|1||Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. 2011 May 35: 963-75|
|Title||Genomewide association analysis of symptoms of alcohol dependence in the molecular genetics of schizophrenia (MGS2) control sample.|
|Abstract||While genetic influences on alcohol dependence (AD) are substantial, progress in the identification of individual genetic variants that impact on risk has been difficult.|
We performed a genome-wide association study on 3,169 alcohol consuming subjects from the population-based Molecular Genetics of schizophrenia (MGS2) control sample. Subjects were asked 7 questions about symptoms of AD which were analyzed by confirmatory factor analysis. Genotyping was performed using the Affymetrix 6.0 array. Three sets of analyses were conducted separately for European American (EA, n = 2,357) and African-American (AA, n = 812) subjects: individual single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), candidate genes and enriched pathways using gene ontology (GO) categories.
The symptoms of AD formed a highly coherent single factor. No SNP approached genome-wide significance. In the EA sample, the most significant intragenic SNP was in KCNMA1, the human homolog of the slo-1 gene in C. Elegans. Genes with clusters of significant SNPs included AKAP9, phosphatidylinositol glycan anchor biosynthesis, class G (PIGG), and KCNMA1. In the AA sample, the most significant intragenic SNP was CEACAM6 and genes showing empirically significant SNPs included KCNQ5, SLC35B4, and MGLL. In the candidate gene based analyses, the most significant findings were with ADH1C, nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells 1 (NFKB1) and ankyrin repeat and kinase domain containing 1 (ANKK1) in the EA sample, and ADH5, POMC, and CHRM2 in the AA sample. The ALIGATOR program identified a significant excess of associated SNPs within and near genes in a substantial number of GO categories over a range of statistical stringencies in both the EA and AA sample.
While we cannot be highly confident about any single result from these analyses, a number of findings were suggestive and worthy of follow-up. Although quite large samples will be needed to obtain requisite power, the study of AD symptoms in general population samples is a viable complement to case-control studies in identifying genetic risk variants for AD.
|2||Hum. Genet. 2013 Jul 132: 735-43|
|Title||Association between common alcohol dehydrogenase gene (ADH) variants and schizophrenia and autism.|
|Abstract||Humans express at least seven alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isoforms that are encoded by ADH gene cluster (ADH7-ADH1C-ADH1B-ADH1A-ADH6-ADH4-ADH5) at chromosome 4. ADHs are key catabolic enzymes for retinol and ethanol. The functional ADH variants (mostly rare) have been implicated in alcoholism risk. In addition to catalyzing the oxidation of retinol and ethanol, ADHs may be involved in the metabolic pathways of several neurotransmitters that are implicated in the neurobiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. In the present study, we comprehensively examined the associations between common ADH variants [minor allele frequency (MAF) >0.05] and 11 neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders. A total of 50,063 subjects in 25 independent cohorts were analyzed. The entire ADH gene cluster was imputed across these 25 cohorts using the same reference panels. Association analyses were conducted, adjusting for multiple comparisons. We found 28 and 15 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), respectively, that were significantly associated with schizophrenia in African-Americans and autism in European-Americans after correction by false discovery rate (FDR) (q < 0.05); and 19 and 6 SNPs, respectively, that were significantly associated with these two disorders after region-wide correction by SNPSpD (8.9 × 10(-5) ? p ? 0.0003 and 2.4 × 10(-5) ? p ? 0.0003, respectively). No variants were significantly associated with the other nine neuropsychiatric disorders, including alcohol dependence. We concluded that common ADH variants conferred risk for both schizophrenia in African-Americans and autism in European-Americans.|