1J Pers Assess 2007 Feb 88: 74-80
TitleConcurrent validity of the Personality Assessment Inventory Borderline scales in patients seeking dialectical behavior therapy.
AbstractThe purpose of this study was to explore the usefulness of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991) Borderline full scale (BOR) and subscales in the assessment of patients being evaluated for dialectical behavior therapy (DBT; Linehan, 1993). We administered 67 patients both the PAI and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) Structured Clinical Interview for Axis II disorders (SCID-II; First, Spitzer, Gibbon, Williams, & Benjamin, 1997). Point biserial correlations showed a significant relationship between the presence of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and scores on the BOR and schizophrenia (SCZ) scales. A regression analysis showed that among the BOR subscales, those measuring identity disturbance, self-harming behavior, and negative relationships were significantly related to the total number of SCID-II BPD criteria. Diagnostic efficiency statistics between the BOR scale and the number of SCID-II BPD criteria indicated that a T score cutoff of 65 optimally differentiates patients who do and do not meet criteria for BPD. The relationship between BOR and SCID-II BPD demonstrates the concurrent validity of the PAI and shows its usefulness in this setting.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia
2Harefuah 2011 Mar 150: 269-74, 302
Title[Psychotherapy--outcome studies and guidelines for evidence-based care policy in Israel].
AbstractPsychotherapy is one of the major methods of treatment in the mental health field. A review of the literature suggests that some forms of psychotherapy are evidence-based. Findings from hundreds of meta-analytic studies indicate that psychotherapy can often achieve outcomes that are clinically meaningful and may also contribute to cost savings. This review contains findings pertaining to the main psychotherapy approaches: the psychodynamic, the cognitive-behavioral (CBT) and the dialectical-behavioral (DBT). The findings suggest that there is ample evidence on the effectiveness of CBT in the treatment of various mental disorders. There is also an accumulating body of evidence suggesting that short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy is effective in the treatment of mental disorders except for psychosis and schizophrenia. On the other hand, there are only preliminary findings supporting the effectiveness of DBT and questions remain concerning the cost-effectiveness of this labor-intensive treatment technique. Similarly, there are only preliminary results that long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy is effective in the treatment of complex mental disorders. Recent technological advances in the measurement of psychotherapy outcome were reviewed. These include methods of tracking changes throughout the course of treatment and computer-assisted programs designed to generate on-going feedback to the therapist. These techniques are designed to improve outcome by focusing the psychotherapy on clearly defined objectives and by the use of measures aimed at reducing negative reactions to treatment and lowering the risk of premature termination of treatment by clients. The authors conclude by proposing guidelines for evidence-based care policy for the public sector based outpatient psychotherapy in Israel.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia
3Psychodyn Psychiatry 2015 Sep 43: 423-61
TitleContemporary Cognitive Behavior Therapy: A Review of Theory, History, and Evidence.
AbstractCognitive behavior therapy (CBT) has come to be a widely practiced psychotherapy throughout the world. The present article reviews theory, history, and evidence for CBT. It is meant as an effort to summarize the forms and scope of CBT to date for the uninitiated. Elements of CBT such as cognitive therapy, behavior therapy, and so-called "third wave" CBT, such as dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) are covered. The evidence for the efficacy of CBT for various disorders is reviewed, including depression, anxiety disorders, personality disorders, eating disorders, substance abuse, schizophrenia, chronic pain, insomnia, and child/adolescent disorders. The relative efficacy of medication and CBT, or their combination, is also briefly considered. Future directions for research and treatment development are proposed.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia
4Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging 2016 Mar 43: 537-47
TitlePET imaging evaluation of [(18)F]DBT-10, a novel radioligand specific to ?7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, in nonhuman primates.
AbstractPositron emission tomography (PET) radioligands specific to ?7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) afford in vivo imaging of this receptor for neuropathologies such as Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, and substance abuse. This work aims to characterize the kinetic properties of an ?7-nAChR-specific radioligand, 7-(1,4-diazabicyclo[3.2.2]nonan-4-yl)-2-[(18)F]-fluorodibenzo[b,d]thiophene 5,5-dioxide ([(18)F]DBT-10), in nonhuman primates.
[(18)F]DBT-10 was produced via nucleophilic substitution of the nitro-precursor. Four Macaca mulatta subjects were imaged with [(18)F]DBT-10 PET, with measurement of [(18)F]DBT-10 parent concentrations and metabolism in arterial plasma. Baseline PET scans were acquired for all subjects. Following one scan, ex vivo analysis of brain tissue was performed to inspect for radiolabeled metabolites in brain. Three blocking scans with 0.69 and 1.24 mg/kg of the ?7-nAChR-specific ligand ASEM were also acquired to assess dose-dependent blockade of [(18)F]DBT-10 binding. Kinetic analysis of PET data was performed using the metabolite-corrected input function to calculate the parent fraction corrected total distribution volume (V T/f P).
[(18)F]DBT-10 was produced within 90 min at high specific activities of 428??436 GBq/?mol at end of synthesis. Metabolism of [(18)F]DBT-10 varied across subjects, stabilizing by 120 min post-injection at parent fractions of 15-55%. Uptake of [(18)F]DBT-10 in brain occurred rapidly, reaching peak standardized uptake values (SUVs) of 2.9-3.7 within 30 min. The plasma-free fraction was 18.8??3.4%. No evidence for radiolabeled [(18)F]DBT-10 metabolites was found in ex vivo brain tissue samples. Kinetic analysis of PET data was best described by the two-tissue compartment model. Estimated V T/f P values were 193-376 ml/cm(3) across regions, with regional rank order of thalamus?>?frontal cortex?>?striatum?>?hippocampus?>?occipital cortex?>?cerebellum?>?pons. Dose-dependent blockade of [(18)F]DBT-10 binding by structural analog ASEM was observed throughout the brain, and occupancy plots yielded a V ND/f P estimate of 20??16 ml/cm(3).
These results demonstrate suitable kinetic properties of [(18)F]DBT-10 for in vivo quantification of ?7-nAChR binding in nonhuman primates.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia