants [minor allele frequency (MAF) >0.05] and 11 neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders. A total of 50,063 subjects in 25 independent cohorts were analyzed. The entire ADH gene cluster was imputed across these 25 cohorts using the same reference panels. Association analyses were conducted, adjusting for multiple comparisons. We found 28 and 15 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), respectively, that were significantly associated with schizophrenia in African-Americans and autism in European-Americans after correction by false discovery rate (FDR) (q < 0.05); and 19 and 6 SNPs, respectively, that were significantly associated with these two disorders after region-wide correction by SNPSpD (8.9 10(-5) ? p ? 0.0003 and 2.4 10(-5) ? p ? 0.0003, respectively). No variants were significantly associated with the other nine neuropsychiatric disorders, including alcohol dependence. We concluded that common ADH variants conferred risk for both schizophrenia in African-Americans and autism in European-Americans.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia
4Mol. Psychiatry 2014 Jan 19: 41-9
TitleGenome-wide association study of alcohol dependence:significant findings in African- and European-Americans including novel risk loci.
AbstractWe report a GWAS of alcohol dependence (AD) in European-American (EA) and African-American (AA) populations, with replication in independent samples of EAs, AAs and Germans. Our sample for discovery and replication was 16?087 subjects, the largest sample for AD GWAS to date. Numerous genome-wide significant (GWS) associations were identified, many novel. Most associations were population specific, but in several cases were GWS in EAs and AAs for different SNPs at the same locus,showing biological convergence across populations. We confirmed well-known risk loci mapped to alcohol-metabolizing enzyme genes, notably ADH1B (EAs: Arg48His, P=1.17 10(-31); AAs: Arg369Cys, P=6.33 10(-17)) and ADH1C in AAs (Thr151Thr, P=4.94 10(-10)), and identified novel risk loci mapping to the ADH gene cluster on chromosome 4 and extending centromerically beyond it to include GWS associations at LOC100507053 in AAs (P=2.63 10(-11)), PDLIM5 in EAs (P=2.01 10(-8)), and METAP in AAs (P=3.35 10(-8)). We also identified a novel GWS association (1.17 10(-10)) mapped to chromosome 2 at rs1437396, between MTIF2 and CCDC88A, across all of the EA and AA cohorts, with supportive gene expression evidence, and population-specific GWS for markers on chromosomes 5, 9 and 19. Several of the novel associations implicate direct involvement of, or interaction with, genes previously identified as schizophrenia risk loci. Confirmation of known AD risk loci supports the overall validity of the study; the novel loci are worthy of genetic and biological follow-up. The findings support a convergence of risk genes (but not necessarily risk alleles) between populations, and, to a lesser extent, between psychiatric traits.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia