1Xenobiotica 2010 Nov 40: 721-9
TitleIn vitro assessment of metabolic drug?drug interaction potential of AZD2624, neurokinin-3 receptor antagonist, through cytochrome P(450) enzyme identification, inhibition, and induction studies.
AbstractAZD2624 was pharmacologically characterized as a NK3 receptor antagonist intended for treatment of schizophrenia. The metabolic drug-drug interaction potential of AZD2624 was evaluated in in vitro studies. CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 appeared to be the primary enzymes mediating the formation of pharmacologically active ketone metabolite (M1), whereas CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and CYP2C9 appeared to be the enzymes responsible for the formation of the hydroxylated metabolite (M2). The apparent K(m) values were 1.5 and 6.3 ÁM for the formation of M1 and M2 in human liver microsomes, respectively. AZD2624 exhibited an inhibitory effect on microsomal CYP3A4/5 activities with apparent IC(50) values of 7.1 and 19.8 ÁM for midazolam and testosterone assays, respectively. No time-dependent inactivation of CYP3A4/5 activity (midazolam 1'-hydroxylation) by AZD2624 was observed. AZD2624 demonstrated weak to no inhibition of CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP2D6. AZD2624 was not an inducer of CYP1A2 or CYP2B6. Although AZD2624-induced CYP3A4 activity in hepatocytes, the potential of AZD2624 to cause inductive drug interactions of this enzyme was low at relevant exposure concentration. Together with targeted low efficacious concentration, the results of this study demonstrated AZD2624 has a relatively low metabolic drug-drug interaction potential towards co-administered drugs. However, metabolism of AZD2624 might be inhibited when co-administrated with potent CYP3A4/5 inhibitors.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia
2CNS Neurosci Ther 2011 Oct 17: 541-65
TitleGenomics and pharmacogenomics of schizophrenia.
Abstractschizophrenia (SCZ) is among the most disabling of mental disorders. Several neurobiological hypotheses have been postulated as responsible for SCZ pathogenesis: polygenic/multifactorial genomic defects, intrauterine and perinatal environment-genome interactions, neurodevelopmental defects, dopaminergic, cholinergic, serotonergic, gamma-aminobutiric acid (GABAergic), neuropeptidergic and glutamatergic/N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) dysfunctions, seasonal infection, neuroimmune dysfunction, and epigenetic dysregulation. SCZ has a heritability estimated at 60-90%. Genetic studies in SCZ have revealed the presence of chromosome anomalies, copy number variants, multiple single-nucleotide polymorphisms of susceptibility distributed across the human genome, aberrant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in microRNA genes, mitochondrial DNA mutations, and epigenetic phenomena. Pharmacogenetic studies of psychotropic drug response have focused on determining the relationship between variation in specific candidate genes and the positive and adverse effects of drug treatment. Approximately, 18% of neuroleptics are major substrates of CYP1A2 enzymes, 40% of CYP2D6, and 23% of CYP3A4; 24% of antidepressants are major substrates of CYP1A2 enzymes, 5% of CYP2B6, 38% of CYP2C19, 85% of CYP2D6, and 38% of CYP3A4; 7% of benzodiazepines are major substrates of CYP2C19 enzymes, 20% of CYP2D6, and 95% of CYP3A4. About 10-20% of Western populations are defective in genes of the CYP superfamily. Only 26% of Southern Europeans are pure extensive metabolizers for the trigenic cluster integrated by the CYP2D6+CYP2C19+CYP2C9 genes. The pharmacogenomic response of SCZ patients to conventional psychotropic drugs also depends on genetic variants associated with SCZ-related genes. Consequently, the incorporation of pharmacogenomic procedures both to drugs in development and drugs on the market would help to optimize therapeutics in SCZ and other central nervous system (CNS) disorders.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia