1Mol. Psychiatry 2000 Sep 5: 558-62
PMID11032392
TitleBrain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene variants association with age at onset and therapeutic response in schizophrenia.
Abstractschizophrenia is a heterogeneous disease involving genetic and environmental factors. The frequency of structural brain abnormalities or physical anomalies supports a neurodevelopmental etiology, especially in early onset schizophrenia. Brain-Derived-Neurotrophic-Factor (BDNF) is involved in the neurodevelopment of dopaminergic (DA)-related systems and interacts with the meso-limbic DA systems, involved in the therapeutic response to antipsychotic drugs and substance abuse. In addition, BDNF promotes and maintains dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3) expression. In a French Caucasian population, we found no statistical difference in allele or genotype distribution of the BDNF gene dinucleotide repeat polymorphism (166-174 bp) between the whole group of schizophrenic patients and controls. By contrast, an excess of the 172-176 bp alleles was found in patients with late onset, in neuroleptic-responding patients and in non-substance-abusing patients. BDNF gene variants thus appear to be associated with developmental features of schizophrenia. In addition, this association with good treatment responding was independent from the association found with the DRD3 Ball gene polymorphism in the same population. These results suggest an independent contribution of each gene to a treatment-sensitive form of schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
2Mol. Psychiatry 2000 Sep 5: 558-62
PMID11032392
TitleBrain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene variants association with age at onset and therapeutic response in schizophrenia.
Abstractschizophrenia is a heterogeneous disease involving genetic and environmental factors. The frequency of structural brain abnormalities or physical anomalies supports a neurodevelopmental etiology, especially in early onset schizophrenia. Brain-Derived-Neurotrophic-Factor (BDNF) is involved in the neurodevelopment of dopaminergic (DA)-related systems and interacts with the meso-limbic DA systems, involved in the therapeutic response to antipsychotic drugs and substance abuse. In addition, BDNF promotes and maintains dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3) expression. In a French Caucasian population, we found no statistical difference in allele or genotype distribution of the BDNF gene dinucleotide repeat polymorphism (166-174 bp) between the whole group of schizophrenic patients and controls. By contrast, an excess of the 172-176 bp alleles was found in patients with late onset, in neuroleptic-responding patients and in non-substance-abusing patients. BDNF gene variants thus appear to be associated with developmental features of schizophrenia. In addition, this association with good treatment responding was independent from the association found with the DRD3 Ball gene polymorphism in the same population. These results suggest an independent contribution of each gene to a treatment-sensitive form of schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
3Int. J. Neuropsychopharmacol. 2000 Mar 3: 61-65
PMID11343580
TitleHomozygosity for the Gly-9 variant of the dopamine D3 receptor and risk for tardive dyskinesia in schizophrenic patients.
AbstractThis study was undertaken to re-examine whether homozygosity for the Gly-9 variant (allele 2) of the dopamine D3 receptor gene (DRD3) is associated with increased risk for tardive dyskinesia (TD) in schizophrenic patients. Seventy-one antipsychotic-treated subjects with schizophrenia from Newcastle upon Tyne, UK, were genotyped for the presence of allele 1 (Ser-9) and allele 2 (Gly-9) of the dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3) Ser-9-Gly polymorphism. Among 32 patients with TD, 7 subjects (22 %) were homozygous for the Gly-9 variant (2-2 genotype), whereas 4 out of 39 patients (10 %) without TD had this genotype. The non-significant tendency in this sample towards an over-representation of allele 2 and the 2-2 genotype among schizophrenic patients with TD is in line with our initial report as well as recent studies by others, indicating that the Gly-9 allele of DRD3 may be a susceptibility factor for the development of TD in neuroleptic-treated individuals with schizophrenia. There are, however, some recent non-supportive reports, and since the trend in our present study failed to reach statistical significance, further studies on larger samples and future meta-analysis may be necessary to establish the role of the DRD3 in the pathogenesis of TD.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
4Int. J. Neuropsychopharmacol. 2000 Mar 3: 61-65
PMID11343580
TitleHomozygosity for the Gly-9 variant of the dopamine D3 receptor and risk for tardive dyskinesia in schizophrenic patients.
AbstractThis study was undertaken to re-examine whether homozygosity for the Gly-9 variant (allele 2) of the dopamine D3 receptor gene (DRD3) is associated with increased risk for tardive dyskinesia (TD) in schizophrenic patients. Seventy-one antipsychotic-treated subjects with schizophrenia from Newcastle upon Tyne, UK, were genotyped for the presence of allele 1 (Ser-9) and allele 2 (Gly-9) of the dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3) Ser-9-Gly polymorphism. Among 32 patients with TD, 7 subjects (22 %) were homozygous for the Gly-9 variant (2-2 genotype), whereas 4 out of 39 patients (10 %) without TD had this genotype. The non-significant tendency in this sample towards an over-representation of allele 2 and the 2-2 genotype among schizophrenic patients with TD is in line with our initial report as well as recent studies by others, indicating that the Gly-9 allele of DRD3 may be a susceptibility factor for the development of TD in neuroleptic-treated individuals with schizophrenia. There are, however, some recent non-supportive reports, and since the trend in our present study failed to reach statistical significance, further studies on larger samples and future meta-analysis may be necessary to establish the role of the DRD3 in the pathogenesis of TD.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
5Am. J. Med. Genet. 2000 Dec 96: 778-80
PMID11121180
TitleNo association between the dopamine D3 receptor Bal I polymorphism and schizophrenia in a family-based study of a Palestinian Arab population.
AbstractSeveral recent meta-analyses appear to show a weak but significant effect of both forms of the gly/ser DRD3 polymorphism in conferring risk for schizophrenia. Since most studies have employed the artifact-prone case-control design, we thought it worthwhile to examine the role of this polymorphism using a robust family-based strategy in an ethnic group not previously systematically studied in psychiatric genetics, Palestinian Arabs. We failed to obtain any evidence in 129 Palestinian triads, using the haplotype relative risk (allele frequency: Pearson chi-square = 0.009, P > 0.1, df = 1, n = 258 alleles) or transmission disequilibrium test design (chi-square = 0.38, P > 0.1, n = 86 families) for association/linkage (or increased homozygosity) of the DRD3 Bal I polymorphism to schizophrenia in our sample. Am. J. Med. Genet. (Neuropsychiatr. Genet.) 96:778-780, 2000.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
6Psychiatry Res 2000 Oct 96: 179-83
PMID11063791
TitleAssociation study of schizophrenia spectrum disorders and dopamine D3 receptor gene: is schizoaffective disorder special?
AbstractAlterations in dopamine neurotransmission have been hypothesized to play a role in the etiology of schizophrenia. We considered the dopamine D3 receptor gene on chromosome 3 as a candidate gene for an association analysis. We compared PCR-based genotype markers for healthy controls (n=120) and patients (n=95) with schizophrenia and schizophrenia spectrum disorders as diagnosed by consensus according to DSM-III-R. Our results possibly indicate an association of schizoaffective disorder with DRD3 homozygosity (P=0.056).
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
7Am. J. Med. Genet. 2000 Apr 96: 187-91
PMID10893495
TitleAssociation of dopamine D3-receptor gene variants with neuroleptic induced akathisia in schizophrenic patients: a generalization of Steen's study on DRD3 and tardive dyskinesia.
AbstractNeuroleptic induced akathisia is a common and distressful extrapyramidal side effect of antipsychotic treatment. A significant proportion of the variability of its development has been left unexplained and has to be attributed to individual susceptibility. Since hereditary factors have been discussed in the etiology of acute akathisia (AA), part of the individual susceptibility might be of genetic origin. Moreover, AA is regarded as a forerunner of tardive dyskinesia, a drug-induced chronic movement disorder, which may be associated with homozygosity for the Ser9Gly variant of the DRD3 gene. Considering expression studies, which demonstrated functional variants of DRD3 polymorphisms, we investigated whether homozygosity for the Ser9Gly variant of the DRD3 gene is associated with AA. Homozygosity for the Ser9Gly variant of the DRD3 gene was connected to an 88% incidence of AA as compared with a considerably lower 46.9% incidence of AA in schizophrenic patients nonhomozygous for the 2-2 allele (exact P = 0.0223). Am. J. Med. Genet. (Neuropsychiatr. Genet.) 96:187-191, 2000.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
8Psychopharmacology (Berl.) 2000 Nov 152: 408-13
PMID11140333
TitleAssociation between the serotonin 2C receptor gene and tardive dyskinesia in chronic schizophrenia: additive contribution of 5-HT2Cser and DRD3gly alleles to susceptibility.
AbstractTardive dyskinesia (TD) is a longterm adverse effect of dopamine receptor blockers. The dopamine D3 receptor gene (DRD3) ser9gly polymorphism has been previously associated with susceptibility to TD. Serotonin receptor antagonism has been proposed as a common mechanism contributing to the low extra-pyramidal effects profile of atypical antipsychotic drugs.
To examine the association of a functional polymorphism in the 5-HT2C receptor gene (HT2CR) with TD and the joint contribution of HT2CR and DRD3 to susceptibility.
Case control association analysis of allele and genotype frequencies among schizophrenia patients with (n=55) and without TD (n=60), matched for antipsychotic drug exposure and other relevant variables, and normal control subjects (n=97). Parametric analyses of the contribution of 5-HT2Cser and DRD3gly alleles to dyskinesia scores.
We found a significant excess of 5-HT2Cser alleles in schizophrenia patients with TD (27.2%) compared to patients without TD (14.6%) and normal controls (14.2%; chi2=6.4, df 2, P=0.03) which was due to the female patients (chi2=8.6, df 2, P=0.01). Among the female TD patients there was an excess of cys-ser and ser-ser genotypes (chi2= 11.9, df 4, P=0.02). Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), controlling for age at first antipsychotic treatment, revealed a significant effect of 5-HT2C genotype on orofacial dyskinesia (OFD) scores (F=3.47, df 2, P=.03). In a stepwise multiple regression analysis, 5-HT2C and DRD3 genotype (5-HT2Cser and DRD3gly allele carriage) respectively contributed 4.2% and 4.7% to the variance in OFD scores.
These findings support a small but significant contribution of the HT2CR and DRD3 to susceptibility to TD, which is additive in nature.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
9Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi 2000 Dec 17: 439-42
PMID11110986
Title[Progress in the studies on the molecular genetics of schizophrenia].
AbstractAlthough population genetic studies have long confirmed the genetic vulnerability of schizophrenia,ongoing advances in molecular genetic technology and biostatistic analysis are only now making it possible to search for the susceptibility gene of the disease. This article reviewed some of the recent findings in this area: (1) The heritability of schizophrenia is estimated around 60%-80%. The phenotype differentiation is based on standard diagnostic scales and symptom rating scales. (2) The two main approaches to finding the genes that influence the disorder are now genomic scan and candidate gene detection. Affected sib-pair (ASP) method and transmission disequilibrium test(TDT) are considered promising analyses. (3) The positive candidate regions with some independent replicable reports concentrated on 6p, 22q and 8p. Positive findings of candidate gene research involved 5-HT2A receptor, DRD3, NT-3, etc. Further directions to identify the susceptibility genes include: Applying more precise instruments to define clinical phenotype of the disease. Application of proper biological markers such as electrophysiologic parameters and brain imaging will be a prospective approach. Using larger sample to increase statistic power and developing more powerful statistic analysis, and performing advanced molecular genetic technique such as DNA pooling, DNA chips, genomic mismatch scanning (GMS), representational difference analysis(RDA), comparative genomic hybridization(CGH) and two-dimensional DNA typing methods will also facilitate this research area to greater perspective.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
10Mol. Psychiatry 2000 Jul 5: 433-8
PMID10889555
TitleMutation and association analysis of the 5' region of the dopamine D3 receptor gene in schizophrenia patients: identification of the Ala38Thr polymorphism and suggested association between DRD3 haplotypes and schizophrenia.
AbstractAlthough the association between the Ser9Gly polymorphism of the dopamine D3 receptor gene (DRD3) and schizophrenia has been investigated by many research groups, it is not known whether the Ser9Gly polymorphism alone or a variation in linkage disequilibrium may effect susceptibility to schizophrenia. We searched the 5' region of the DRD3 gene and found three novel polymorphisms: -712G/C, -205A/G, and Ala38Thr. The Ala38Thr polymorphism is located in the first transmembrane region and is conserved in the monkey, mouse, and rat. Case-control comparisons in 153 Japanese schizophrenia patients and 122 Japanese controls did not suggest an association between Ala38Thr and schizophrenia. However, there was a marginally significant association between the Ser9 allele of the Ser9Gly polymorphisms and schizophrenia (P = 0.02). Furthermore, there was a highly significant association between haplotypes of the -712G/C, -205A/G, and Ser9Gly polymorphisms and schizophrenia (P = 0.0007, corrected P = 0.007). These positive findings were replicated in an additional 99 Japanese schizophrenia patients and 132 controls (P = 0.04 and 0.0004, respectively). The most allelic differences of the Ser9Gly polymorphism between patient and control groups arose from the chromosome carrying specific alleles of the other three polymorphisms. This study indicates unknown variant(s) in linkage disequilibrium with the DRD3 haplotypes associated with schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
11Neuropsychopharmacology 2000 Jul 23: 1-12
PMID10869881
TitleThe genes for major psychosis: aberrant sequence or regulation?
AbstractA number of recent clinical and molecular observations in major psychosis indicate that epigenetic factors may be operational in the origin of major mental illness. This article further develops the idea that epigenetic factors may play an etiopathogenic role in schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder. The putative role of epigenetic factors is shown by the epigenetic interpretation of genetic association studies of the genes for serotonin 2A (HTR2A) and the dopamine D3 (DRD3) receptors in schizophrenia. The idea of epigenetic polymorphism of genetic alleles is introduced, and it is argued that epigenetic variation may explain a number of controversial and unclear findings in allelic and genotypic association studies of HTR2A and DRD3. In linkage analyses of multiplex families with bipolar affective disorder (BPAD), different loci on chromosome 18 indicated co-segregation of alleles of one parental sex with the disease phenotype, and this finding implies that the epigenetic mechanism of genomic imprinting may be involved. Evidence for genomic imprinting provides the background for epigenetic cloning of BPAD risk factors by searching for differentially modified genes on chromosome 18. Finally, epigenetic studies could be relevant to the better understanding of the molecular action of antipsychotic medications. In addition to this, if epimutations are detected in major psychosis, epigenetic treatment directed at correction of epigenetic status of a specific brain gene may eventually be developed.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
12Neurosci. Lett. 2000 Jan 279: 13-6
PMID10670776
TitleA cluster of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the 5'-leader of the human dopamine D3 receptor gene (DRD3) and its relationship to schizophrenia.
AbstractThe association between schizophrenia and the Ser9Gly variant of the dopamine D3 receptor gene (DRD3) has been the subject of numerous studies. Under meta-analysis this site, or one or more in linkage disequilibrium with it, appears to contribute a small increase to the relative risk of schizophrenia. In this study, 768 bp of the 5'-leader region of DRD3 mRNA was screened for polymorphisms to assess their contribution to the association of DRD3 with schizophrenia. A cluster of three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was identified in tight linkage disequilibrium with each other and with the Ser9Gly polymorphism. One of the 5'-leader SNPs encodes a Lys9Glu variant within a 36 amino acid residue stretch of an upstream open reading frame (uORF). Two common haplotypes are found in the population examined; one is linked to the Ser9 coding variant and the other to the Gly9 variant. A panel of 73 schizophrenic patients and 56 matched controls recruited from the East Anglia region of the United Kingdom was screened for disease association at these sites. Since the 5'-leader and coding sites are in tight disequilibrium, the combined genotype of all 4 sites was scored for each patient. A significant association was seen between disease and the frequency distribution of these genotypes (chi2 = 13.19, d.f. = 3, P = 0.0042; Cochran method for sparse cells applied). A 20% excess of one of the heterozygous genotypes, in which the sequences differ at three of the four SNPs, including Ser9/Gly9 in the receptor and Lys9/Glu9 in the uORF, was found in the patient group. An absence of association of disease with the Ser9Gly polymorphism had previously been reported for this panel. This suggests that these SNPs and the corresponding coding changes may exert a combined or synergistic effect on susceptibility to schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
13Neurosci. Lett. 2000 Jan 279: 13-6
PMID10670776
TitleA cluster of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the 5'-leader of the human dopamine D3 receptor gene (DRD3) and its relationship to schizophrenia.
AbstractThe association between schizophrenia and the Ser9Gly variant of the dopamine D3 receptor gene (DRD3) has been the subject of numerous studies. Under meta-analysis this site, or one or more in linkage disequilibrium with it, appears to contribute a small increase to the relative risk of schizophrenia. In this study, 768 bp of the 5'-leader region of DRD3 mRNA was screened for polymorphisms to assess their contribution to the association of DRD3 with schizophrenia. A cluster of three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was identified in tight linkage disequilibrium with each other and with the Ser9Gly polymorphism. One of the 5'-leader SNPs encodes a Lys9Glu variant within a 36 amino acid residue stretch of an upstream open reading frame (uORF). Two common haplotypes are found in the population examined; one is linked to the Ser9 coding variant and the other to the Gly9 variant. A panel of 73 schizophrenic patients and 56 matched controls recruited from the East Anglia region of the United Kingdom was screened for disease association at these sites. Since the 5'-leader and coding sites are in tight disequilibrium, the combined genotype of all 4 sites was scored for each patient. A significant association was seen between disease and the frequency distribution of these genotypes (chi2 = 13.19, d.f. = 3, P = 0.0042; Cochran method for sparse cells applied). A 20% excess of one of the heterozygous genotypes, in which the sequences differ at three of the four SNPs, including Ser9/Gly9 in the receptor and Lys9/Glu9 in the uORF, was found in the patient group. An absence of association of disease with the Ser9Gly polymorphism had previously been reported for this panel. This suggests that these SNPs and the corresponding coding changes may exert a combined or synergistic effect on susceptibility to schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
14Schizophr. Res. 2001 Apr 49: 65-71
PMID11343865
TitleAssociation study of schizophrenia with polymorphisms at six candidate genes.
AbstractClinical studies have shown that there is a genetic contribution to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. The molecular mechanisms of effective antipsychotic drugs and recent advances in neural development suggest that several dopamine receptor, serotonin receptor and neurotrophic factor genes might be involved in the disorder. In this study, we assessed the associations between schizophrenia and polymorphisms in the D2 and D3 dopamine receptor (DRD2, DRD3), the serotonin 2A receptor (5HTR2A), the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), the ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and the neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) genes. Our results suggest that the polymorphisms at the DRD3, 5HTR2A, CNTF and BDNF gene loci are unlikely to make our sample more genetically susceptible to schizophrenia. However, we found significant differences in microsatellite allele frequencies between schizophrenic and control groups for DRD2 in the whole sample and for DRD2 and NT-3 only in women. Therefore, clinical differences in the presentation of schizophrenia between gender might be related to genetic factors.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
15Schizophr. Res. 2001 Apr 49: 65-71
PMID11343865
TitleAssociation study of schizophrenia with polymorphisms at six candidate genes.
AbstractClinical studies have shown that there is a genetic contribution to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. The molecular mechanisms of effective antipsychotic drugs and recent advances in neural development suggest that several dopamine receptor, serotonin receptor and neurotrophic factor genes might be involved in the disorder. In this study, we assessed the associations between schizophrenia and polymorphisms in the D2 and D3 dopamine receptor (DRD2, DRD3), the serotonin 2A receptor (5HTR2A), the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), the ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and the neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) genes. Our results suggest that the polymorphisms at the DRD3, 5HTR2A, CNTF and BDNF gene loci are unlikely to make our sample more genetically susceptible to schizophrenia. However, we found significant differences in microsatellite allele frequencies between schizophrenic and control groups for DRD2 in the whole sample and for DRD2 and NT-3 only in women. Therefore, clinical differences in the presentation of schizophrenia between gender might be related to genetic factors.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
16J. Biochem. Biophys. Methods 2001 Jan 47: 151-7
PMID11179771
TitlePharmacogenetic assessment of antipsychotic-induced movement disorders: contribution of the dopamine D3 receptor and cytochrome P450 1A2 genes.
AbstractTardive dyskinesia (TD) is characterized by involuntary movements predominantly in the orofacial region and develops in approximately 20% of patients during long-term treatment with typical antipsychotics. The high prevalence of TD and its disabling and potentially irreversible clinical course is an important shortcoming for treatment with typical antipsychotics. The studies presented in this article evaluate the role of single nucleotide polymorphisms in dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3) and CYP1A2 genes for propensity to develop TD in patients with schizophrenia. In theory, a combined pharmacogenetic analysis of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic targets for antipsychotics should improve our ability to identify subpopulations that differ in drug safety profile. This information may in turn contribute to the design of more efficient clinical trials and thus expedite the development and regulatory approval of newer antipsychotic compounds.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
17J Neural Transm (Vienna) 2001 -1 108: 671-7
PMID11478419
TitleDopamine D3 receptor gene and tardive dyskinesia in Chinese schizophrenic patients.
AbstractEpidemiological studies have shown a lower prevalence of tardive dyskinesia (TD) among Chinese psychiatric patients compared to Caucasian and Black patient populations. It has been hypothesized that pharmacogenetic factors may underlie this cross-cultural difference. Due to the important implications of the dopamine D3 receptor gene (DRD3) in motor control, we investigated the frequency of polymorphic serine (ser) to glycine (gly) substitution of the gene DRD3 in Chinese schizophrenic patients. The sample size consisted of 65 patients with TD and 66 without TD. Patients were assessed for the severity of TD, the presence of akathisia and parkinsonian symptoms and were subsequently genotyped. We found no evidence that the dopamine D3 receptor gene is likely to confer susceptibility to the development of tardive dyskinesia in Chinese patients with schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
18J Neural Transm (Vienna) 2001 -1 108: 671-7
PMID11478419
TitleDopamine D3 receptor gene and tardive dyskinesia in Chinese schizophrenic patients.
AbstractEpidemiological studies have shown a lower prevalence of tardive dyskinesia (TD) among Chinese psychiatric patients compared to Caucasian and Black patient populations. It has been hypothesized that pharmacogenetic factors may underlie this cross-cultural difference. Due to the important implications of the dopamine D3 receptor gene (DRD3) in motor control, we investigated the frequency of polymorphic serine (ser) to glycine (gly) substitution of the gene DRD3 in Chinese schizophrenic patients. The sample size consisted of 65 patients with TD and 66 without TD. Patients were assessed for the severity of TD, the presence of akathisia and parkinsonian symptoms and were subsequently genotyped. We found no evidence that the dopamine D3 receptor gene is likely to confer susceptibility to the development of tardive dyskinesia in Chinese patients with schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
19Neuropsychobiology 2001 -1 44: 95-8
PMID11490179
TitleAssociation between the Ser9Gly polymorphism of the dopamine D3 receptor gene and tardive dyskinesia in Chinese schizophrenic patients.
AbstractIt has been suggested that dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3) may have important implications for antipsychotic-induced tardive dyskinesia (TD). Previous studies have demonstrated an association between a serine to glycine polymorphism in the first exon of the DRD3 gene and TD; however, the results have been inconsistent. Therefore, we have replicated these studies using a Chinese sample population. A total of 115 schizophrenic patients from chronic wards were assessed for TD severity using the Abnormal Involuntary Movements Scale (AIMS) and were subsequently genotyped for the DRD3 polymorphism. The mean AIMS score for patients carrying the heterozygote (DRD3(ser-gly)) was significantly greater than for those with the homozygotes (DRD3(ser-ser) and DRD3(gly-gly)). Our results are in line with a previous report, the results of which suggest that the presence of the DRD3(ser-gly) genotype may be a risk factor for the development of TD in patients treated with antipsychotics.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
20Mol. Psychiatry 2001 Nov 6: 718-24
PMID11673801
TitleDopamine D3 receptor (DRD3) gene polymorphism is associated with the intensity of eye movement disturbances in schizophrenic patients and healthy subjects.
AbstractAltered dopamine neurotransmission and eye movement disturbances have been implicated in the pathogenic process of schizophrenia. So far, molecular genetic studies have shown little association between schizophrenia and polymorphism of any dopamine receptor or transporter genes except for some findings concerning D3 receptor (DRD3) gene. Eye movement disturbances occur in a majority of patients with schizophrenia and in a proportion of their first-degree relatives and they have been suggested as a phenotypic marker in genetic studies of this illness. Here we report an association between the Ser9Gly polymorphism of the DRD3 gene and the intensity of eye movement disturbances (fixation and smooth pursuit) observed in 119 schizophrenic patients and in 94 unrelated healthy control subjects. In schizophrenic patients, the mean intensity of both kinds of eye movement disturbances was highest in individuals with the Ser-Ser genotype, significantly lower in Ser-Gly and lowest in the Gly-Gly genotype. The Ser-Ser genotype was more prevalent in patients with a higher intensity of both fixation (58.1 vs 23.9% P < 0.001) and smooth pursuit disturbances (52.3 vs 25.8%, P < 0.02) and the Ser-Gly genotype frequency was lower in patients with higher fixation disturbances (37.0 vs 60.9%, P < 0.02). In control subjects, the genotype frequency Ser-Ser was higher in subjects with any degree of eye movement disturbances compared to subjects without such disturbances both for fixation and smooth pursuit performance (81.0 vs 50.7%, P < 0.05 and 79.2 vs 50.0%, P < 0.05, respectively). In control subjects the frequency of Ser-Gly was lower in the first group, for either fixation or smooth pursuit, compared to normal performers (9.5 vs 43.8%, P < 0.01 and 8.3 vs 45.7, P < 0.005, respectively). We suggest that the DRD3 Ser9Gly polymorphism may be a contributing factor to the performance of eye movements used as a phenotypic marker of schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
21Mol. Psychiatry 2001 Nov 6: 718-24
PMID11673801
TitleDopamine D3 receptor (DRD3) gene polymorphism is associated with the intensity of eye movement disturbances in schizophrenic patients and healthy subjects.
AbstractAltered dopamine neurotransmission and eye movement disturbances have been implicated in the pathogenic process of schizophrenia. So far, molecular genetic studies have shown little association between schizophrenia and polymorphism of any dopamine receptor or transporter genes except for some findings concerning D3 receptor (DRD3) gene. Eye movement disturbances occur in a majority of patients with schizophrenia and in a proportion of their first-degree relatives and they have been suggested as a phenotypic marker in genetic studies of this illness. Here we report an association between the Ser9Gly polymorphism of the DRD3 gene and the intensity of eye movement disturbances (fixation and smooth pursuit) observed in 119 schizophrenic patients and in 94 unrelated healthy control subjects. In schizophrenic patients, the mean intensity of both kinds of eye movement disturbances was highest in individuals with the Ser-Ser genotype, significantly lower in Ser-Gly and lowest in the Gly-Gly genotype. The Ser-Ser genotype was more prevalent in patients with a higher intensity of both fixation (58.1 vs 23.9% P < 0.001) and smooth pursuit disturbances (52.3 vs 25.8%, P < 0.02) and the Ser-Gly genotype frequency was lower in patients with higher fixation disturbances (37.0 vs 60.9%, P < 0.02). In control subjects, the genotype frequency Ser-Ser was higher in subjects with any degree of eye movement disturbances compared to subjects without such disturbances both for fixation and smooth pursuit performance (81.0 vs 50.7%, P < 0.05 and 79.2 vs 50.0%, P < 0.05, respectively). In control subjects the frequency of Ser-Gly was lower in the first group, for either fixation or smooth pursuit, compared to normal performers (9.5 vs 43.8%, P < 0.01 and 8.3 vs 45.7, P < 0.005, respectively). We suggest that the DRD3 Ser9Gly polymorphism may be a contributing factor to the performance of eye movements used as a phenotypic marker of schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
22Am. J. Med. Genet. 2001 May 105: 307-11
PMID11378841
TitleAllelic variation of a BalI polymorphism in the DRD3 gene does not influence susceptibility to bipolar disorder: results of analysis and meta-analysis.
AbstractBipolar disorder is a major psychiatric illness that has evidence for a significant genetic contribution toward its development. In recent years, the BalI RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) in the dopamine D3 receptor gene has been examined as a possible susceptibility factor for both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. While analysis in schizophrenia has produced examples of increased homozygosity in patients, less encouraging results have been found for bipolar disorder. Recently, however, a family-based association study has found a significant excess of allele 1 and allele 1-containing genotypes in transmitted alleles to bipolar probands over nontransmitted controls. In a large bipolar case control sample (n = 454), we have been unable to replicate the family-based association study (chi-square = 0.137, P = 0.71, 1 df) or detect an effect similar to the positive homozygosity findings in schizophrenia (chi-square = 0.463, P = 0.50, 1 df). A meta-analysis of previous association studies also revealed no difference in allele distributions between bipolar patients and controls for this polymorphism in ethnically homogeneous samples (odds ratio, OR, = 1.04; P = 0.60; 95% confidence interval, CI, = 0.89-1.20). In view of this evidence, we conclude that variation at the BalI RFLP is not an important factor influencing the susceptibility to bipolar disorder. It remains possible, however, that other sequence variations within the DRD3 gene could play a role.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
23Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 2002 Feb 59: 331-48
PMID11915947
TitleRecent advances in the genetics of schizophrenia.
AbstractThe genetic etiology of schizophrenia, a common and debilitating psychiatric disorder, is supported by a wealth of data. Review of the current findings suggests that considerable progress has been made in recent years, with a number of chromosomal regions consistently implicated by linkage analysis. Three groups have shown linkage to 1q21-22 using similar models, with HLOD scores of 6.5, 3.2, and 2.4. Other replicated loci include 13q32 that has been implicated by two independent groups with significant HLOD scores (4.42) or NPL values (4.18), and 5pl4.1-13.1, 5q21-33, 8p2l-22, and 10p11-15, each of which have been reported as suggestive by at least three separate groups. Different studies have also replicated evidence for a modest number of candidate genes that were not ascertained through linkage. Of these, the greatest support exists for the DRD3 (3q13.3), HTR2A (13q14.2), and CHRNA7 (15q13-q14) genes. The refinement of phenotypes, the use of endophenotypes, reduction of heterogeneity, and extensive genetic mapping have all contributed to this progress. The rapid expansion of information from the human genome project will likely further accelerate this progress and assist in the discovery of susceptibility genes for schizophrenia. A greater understanding of disease mechanisms and the application of pharmacogenetics should also lead to improvements in therapeutic interventions.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
24Hum. Mol. Genet. 2002 Oct 11: 2517-30
PMID12351588
TitlePharmacogenomics in schizophrenia: the quest for individualized therapy.
AbstractThere is strong evidence to suggest that genetic variation plays an important role in inter-individual differences in medication response and toxicity. The rapidly evolving disciplines of pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics seek to uncover this genetic variation in order to predict treatment outcomes. The goal is to be able to select the drugs with the greatest likelihood of benefit and the least likelihood of harm in individual patients, based on their genetic make-up-individualized therapy. Pharmacogenomic studies utilize genomic technologies to identify chromosomal areas of interest and novel putative drug targets, while pharmacogenetic strategies rely on studying sequence variations in candidate genes suspected of affecting drug response or toxicity. The candidate gene variants that affect function of the gene or its protein product have the highest priority for investigation. This review will provide demonstrative examples of functional candidate gene variants studied in a variety of antipsychotic response phenotypes in the treatment of schizophrenia. Serotonin and dopamine receptor gene variants in clozapine response will be examined, and in the process the need for sub-phenotypes will be pointed out. Our recent pharmacogenetic studies of the subphenotype of neurocognitive functioning following clozapine treatment and the dopamine D(1) receptor gene (DRD1) will be presented, highlighting our novel neuroimaging data via [(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) metabolism position emission tomography (PET) that demonstrates hypofunctioning of several brain regions in patients with specific dopamine D(1) genotype. Preliminary candidate gene studies investigating the side-effect of clozapine-induced weight gain are also presented. The antipsychotic adverse reaction of tardive dyskinesia and its association with the dopamine D(3) receptor will be critically examined, as well as the added influence of antipsychotic metabolism via the cytochrome P450 1A2 gene (CYP1A2 ). Results that delineate the putative gene-gene interaction between DRD3 and CYP1A2 are also presented. We have also utilized FDG-PET subphenotyping to demonstrate increased brain region activity in patients who have the dopamine D(3) genotype that confers increased risk for antipsychotic induced tardive dyskinesia. The merits and weaknesses of neuroimaging technologies as applied to pharmacogenetic analyses are discussed. To the extent that the above data become more widely verified and replicated, the field of psychiatry will move closer to clinically meaningful tests that will be useful in deciding the best drug for each individual patient.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
25Neuropsychobiology 2002 -1 46: 17-21
PMID12207142
TitleAllelic variation in the human prodynorphin gene promoter and schizophrenia.
AbstractExperimental and clinical studies suggest an involvement of the opioid neuropeptide system in schizophrenia. In particular, the prodynorphin (PDYN), the precursor of the dynorphin opioid peptides, has been shown to play an important role in several aspects of human mental diseases. Recently, a functional polymorphism in the promoter of PDYN gene has been described. We studied the possible relationship between this polymorphism and schizophrenia and we found no significant difference in allelic and genotype distributions between schizophrenic patients and control subjects. However, we observed a significant interactive effect with the receptor 3 of dopamine gene (DRD3); in particular, the frequency of subjects carrying PDYN allele 3 being also homozygotes for DRD3 Gly allele (of Ser9Gly polymorphism) was significantly greater in patients than controls. We conclude that PDYN gene polymorphism alone does not alter the risk for schizophrenia but, by an epistatic interaction with the Gly allele of DRD3 gene, may contribute to the susceptibility to this disorder.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
26Neuropsychopharmacology 2002 Jun 26: 794-801
PMID12007750
TitleDelusional disorder: molecular genetic evidence for dopamine psychosis.
AbstractSince delusional disorder is characterized by mono-symptomatic paranoid symptoms, it can be a good clinical model for investigating the dopaminergic mechanism responsible for paranoid symptoms. We examined neuroleptic responses, plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) and genes of the dopamine receptor (DR) and its synthesizing enzyme (tyrosine hydroxylase: TH) in patients with delusional disorder and compared them with those of schizophrenic patients and healthy controls.
(1) A relatively small dose of haloperidol was more effective for delusional disorder than for schizophrenia. (2) The pretreatment level of pHVA was higher in patients with persecution-type, but not in those with jealousy-type delusional disorder, compared with age- and sex-matched controls. This increased pHVA level was decreased eight weeks after successful haloperidol treatment. (3) The genotype frequency of the DRD2 gene Ser311Cys was significantly higher in patients with persecution-type delusional disorder (21%), compared with schizophrenic patients (6%) or controls (6%). (4) Patients homozygous for the DRD3 gene Ser9Ser had higher pretreatment levels of pHVA than those heterozygous for Ser9Gly. (v) A significant positive correlation was found between the polymorphic (TCAT)(n) repeat in the first intron of the TH gene and pretreatment levels of pHVA in delusional disorder. We suggest that delusional disorder, especially the persecution-type, includes a "dopamine psychosis," and that polymorphism of the DRD2, DRD3 and/or TH gene is part of the genetic basis underlying the hyperdopaminergic state that produces paranoid symptoms. Further studies on a large sample size are required.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
27Neuropsychobiology 2002 -1 46: 17-21
PMID12207142
TitleAllelic variation in the human prodynorphin gene promoter and schizophrenia.
AbstractExperimental and clinical studies suggest an involvement of the opioid neuropeptide system in schizophrenia. In particular, the prodynorphin (PDYN), the precursor of the dynorphin opioid peptides, has been shown to play an important role in several aspects of human mental diseases. Recently, a functional polymorphism in the promoter of PDYN gene has been described. We studied the possible relationship between this polymorphism and schizophrenia and we found no significant difference in allelic and genotype distributions between schizophrenic patients and control subjects. However, we observed a significant interactive effect with the receptor 3 of dopamine gene (DRD3); in particular, the frequency of subjects carrying PDYN allele 3 being also homozygotes for DRD3 Gly allele (of Ser9Gly polymorphism) was significantly greater in patients than controls. We conclude that PDYN gene polymorphism alone does not alter the risk for schizophrenia but, by an epistatic interaction with the Gly allele of DRD3 gene, may contribute to the susceptibility to this disorder.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
28Neuropsychopharmacology 2002 Jun 26: 794-801
PMID12007750
TitleDelusional disorder: molecular genetic evidence for dopamine psychosis.
AbstractSince delusional disorder is characterized by mono-symptomatic paranoid symptoms, it can be a good clinical model for investigating the dopaminergic mechanism responsible for paranoid symptoms. We examined neuroleptic responses, plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) and genes of the dopamine receptor (DR) and its synthesizing enzyme (tyrosine hydroxylase: TH) in patients with delusional disorder and compared them with those of schizophrenic patients and healthy controls.
(1) A relatively small dose of haloperidol was more effective for delusional disorder than for schizophrenia. (2) The pretreatment level of pHVA was higher in patients with persecution-type, but not in those with jealousy-type delusional disorder, compared with age- and sex-matched controls. This increased pHVA level was decreased eight weeks after successful haloperidol treatment. (3) The genotype frequency of the DRD2 gene Ser311Cys was significantly higher in patients with persecution-type delusional disorder (21%), compared with schizophrenic patients (6%) or controls (6%). (4) Patients homozygous for the DRD3 gene Ser9Ser had higher pretreatment levels of pHVA than those heterozygous for Ser9Gly. (v) A significant positive correlation was found between the polymorphic (TCAT)(n) repeat in the first intron of the TH gene and pretreatment levels of pHVA in delusional disorder. We suggest that delusional disorder, especially the persecution-type, includes a "dopamine psychosis," and that polymorphism of the DRD2, DRD3 and/or TH gene is part of the genetic basis underlying the hyperdopaminergic state that produces paranoid symptoms. Further studies on a large sample size are required.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
29Mol. Psychiatry 2002 -1 7: 493-502
PMID12082567
TitleCharacterisation, mutation detection, and association analysis of alternative promoters and 5' UTRs of the human dopamine D3 receptor gene in schizophrenia.
AbstractThe dopamine D(3) receptor gene (DRD3) is a candidate for a number of psychiatric conditions including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and alcohol and drug abuse. Previous studies have reported associations between polymorphisms in DRD3 and these disorders, but these findings may have reflected linkage disequilibrium with pathogenic variants that are further upstream. We have isolated and sequenced approximately 9 kb of genomic sequence upstream of the human DRD3 translational start site. Using 5' RACE, we have identified within this region three additional exons and two putative promoter regions which show promoter activity in three different cell lines. A 5' UTR identified only in lymphoblasts is spread over three exons and is 353 bp long. A second 5' UTR, found in adult and fetal brain, lymphocytes, kidney and placenta is spread over two exons and is 516 bp long. A 260-bp sequence within this 9 kb corresponds to a previously reported EST, but corresponding mRNA could not be found in the tissues above. The EST, 5' UTRs and putative promoter regions have been analysed for polymorphisms, revealing 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms, seven of which were tested for association in a large sample of unrelated patients with schizophrenia and matched controls. No associations were observed with schizophrenia. In addition we failed to replicate previous findings of association with homozygosity of the Ser9Gly variant. The results from this study imply that neither the coding nor the regulatory region of DRD3 plays a major role in predisposition to schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
30Eur. J. Pharmacol. 2003 Nov 480: 177-84
PMID14623361
TitleThe genetics of schizophrenia: glutamate not dopamine?
AbstractThe major targets of current drugs used in mental health, such as neurotransmitter receptors and transporters, are based on serendipitous findings from several decades ago, and there is currently a severe drought of new drug targets. There is a pressing need for novel drugs, and much hope has been placed on the use of molecular genetics to help define them. However, despite evidence for a genetic basis to schizophrenia stretching back for over a century, and a heritability of about 80%, the identification of susceptibility genes has been an uphill struggle. Candidate gene studies, which have generally focussed on obvious candidates from the dopamine and serotonin systems, as well as genes involved in brain development, have not generally been successful, although meta-analysis indicates that the dopamine D3 receptor gene (DRD3) and the serotonin receptor gene type 2A (HTR2A) may have a very small influence on risk. Linkage analysis has provided robust evidence of genetic loci, for example, on chromosomes 8p, 13q and 22q, and also implies shared genetic aetiology with bipolar disorder. The identification of these loci together with advances in genetic technology, especially the characterisation of polymorphisms, the understanding of haplotypes and the development of statistical methods, has lead to the identification of several plausible susceptibility genes, including neuregulin 1, proline dehydrogenase and dysbindin. Interestingly, these genes point more towards a role for the glutamate pathway rather than the dopamine pathway in schizophrenia. We have attempted to replicate some of these findings in schizophrenic patients from SW China, and we find significant association with a novel neuregulin 1 haplotype, with proline dehydrogenase polymorphisms, but not with catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT). The replication of neuregulin 1 association on chromosome 8p by several investigators is the most convincing to date, and the presence of a syndrome similar to dementia praecox of 8p linked families, and the lack of linkage of bipolar disorder to this region is a testament to the ideas of Kraepelin more than 100 years ago.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
31Eur. J. Pharmacol. 2003 Nov 480: 177-84
PMID14623361
TitleThe genetics of schizophrenia: glutamate not dopamine?
AbstractThe major targets of current drugs used in mental health, such as neurotransmitter receptors and transporters, are based on serendipitous findings from several decades ago, and there is currently a severe drought of new drug targets. There is a pressing need for novel drugs, and much hope has been placed on the use of molecular genetics to help define them. However, despite evidence for a genetic basis to schizophrenia stretching back for over a century, and a heritability of about 80%, the identification of susceptibility genes has been an uphill struggle. Candidate gene studies, which have generally focussed on obvious candidates from the dopamine and serotonin systems, as well as genes involved in brain development, have not generally been successful, although meta-analysis indicates that the dopamine D3 receptor gene (DRD3) and the serotonin receptor gene type 2A (HTR2A) may have a very small influence on risk. Linkage analysis has provided robust evidence of genetic loci, for example, on chromosomes 8p, 13q and 22q, and also implies shared genetic aetiology with bipolar disorder. The identification of these loci together with advances in genetic technology, especially the characterisation of polymorphisms, the understanding of haplotypes and the development of statistical methods, has lead to the identification of several plausible susceptibility genes, including neuregulin 1, proline dehydrogenase and dysbindin. Interestingly, these genes point more towards a role for the glutamate pathway rather than the dopamine pathway in schizophrenia. We have attempted to replicate some of these findings in schizophrenic patients from SW China, and we find significant association with a novel neuregulin 1 haplotype, with proline dehydrogenase polymorphisms, but not with catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT). The replication of neuregulin 1 association on chromosome 8p by several investigators is the most convincing to date, and the presence of a syndrome similar to dementia praecox of 8p linked families, and the lack of linkage of bipolar disorder to this region is a testament to the ideas of Kraepelin more than 100 years ago.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
32Psychiatr. Genet. 2003 Sep 13: 187-92
PMID12960753
TitleInteraction between polymorphisms of the dopamine D3 receptor and manganese superoxide dismutase genes in susceptibility to tardive dyskinesia.
AbstractTo investigate the influence of a functional polymorphism of the dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3), and assess its interaction with a Mn superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) polymorphism, in contributing to tardive dyskinesia in a chronic inpatient population with schizophrenia.
Chinese Han patients with schizophrenia were assessed for abnormal involuntary movements, and subgroups of 42 patients with persistent tardive dyskinesia and 59 consistently without dyskinesias were assessed for the DRD3 ser9gly and the MnSOD ala-9val polymorphisms.
A higher, but not significant, frequency of DRD3 ser/gly heterozygotes was observed in the tardive dyskinesia group (0.52 versus 0.33, chi2=5, degrees of freedom=2, P=0.08). However, assessment of the combined influence of the two polymorphisms demonstrated a significant effect (chi2=8.09, degrees of freedom=3, P=0.04), whereby the combination of the MnSOD -9val and DRD3 9ser alleles was associated with tardive dyskinesia.
These results indicate a possible synergistic effect of genetic factors influencing mitochondrial free radical scavenging and dopamine receptor function on the susceptibility to tardive dyskinesia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
33Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi 2003 Apr 20: 98-102
PMID12673575
Title[Pharmacogenetic assessment of antipsychotic-induced tardive dyskinesia: contribution of 5-hydroxytryptamine 2C receptor gene and of a combination of dopamine D3 variant allele (Gly) and MnSOD wild allele (Val)].
AbstractTo further investigate whether the functional polymorphisms of dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) and dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3) genes associate with the development of tardive dyskinesia (TD) in schizophrenia, and whether the interactive effects of DRD2, DRD3, 5-hydroxytryptamine 2C receptor (HTR2C) and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) genes contribute to the severity of TD.
The patients with schizophrenia were assessed for TD by the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS). Eventually, 42 schizophrenics with persistent TD were in the TD group, and 59 schizophrenics without TD were in the non-TD group. The polymorphism of each candidate gene was analyzed using a polymerase chain reaction-based restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.
The genotype distributions of the candidate genes in the groups were all consistent with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Allele frequencies for -759C/T and -697G/C polymorphisms in HTR2C gene showed a significant excess of -697 variant (P<0.05) in the patients with TD, compared against those in patients without TD. There were no differences in the distributions of the allelic frequencies and genotypes of Taq I. A polymorphism in DRD2 gene, of Ser/Gly polymorphism in DRD3 gene, and of Ala-9Val polymorphism in MnSOD gene between the TD group and non-TD group (P>0.05). Interestingly, as compared with the other joint allelic types, a significant excess of carrying both DRD3 variant allele (Gly) and MnSOD wild allele (Val) was found in the TD group (P<0.05). However, neither the allele and genotypes nor the clinical demographic characteristics contributed to the higher total AIMS scores in the patients of the TD group. There were no significant differences in any of the clinical demographic characteristics between the subgroups of any genotype in TD and non-TD groups.
The excess of -697 variant in the promoter regulation region of the HTR2C gene may be a risk factor for the susceptibility to the occurrence of TD in Chinese male patients with schizophrenia. A combination of DRD3 variant allele (Gly) and MnSOD wild allele (Val) may increase the susceptibility to the development of TD.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
34Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi 2003 Apr 20: 98-102
PMID12673575
Title[Pharmacogenetic assessment of antipsychotic-induced tardive dyskinesia: contribution of 5-hydroxytryptamine 2C receptor gene and of a combination of dopamine D3 variant allele (Gly) and MnSOD wild allele (Val)].
AbstractTo further investigate whether the functional polymorphisms of dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) and dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3) genes associate with the development of tardive dyskinesia (TD) in schizophrenia, and whether the interactive effects of DRD2, DRD3, 5-hydroxytryptamine 2C receptor (HTR2C) and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) genes contribute to the severity of TD.
The patients with schizophrenia were assessed for TD by the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS). Eventually, 42 schizophrenics with persistent TD were in the TD group, and 59 schizophrenics without TD were in the non-TD group. The polymorphism of each candidate gene was analyzed using a polymerase chain reaction-based restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.
The genotype distributions of the candidate genes in the groups were all consistent with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Allele frequencies for -759C/T and -697G/C polymorphisms in HTR2C gene showed a significant excess of -697 variant (P<0.05) in the patients with TD, compared against those in patients without TD. There were no differences in the distributions of the allelic frequencies and genotypes of Taq I. A polymorphism in DRD2 gene, of Ser/Gly polymorphism in DRD3 gene, and of Ala-9Val polymorphism in MnSOD gene between the TD group and non-TD group (P>0.05). Interestingly, as compared with the other joint allelic types, a significant excess of carrying both DRD3 variant allele (Gly) and MnSOD wild allele (Val) was found in the TD group (P<0.05). However, neither the allele and genotypes nor the clinical demographic characteristics contributed to the higher total AIMS scores in the patients of the TD group. There were no significant differences in any of the clinical demographic characteristics between the subgroups of any genotype in TD and non-TD groups.
The excess of -697 variant in the promoter regulation region of the HTR2C gene may be a risk factor for the susceptibility to the occurrence of TD in Chinese male patients with schizophrenia. A combination of DRD3 variant allele (Gly) and MnSOD wild allele (Val) may increase the susceptibility to the development of TD.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
35Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet. 2003 Jan 116B: 51-4
PMID12497614
TitlePolymorphisms of dopamine receptors and tardive dyskinesia among Chinese patients with schizophrenia.
AbstractThe putative role of dopamine in the pathophysiology of tardive dyskinesia (TD) makes the genes coding for dopamine receptors the appropriate candidates for study. We investigate the association of the polymorphism of the Ser311Cys and Ser9Gly of the dopamine D2 (DRD2) and D3 receptor (DRD3) genes respectively with TD in Chinese patients with schizophrenia. In a case-control study, 117 Chinese patients with TD were compared to 200 patients without TD. Patients were diagnosed to have schizophrenia according to DSM-IV criteria. Dyskinesia was assessed by the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS), whereas extrapyramidal side-effects (EPSE) were assessed by the Simpson-Angus Rating Scale. Genotype groups were comparable in age, gender, duration of illness, daily neuroleptic and benzodiazepine dose as well as the mean scores for EPSE. We failed to find an association between the polymorphism of the DRD2 gene with TD but found an increased risk of developing TD among those with D3 serine/serine genotype. Our results did not indicate that the D2 genotype has a role in the pathophysiology of TD in Chinese patients with schizophrenia. The association of TD with the serine/serine genotype of the DRD3 may be an epiphenomenon of patients with a subtype of schizophrenia who had more exposure to neuroleptics.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
36Pharmacogenomics J. 2003 -1 3: 97-100
PMID12746734
TitleCebus apella, a nonhuman primate highly susceptible to neuroleptic side effects, carries the GLY9 dopamine receptor D3 associated with tardive dyskinesia in humans.
AbstractTardive dyskinesia (TD) is a severe side effect of traditional neuroleptics affecting a considerable number of schizophrenic patients. Accumulating evidence suggests the existence of a genetic disposition to TD and other extra pyramidal symptoms (EPS) most strongly linked to a ser/gly polymorphism in position 9 of the D3 dopamine receptor gene (DRD3). The Cebus apella monkey is the favored animal model to study TD and other EPS because of its high susceptibility to side effects of neuroleptics. We therefore determined the sequence of the DRD3 gene in this species and compared it with that of humans. We found that the highly TD susceptible C. apella monkey (n=21) carries the gly9/gly9 DRD3 genotype that has been associated with TD in humans. Contrarily, C. apella did not carry the ser23 5HT2C allele that has been reported to increase TD susceptibility in humans.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
37Psychiatr. Genet. 2003 Mar 13: 1-12
PMID12605094
TitleDopamine D3 receptor gene Ser9Gly variant and schizophrenia: association study and meta-analysis.
AbstractTo further evaluate the controversial putative association between a Ser9Gly variant in the first exon of the dopamine D3 receptor gene (DRD3) and schizophrenia.
Swedish patients with schizophrenia ( n=156) and control subjects ( n=463) were assessed for the DRD3 Ser9Gly variant. Meta-analyses including previous and the present Swedish case-control results were performed.
No significant difference between the Swedish patients and controls were found, but there was an association between DRD3 Ser9Gly Ser/Ser and homozygous genotypes and response to anti-psychotic drugs. This finding was supported by an incomplete meta-analysis. In a meta-analysis of all case-control studies comprising 8761 subjects the association between DRD3 Ser9Gly homozygosity and schizophrenia ( =4.96, degree of freedom=1, p <0.05, odds ratio=1.10, 95% confidence interval=1.01-1.20) persisted. However, the previously proposed association between the Ser/Ser genotype and schizophrenia was not significant (chi2 =2.71, degree of freedom=1, p>0.05, odds ratio=1.08, 95% confidence interval=0.99-1.17).
Whereas the present Swedish case-control analysis did not yield any evidence for association with the diagnosis, the present meta-analysis suggests that the DRD3 gene confer susceptibility to schizophrenia. Reasons for the discrepancies between prior studies are discussed.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
38Psychiatr. Genet. 2004 Mar 14: 9-12
PMID15091310
TitleMeta-analysis of the dopamine D3 receptor gene (DRD3) Ser9Gly variant and schizophrenia.
Abstract-1
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
39Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova 2004 -1 104: 57-61
PMID15553379
Title[D3 dopamine receptor gene Ser9Gly polymorphism in Russian patients with schizophrenia].
AbstractPolymorphic marker Ser9Gly of dopamine receptor D3 gene is considered perspective for associative studies of schizophrenia. Allele and genotype frequency of this polymorphism were studied in different ethnic groups of schizophrenic patients as well as the attempts have been made to reveal an association with clinical presentations of the disease. However, the results are inconsistent. The present study aimed at investigating Ser9Gly DRD3 gene polymorphism in Russian sample of schizophrenic patients. One hundred and fifty patients with ICD-10 diagnosis of schizophrenia (broad definition), 69 male and 81 female, aged 34.8+/-13.87 years, age at disease onset 24.3+/-9 years, have been examined. Control group consisted of 150 healthy subjects without family history of schizophrenia, 60 male and 90 female, aged 32.7+/-13.5 years. No between-group differences have been found for Ser9Gly DRD3 allele and genotype frequencies. However, a frequency of homozygous genotype Gly/Gly was significantly higher in female patients, comparing to female controls (p=0.038 Yate's corrected, OR 9. CI 0.95% 1.0-79.5). A role of sex-dependent association between Ser9Gly DRD3 polymorphism and schizophrenia is discussed.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
40Neurosci. Lett. 2004 Sep 368: 33-6
PMID15342129
TitlePsychotic symptoms in Alzheimer's disease are not influenced by polymorphic variation at the dopamine receptor DRD3 gene.
AbstractIt has been suggested that genetic influences unmasked during neurodevelopment to produce schizophrenia may appear throughout neurodegeneration to produce AD plus psychosis. Risk of schizophrenia and psychosis in Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been linked to polymorphic variation at the dopamine receptor DRD3 gene implying similar causative mechanisms. We tested this association in a large cohort of Alzheimer's disease patients with a diagnosis of probable AD of 3 years or more duration from the relatively genetically homogenous Northern Irish population. We assessed relationships between genotypes/alleles of the DRD3 BalI polymorphism and the presence or absence of psychotic symptoms (delusions, hallucinations) in AD patients during the month prior to interview and at any stage during the dementia. No significant associations were found when delusions and hallucinations were cross-tabulated against S and G alleles and SS, SG and GG genotypes. Logistic regression failed to detect any influence of APOE, gender, family history or prior psychiatric history. In conclusion, we were unable to confirm previously reported associations between the DRD3 BalI polymorphism and psychotic symptoms in AD.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
41Neuropsychobiology 2004 -1 50: 305-10
PMID15539862
TitleDecreased levels of dopamine D3 receptor mRNA in schizophrenic and bipolar patients.
AbstractPrevious studies found an elevation of the dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3) mRNA as determined in peripheral lymphocytes in schizophrenic patients. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis of elevated DRD3 mRNA in schizophrenia compared to bipolar disorder. Twenty-four patients, 13 schizophrenic and 11 bipolar, were included according to DSM-IV criteria. Psychometric measures were conducted using the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms, Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale and Young Mania Rating Scale. mRNA was isolated from lymphocytes of venous blood samples and DRD3 mRNA was quantified using real-time reverse transcription PCR. We found a decrease in DRD3 mRNA in 13 schizophrenic (p = 0.009) and 11 bipolar (p = 0.023) patients as compared to controls. Medication history and severity of positive symptoms did not significantly influence DRD3 expression. Higher levels of DRD3 mRNA were correlated with negative schizophrenic symptoms. Interestingly, after treatment of patients with antipsychotics, DRD3 mRNA levels increased to similar levels as those of healthy controls. Bipolar patients, however, showed a slower increase in DRD3 mRNA levels after 3 weeks of therapy. Our findings suggest that the expression of DRD3 mRNA is reduced in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, supporting the hypothesis of distorted homeostasis of dopamine receptor subtypes in psychotic disorder. The observed diminution was not specific for schizophrenia but also for bipolar disorder requiring further analysis of the regulatory factors involved in dopamine receptor subtype expression.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
42Neuromolecular Med. 2004 -1 5: 243-51
PMID15626824
TitleAssociation analysis of the dopamine D3 receptor gene ser9gly and brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene val66met polymorphisms with antipsychotic-induced persistent tardive dyskinesia and clinical expression in Chinese schizophrenic patients.
AbstractThe association between the dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3) ser9gly genetic polymorphism and tardive dyskinesia (TD), a serious adverse motor disorder after long-term antipsychotic treatment, has been studied extensively in recent years. However, the existence of inconsistent reports makes the role of the DRD3 ser9gly polymorphism in TD development questionable. In rodent studies, the DRD3 expression could be controlled by the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a member of the neurotrophin family. In this study, we examined the association between the DRD3 ser9gly and BDNF val66met genetic polymorphisms and TD occurrence in 216 schizophrenic patients (TD/non-TD = 102/114). In addition, we also studied the effects of the DRD3 ser9gly and BDNF val66met genotypes and their gene-gene interaction on the clinical expression of TD in these TD patients. We found that the TD patients who were heterozygous for the BDNF genotypes had significantly higher abnormal involuntary movement scale (AIMS) orofacial scores (corrected p = 0.021, Bonferroni correction), and a trend of higher AIMS total and limb-trunk scores than the combined homozygous analogs. The correlation between the DRD3 ser9gly genotypes and its interaction with the BDNF val66met polymorphism, and the three classes of AIMS scores were not statistically significant. Furthermore, neither the DRD3 nor the BDNF genotypes and alleles were demonstrated to be associated with TD occurrence. We concluded that the BDNF val66met genetic polymorphism may exert its effect on the clinically phenotypic variability after TD has occurred. Further replication studies with larger sample size and stringent definition for TD is necessary.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
43Int. J. Neuropsychopharmacol. 2004 Dec 7: 489-93
PMID15383158
TitleTardive dyskinesia and DRD2, DRD3, DRD4, 5-HT2A variants in schizophrenia: an association study with repeated assessment.
AbstractWe performed an association study between four candidate genes, DRD2, DRD3, DRD4 and 5-HT2A for the presence of tardive dyskinesia (TD) on 84 patients with residual schizophrenia. The sample was evaluated again for the presence of TD after an interval of 3 years. The first group did not exhibit TD in either observation (n=34) while in the second group of patients exhibited TD in at least one of the observations (n=20+18). The clinical and socio-demographic characteristics were not significantly different between the two groups; the genetic analysis revealed a significant correlation between the C/C genotype of 5-HT2A and TD (p=0.017). An association trend was observed between the 'short' variant of DRD4 and TD (p=0.022). We did not observe any significant association for the DRD2 and DRD3 polymorphisms.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
44Psychiatry Res 2004 Mar 125: 185-91
PMID15051179
TitleFamily association study between DRD2 and DRD3 gene polymorphisms and schizophrenia in a Portuguese population.
Abstractschizophrenia is a highly heritable condition, as demonstrated in family, twin and adoption studies. Candidate genes from the dopaminergic system have long been hypothesized to be involved in the etiology of this disorder. In the present study, we investigated the genetic association between polymorphisms in the D2 and D3 dopamine receptor (DRD2, DRD3) genes and schizophrenia. We examined 90 trios from Portugal, and negative results were obtained from association studies with both Haplotype Relative Risk (HRR) and Transmission Disequilibrium Test (TDT), as well as TRANSMIT. Therefore, we conclude that neither the DRD2 nor the DRD3 gene polymorphisms investigated are associated with schizophrenia in our sample.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
45Malays J Med Sci 2004 Jul 11: 3-11
PMID22973121
TitleThe genetics of schizophrenia.
Abstractschizophrenia is a complex biological disorder with multifactorial mode of transmission where non-genetic determinants are also play important role. It is now clear that it involves combined effect of many genes, each conferring a small increase in liability to the illness. Thus no causal disease genes or single gene of major effects, only susceptible genes are operating. Given this complexity, it comes as no surprise of the difficulty to find susceptible genes. However, schizophrenia genes have been found at last. Recent studies on molecular genetics of schizophrenia which focused on positional and functional candidate genes postulated to be associated with schizophrenia are beginning to produce findings of great interest. These include neuregulin (NRG-1, 8p12-21), dysbindin, (DTNBP1,6p22.3), G72 (13q34) / D-amino acid oxidase (DAAO,12q24), proline dehydrogenase (PRODH-2, 22q11.21), catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT, 22q11.21), regulator of G protein signaling (RGS-4), 5HT2A and dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3). Applications of microarrays methods were able to locate positional candidate genes related to dopaminergic, serotonergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission. New genome scan project, seen in the light of previous scans, provide support for schizophrenia candidate region on chromosome 1q, 2q, 5q, 6p, 8p, 10p, 13q,15q and 22q. Other reports described including the application of LD mapping and positional cloning technique, microarray technology and efforts to develop quantitative phenotype. More exciting finding is expected in near future with the completion of Hap Map project.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
46Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova 2004 -1 104: 57-61
PMID15553379
Title[D3 dopamine receptor gene Ser9Gly polymorphism in Russian patients with schizophrenia].
AbstractPolymorphic marker Ser9Gly of dopamine receptor D3 gene is considered perspective for associative studies of schizophrenia. Allele and genotype frequency of this polymorphism were studied in different ethnic groups of schizophrenic patients as well as the attempts have been made to reveal an association with clinical presentations of the disease. However, the results are inconsistent. The present study aimed at investigating Ser9Gly DRD3 gene polymorphism in Russian sample of schizophrenic patients. One hundred and fifty patients with ICD-10 diagnosis of schizophrenia (broad definition), 69 male and 81 female, aged 34.8+/-13.87 years, age at disease onset 24.3+/-9 years, have been examined. Control group consisted of 150 healthy subjects without family history of schizophrenia, 60 male and 90 female, aged 32.7+/-13.5 years. No between-group differences have been found for Ser9Gly DRD3 allele and genotype frequencies. However, a frequency of homozygous genotype Gly/Gly was significantly higher in female patients, comparing to female controls (p=0.038 Yate's corrected, OR 9. CI 0.95% 1.0-79.5). A role of sex-dependent association between Ser9Gly DRD3 polymorphism and schizophrenia is discussed.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
47Neuropsychobiology 2004 -1 50: 305-10
PMID15539862
TitleDecreased levels of dopamine D3 receptor mRNA in schizophrenic and bipolar patients.
AbstractPrevious studies found an elevation of the dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3) mRNA as determined in peripheral lymphocytes in schizophrenic patients. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis of elevated DRD3 mRNA in schizophrenia compared to bipolar disorder. Twenty-four patients, 13 schizophrenic and 11 bipolar, were included according to DSM-IV criteria. Psychometric measures were conducted using the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms, Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale and Young Mania Rating Scale. mRNA was isolated from lymphocytes of venous blood samples and DRD3 mRNA was quantified using real-time reverse transcription PCR. We found a decrease in DRD3 mRNA in 13 schizophrenic (p = 0.009) and 11 bipolar (p = 0.023) patients as compared to controls. Medication history and severity of positive symptoms did not significantly influence DRD3 expression. Higher levels of DRD3 mRNA were correlated with negative schizophrenic symptoms. Interestingly, after treatment of patients with antipsychotics, DRD3 mRNA levels increased to similar levels as those of healthy controls. Bipolar patients, however, showed a slower increase in DRD3 mRNA levels after 3 weeks of therapy. Our findings suggest that the expression of DRD3 mRNA is reduced in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, supporting the hypothesis of distorted homeostasis of dopamine receptor subtypes in psychotic disorder. The observed diminution was not specific for schizophrenia but also for bipolar disorder requiring further analysis of the regulatory factors involved in dopamine receptor subtype expression.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
48Eur. J. Hum. Genet. 2004 Jul 12: 535-41
PMID15083167
TitleAssociation between schizophrenia and DRD3 or HTR2 receptor gene variants.
Abstractschizophrenia is a severe and common psychiatric disorder afflicting 1% of the world population. A role of many neurotransmitter receptors in schizophrenia was suggested by an association with several polymorphisms located in their coding regions. In this study we examined the contribution of the T-102C and A-206G transitions in the 5-HTR2a and DRD3 receptor genes respectively to genetic susceptibility and phenotypic expression of schizophrenia disorder within the Greek population. We determined by PCR and RFLP analysis the genotype for the above polymorphisms in 114 schizophrenic hospitalized individuals and 192 control samples. In contrast to previous reports from large European multicentre studies, which indicate significant correlation between schizophrenia and C-102 allele of the T-102C polymorphism, in this study we observed a statistically significant overall association between the disorder and allele T-102 (P<0.0001, odds ratio (OR)=2.11, 95% CI=1.48-3.02). We also found a highly significant excess of the T-102/C-102 and C-102/C-102 genotypes in the normal group (P<0.001). Comparison of the patients with the controls for the DRD3 polymorphism (A-206G transition) showed marginally nonsignificant differences in the genotypic (P=0.054) and no significance in the allelic (P=0.163) frequencies. However, the A-206/A-206 genotype seems to positively contribute to the disorder appearance, when compared to A-206/G-206 as genotype base line risk (P=0.016, OR=1.88, 95% CI=1.09-3.26). In conclusion, from genetic association analysis of this schizophrenic population, a significant association is clearly determined between the HTR2 genetic polymorphism and the presence of schizophrenic disorder, manifested as increased risk of schizophrenia for carriers of the T-102 allele.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
49Eur. J. Hum. Genet. 2004 Jul 12: 535-41
PMID15083167
TitleAssociation between schizophrenia and DRD3 or HTR2 receptor gene variants.
Abstractschizophrenia is a severe and common psychiatric disorder afflicting 1% of the world population. A role of many neurotransmitter receptors in schizophrenia was suggested by an association with several polymorphisms located in their coding regions. In this study we examined the contribution of the T-102C and A-206G transitions in the 5-HTR2a and DRD3 receptor genes respectively to genetic susceptibility and phenotypic expression of schizophrenia disorder within the Greek population. We determined by PCR and RFLP analysis the genotype for the above polymorphisms in 114 schizophrenic hospitalized individuals and 192 control samples. In contrast to previous reports from large European multicentre studies, which indicate significant correlation between schizophrenia and C-102 allele of the T-102C polymorphism, in this study we observed a statistically significant overall association between the disorder and allele T-102 (P<0.0001, odds ratio (OR)=2.11, 95% CI=1.48-3.02). We also found a highly significant excess of the T-102/C-102 and C-102/C-102 genotypes in the normal group (P<0.001). Comparison of the patients with the controls for the DRD3 polymorphism (A-206G transition) showed marginally nonsignificant differences in the genotypic (P=0.054) and no significance in the allelic (P=0.163) frequencies. However, the A-206/A-206 genotype seems to positively contribute to the disorder appearance, when compared to A-206/G-206 as genotype base line risk (P=0.016, OR=1.88, 95% CI=1.09-3.26). In conclusion, from genetic association analysis of this schizophrenic population, a significant association is clearly determined between the HTR2 genetic polymorphism and the presence of schizophrenic disorder, manifested as increased risk of schizophrenia for carriers of the T-102 allele.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
50Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet. 2004 Jan 124B: 1-5
PMID14681904
TitleRole of dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3) and dopamine transporter (DAT) polymorphism in cognitive dysfunctions and therapeutic response to atypical antipsychotics in patients with schizophrenia.
AbstractMolecular components of the dopaminergic system may play an important role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. In this study, we investigated the relationship of the Ser9Gly (S/G) polymorphism of the dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3) and the variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphism of the dopamine transporter (DAT) with therapeutic response to atypical antipsychotics (clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone) and cognitive functions. No associations were found between the DRD3 and DAT polymorphisms and schizophrenia. The S/S genotype and the S allele were more frequent in the non-responder patients (n = 28) than in the group of responders (n = 47) (cut-off: >20-point improvement in Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale). The patients with S/S genotype completed fewer categories and had more perseverative errors in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) compared with the S/G patients. The S/S and S/G patients did not differ in positive and negative symptoms, GAF scores, WCST failure to maintain set, and verbal learning. No differences in symptoms or WCST measures were observed in the patients with different DAT genotypes. These results suggest that the S/S genotype of the DRD3 is associated with worse therapeutic response and more severe executive dysfunctions in patients with schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
51J Neural Transm (Vienna) 2005 Nov 112: 1575-82
PMID15785860
TitleAn association study of dopamine receptors polymorphisms and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test in schizophrenia.
AbstractDopamine (DA), an important neurotransmitter in prefrontal cortex (PFC), is involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. The aim of the study was to test an association between common polymorphism of genes for DA receptors DRD1, DRD2, DRD3, DRD4, and performance on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), measuring various functions of PFC, in 138 schizophrenic patients. Patients with G/G genotype of DRD1 tended to obtain worse results in all domains of WCST compared to patients with remaining genotypes, particularly for number of completed corrected categories, and trials to set the first category. A relationship was also found in female patients between DRD2 polymorphism and number of perseverative errors, while no association between WCST results and DRD3 or DRD4 polymorphism was observed in patients studied. The results may suggest an association between DRD1 gene polymorphism and performance on PFC test in schizophrenia. Also, the gender-dependent role of DRD2 in this process may be presumed.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
52Am J Pharmacogenomics 2005 -1 5: 149-60
PMID15952869
TitleGenetics and epigenetics in major psychiatric disorders: dilemmas, achievements, applications, and future scope.
AbstractNo specific gene has been identified for any major psychiatric disorder, including schizophrenia, in spite of strong evidence supporting a genetic basis for these complex and devastating disorders. There are several likely reasons for this failure, ranging from poor study design with low statistical power to genetic mechanisms such as polygenic inheritance, epigenetic interactions, and pleiotropy. Most study designs currently in use are inadequate to uncover these mechanisms. However, to date, genetic studies have provided some valuable insight into the causes and potential therapies for psychiatric disorders. There is a growing body of evidence suggesting that the understanding of the genetic etiology of psychiatric illnesses, including schizophrenia, will be more successful with integrative approaches considering both genetic and epigenetic factors. For example, several genes including those encoding dopamine receptors (DRD2, DRD3, and DRD4), serotonin receptor 2A (HTR2A) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) have been implicated in the etiology of schizophrenia and related disorders through meta-analyses and large, multicenter studies. There is also growing evidence for the role of DRD1, NMDA receptor genes (GRIN1, GRIN2A, GRIN2B), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and dopamine transporter (SLC6A3) in both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Recent studies have indicated that epigenetic modification of reelin (RELN), BDNF, and the DRD2 promoters confer susceptibility to clinical psychiatric conditions. Pharmacologic therapy of psychiatric disorders will likely be more effective once the molecular pathogenesis is known. For example, the hypoactive alleles of DRD2 and the hyperactive alleles of COMT, which degrade the dopamine in the synaptic cleft, are associated with schizophrenia. It is likely that insufficient dopaminergic transmission in the frontal lobe plays a role in the development of negative symptoms associated with this disorder. Antipsychotic therapies with a partial dopamine D2 receptor agonist effect may be a plausible alternative to current therapies, and would be effective in symptom reduction in psychotic individuals. It is also possible that therapies employing dopamine D1/D2 receptor agonists or COMT inhibitors will be beneficial for patients with negative symptoms in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The complex etiology of schizophrenia, and other psychiatric disorders, warrants the consideration of both genetic and epigenetic systems and the careful design of experiments to illumine the genetic mechanisms conferring liability for these disorders and the benefit of existing and new therapies.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
53Pharmacogenomics 2005 Mar 6: 139-49
PMID15882132
TitlePharmacogenetic studies of response to risperidone and other newer atypical antipsychotics.
AbstractRisperidone and other newer atypical antipsychotics are becoming the mainstay for schizophrenia treatment. Recent studies suggest that the 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2A (5-HT2A) gene (HTR2A) T102C and G-1438A polymorphisms may influence treatment response of risperidone or olanzapine for schizophrenia's negative symptoms (e.g., blunted affect and social withdrawal). In addition, the HTR6 T267C polymorphism has been linked to risperidone response for positive symptoms (delusions and hallucinations). The dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) Ser311Cys polymorphism may also play a role in determining risperidone efficacy for positive, negative and cognitive symptoms, the DRD2 Ins-A2/Del-A1 diplotype may predict better risperidone response, and the DRD3 Ser311Cys variant may affect general treatment response of several atypical agents. Although investigators have started to explore genetic effects on cognitions of schizophrenia patients receiving antipsychotics, future larger sized pharmacogenetic studies on both psychotic symptoms and cognitive functions are warranted.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
54Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 2005 Nov 73 Suppl 1: S44-50
PMID16270244
Title[Genetic risk factors in schizophrenia].
AbstractThe high pathogenetic relevance of genetic factors in schizophrenia is beyond doubt based on the findings of epidemiological studies. By means of a complex mode of transmission, it is likely that several genes with weak to moderate effect jointly constitute a genetic basis for a vulnerability to schizophrenia that may well vary for different individuals. Other organic and psychosocial factors also play an individually different -- in some cases significant -- role in terms of pathogenesis, as a result of which an oligogenic/polygenic multifactor model is assumed from the standpoint of aetiopathogenetics. Molecular genetic methods consist in linkage analyses and association analyses. Positive linkage findings accumulate particularly for the chromosomes 1q, 6p, 8p, 13q and 22q. By themselves, individual mutations contribute little to the range of schizophrenic feature characteristics, it was not possible -- irrespective of some subtypes -- to replicate genes of major effect. From the large number of possible candidate genes, although studies on DRD3, DRD2 and HTR2A produced positive results, the magnitudes of effect were low. The findings for alleles of dysbindin, neuregulin 1, DAO, COMT, PRODH, ZDHHC and DISC are less clear. The search for schizophrenia-relevant mutations is hampered by the possibility of a heterogeneous phenotype of schizophrenia in case of a homogeneous genotype as much as by the possibility of inter-individually homogeneous phenotypical characteristics in case of schizophrenia-relevant heterotype in the genome. With the aid of the concept of endo-phenotypes, based on neurobiological phenomena, it might be possible to take a more direct approach that leads from relevant mutations to the risk of schizophrenias. However, replacing schizophrenic alienation with neurobiological aspects leads to difficulties in explaining these complex disorder profiles. schizophrenic diseases require an explanatory approach that also incorporates personality and developmental psychological aspects from the outset, if the aim is not to restrict type of schizophrenic disease exclusively to loci of molecular genetic changes.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
55Dis. Markers 2005 -1 21: 61-9
PMID15920292
TitleOver-expression of dopamine D2 receptor and inwardly rectifying potassium channel genes in drug-naive schizophrenic peripheral blood lymphocytes as potential diagnostic markers.
Abstractschizophrenia is one of the most common neuropsychiatric disorders affecting nearly 1% of the human population. Current diagnosis of schizophrenia is based on complex clinical symptoms. The use of easily detectable peripheral molecular markers could substantially help the diagnosis of psychiatric disorders. Recent studies showed that peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) express subtypes of D1 and D2 subclasses of dopamine receptors. Recently, dopamine receptor D3 (DRD3) was found to be over-expressed in schizophrenic PBL and proposed to be a diagnostic and follow-up marker for schizophrenia. In this study we screened PBL of 13 drug-naive/drug-free schizophrenic patients to identify additional markers of schizophrenia. One of the benefits of our study is the use of blood samples of non-medicated, drug-naive patients. This excludes the possibility that changes detected in gene expression levels might be attributed to the medication rather than to the disorder itself. Among others, genes for dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) and the inwardly rectifying potassium channel (Kir2.3) were found to be over-expressed in microarray analysis. Increased mRNA levels were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR (QRT-PCR) using the SybrGreen method and dual labeled TaqMan probes. The use of both molecular markers allows a more rapid and precise prediction of schizophrenia and might help find the optimal medication for schizophrenic patients.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
56Behav. Neurosci. 2005 Jun 119: 687-93
PMID15998189
TitleHabit learning and the genetics of the dopamine D3 receptor: evidence from patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls.
AbstractIn this study, the authors investigated the relationship between the Ser9Gly (SG) polymorphism of the dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3) and striatal habit learning in healthy controls and patients with schizophrenia. Participants were given the weather prediction task, during which probabilistic cue-response associations were learned for tarot cards and weather outcomes (rain or sunshine). In both healthy controls and patients with schizophrenia, participants with Ser9Ser (SS) genotype did not learn during the early phase of the task (1-50 trials), whereas participants with SG genotype did so. During the late phase of the task (51-100 trials), both participants with SS and SG genotype exhibited significant learning. Learning rate was normal in patients with schizophrenia. These results suggest that the DRD3 variant containing glycine is associated with more efficient striatal habit learning in healthy controls and patients with schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
57J Clin Psychopharmacol 2005 Feb 25: 6-11
PMID15643094
TitleDopamine D3 receptor Ser9Gly polymorphism and risperidone response.
AbstractRisperidone is an atypical antipsychotic agent with efficacy for both positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Risperidone is a potent dopamine D3 antagonist and agonism at D3 sites induces behavioral suppression in rodents. We thus hypothesized that D3 antagonism may contribute to response to risperidone in negative symptoms. This study aimed to explore the influence of the Ser9Gly polymorphism of the dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3) gene on response to risperidone after controlling for nongenetic factors. One hundred twenty-three Han Chinese patients with acutely exacerbated schizophrenia were given risperidone monotherapy for up to 42 days. Clinical manifestations were measured biweekly with Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and Nurses' Observation Scale for Inpatients Evaluation (for assessment of social functioning). For adjusting the within-subject dependence over repeated assessments, multiple linear regression with generalized estimating equation methods was used to analyze the effects of Ser9Gly polymorphism and other covariates on clinical performance. Compared with patients with the Gly9Gly genotype, those with either Ser9Ser or Ser9Gly had better performance on negative symptoms after control for other prognostic factors (P = 0.0002 and 0.0092, respectively). Patients with the Ser9Ser genotype had better social functioning than those with Gly9Gly (P = 0.0029). The Ser9Gly polymorphism, however, did not significantly affect positive symptoms. Male gender, fewer previous hospitalizations, and higher risperidone dose also predicted better treatment response. These data suggest that the DRD3 Ser9Gly polymorphism or, alternatively, another genetic variation that is in linkage disequilibrium, may influence response to risperidone in negative symptoms and social functioning.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
58Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet. 2005 Apr 134B: 6-9
PMID15635698
TitleNo association between 12 dopaminergic genes and schizophrenia in a large Dutch sample.
AbstractIt has been suggested that genes involved in dopamine neurotransmission contribute to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. However, reported associations of the disorder with genetic markers in dopaminergic genes have yielded inconsistent results. Possible explanations are differences in phenotyping, genetic heterogeneity, low marker informativity, and the use of small sample sizes. Here, we present a two-stage analysis of 12 dopaminergic genes in a large sample of Dutch schizophrenic patients. To reduce genetic heterogeneity, only patients with at least three Caucasian grandparents of Dutch ancestry were ascertained. An efficient genotyping strategy was used, in which polymorphic microsatellite markers were first screened for association in DNA pools. Promising results were followed up by individual genotyping in an extended sample. The pooled samples consisted of 208 schizophrenic patients and 288 unmatched control individuals. For each of the genes, more than one microsatellite marker was selected where possible, either intragenic or close to the gene. After correcting for multiple testing, significantly different allele frequencies were detected for DRD5 marker D4S615. Subsequently, we individually genotyped this particular marker and another DRD5 marker, as well as a DRD3 marker that could not be analyzed using the pooling strategy. This was done in an extended sample of 282 schizophrenic patients and a control sample of 585 individuals. In this second stage of the study, we found no association between these three markers and schizophrenia. The results of our comprehensive analysis provide no evidence for association between schizophrenia and 12 dopaminergic genes in a large Dutch sample.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
59Schizophr. Res. 2005 Feb 73: 49-54
PMID15567076
TitleAssociation between dopamine D3 receptor gene polymorphisms and schizophrenia in an isolate population.
AbstractThere are several lines of evidence implicating the dopamine D3 receptor in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. The Ser9Gly polymorphism of the dopamine D3 receptor gene (DRD3) has been the most extensively investigated DRD3 variant in connection with the disease but results have been inconclusive. Recent reports indicate that the Ser9Gly polymorphism is in linkage disequilibrium with other markers, but association studies between DRD3 haplotypes and schizophrenia have had mixed results. Genetic heterogeneity may be one of the causes of contradicting results. In order to clarify the role of DRD3 alterations in the aetiology of disease, we have investigated three D3 genetic variants (Ser9Gly, -205-G/A, -7685-G/C) in a sample of patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (N=118) and controls (N=162) recruited from a human isolate from Navarra (Northern Spain) of Basque origin. Although no association was found between the Ser9Gly or the -205-A/G polymorphisms and disease, an excess of allele -7685-C was observed in patients (p=0.002 after correction for multiple analyses). Haplotype analysis shows the three markers to be in strong linkage disequilibrium (p<0.0001) and strongly associated with disease (p<1x 10(-5)). These results may suggest that these polymorphisms exert a combined or synergistic effect on susceptibility to schizophrenia, or are in linkage with an unknown causative factor. However, further replication in independent samples is required.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
60J Neural Transm (Vienna) 2005 Nov 112: 1575-82
PMID15785860
TitleAn association study of dopamine receptors polymorphisms and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test in schizophrenia.
AbstractDopamine (DA), an important neurotransmitter in prefrontal cortex (PFC), is involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. The aim of the study was to test an association between common polymorphism of genes for DA receptors DRD1, DRD2, DRD3, DRD4, and performance on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), measuring various functions of PFC, in 138 schizophrenic patients. Patients with G/G genotype of DRD1 tended to obtain worse results in all domains of WCST compared to patients with remaining genotypes, particularly for number of completed corrected categories, and trials to set the first category. A relationship was also found in female patients between DRD2 polymorphism and number of perseverative errors, while no association between WCST results and DRD3 or DRD4 polymorphism was observed in patients studied. The results may suggest an association between DRD1 gene polymorphism and performance on PFC test in schizophrenia. Also, the gender-dependent role of DRD2 in this process may be presumed.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
61Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 2005 Nov 73 Suppl 1: S44-50
PMID16270244
Title[Genetic risk factors in schizophrenia].
AbstractThe high pathogenetic relevance of genetic factors in schizophrenia is beyond doubt based on the findings of epidemiological studies. By means of a complex mode of transmission, it is likely that several genes with weak to moderate effect jointly constitute a genetic basis for a vulnerability to schizophrenia that may well vary for different individuals. Other organic and psychosocial factors also play an individually different -- in some cases significant -- role in terms of pathogenesis, as a result of which an oligogenic/polygenic multifactor model is assumed from the standpoint of aetiopathogenetics. Molecular genetic methods consist in linkage analyses and association analyses. Positive linkage findings accumulate particularly for the chromosomes 1q, 6p, 8p, 13q and 22q. By themselves, individual mutations contribute little to the range of schizophrenic feature characteristics, it was not possible -- irrespective of some subtypes -- to replicate genes of major effect. From the large number of possible candidate genes, although studies on DRD3, DRD2 and HTR2A produced positive results, the magnitudes of effect were low. The findings for alleles of dysbindin, neuregulin 1, DAO, COMT, PRODH, ZDHHC and DISC are less clear. The search for schizophrenia-relevant mutations is hampered by the possibility of a heterogeneous phenotype of schizophrenia in case of a homogeneous genotype as much as by the possibility of inter-individually homogeneous phenotypical characteristics in case of schizophrenia-relevant heterotype in the genome. With the aid of the concept of endo-phenotypes, based on neurobiological phenomena, it might be possible to take a more direct approach that leads from relevant mutations to the risk of schizophrenias. However, replacing schizophrenic alienation with neurobiological aspects leads to difficulties in explaining these complex disorder profiles. schizophrenic diseases require an explanatory approach that also incorporates personality and developmental psychological aspects from the outset, if the aim is not to restrict type of schizophrenic disease exclusively to loci of molecular genetic changes.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
62Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 2005 Nov 73 Suppl 1: S44-50
PMID16270244
Title[Genetic risk factors in schizophrenia].
AbstractThe high pathogenetic relevance of genetic factors in schizophrenia is beyond doubt based on the findings of epidemiological studies. By means of a complex mode of transmission, it is likely that several genes with weak to moderate effect jointly constitute a genetic basis for a vulnerability to schizophrenia that may well vary for different individuals. Other organic and psychosocial factors also play an individually different -- in some cases significant -- role in terms of pathogenesis, as a result of which an oligogenic/polygenic multifactor model is assumed from the standpoint of aetiopathogenetics. Molecular genetic methods consist in linkage analyses and association analyses. Positive linkage findings accumulate particularly for the chromosomes 1q, 6p, 8p, 13q and 22q. By themselves, individual mutations contribute little to the range of schizophrenic feature characteristics, it was not possible -- irrespective of some subtypes -- to replicate genes of major effect. From the large number of possible candidate genes, although studies on DRD3, DRD2 and HTR2A produced positive results, the magnitudes of effect were low. The findings for alleles of dysbindin, neuregulin 1, DAO, COMT, PRODH, ZDHHC and DISC are less clear. The search for schizophrenia-relevant mutations is hampered by the possibility of a heterogeneous phenotype of schizophrenia in case of a homogeneous genotype as much as by the possibility of inter-individually homogeneous phenotypical characteristics in case of schizophrenia-relevant heterotype in the genome. With the aid of the concept of endo-phenotypes, based on neurobiological phenomena, it might be possible to take a more direct approach that leads from relevant mutations to the risk of schizophrenias. However, replacing schizophrenic alienation with neurobiological aspects leads to difficulties in explaining these complex disorder profiles. schizophrenic diseases require an explanatory approach that also incorporates personality and developmental psychological aspects from the outset, if the aim is not to restrict type of schizophrenic disease exclusively to loci of molecular genetic changes.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
63Dis. Markers 2005 -1 21: 61-9
PMID15920292
TitleOver-expression of dopamine D2 receptor and inwardly rectifying potassium channel genes in drug-naive schizophrenic peripheral blood lymphocytes as potential diagnostic markers.
Abstractschizophrenia is one of the most common neuropsychiatric disorders affecting nearly 1% of the human population. Current diagnosis of schizophrenia is based on complex clinical symptoms. The use of easily detectable peripheral molecular markers could substantially help the diagnosis of psychiatric disorders. Recent studies showed that peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) express subtypes of D1 and D2 subclasses of dopamine receptors. Recently, dopamine receptor D3 (DRD3) was found to be over-expressed in schizophrenic PBL and proposed to be a diagnostic and follow-up marker for schizophrenia. In this study we screened PBL of 13 drug-naive/drug-free schizophrenic patients to identify additional markers of schizophrenia. One of the benefits of our study is the use of blood samples of non-medicated, drug-naive patients. This excludes the possibility that changes detected in gene expression levels might be attributed to the medication rather than to the disorder itself. Among others, genes for dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) and the inwardly rectifying potassium channel (Kir2.3) were found to be over-expressed in microarray analysis. Increased mRNA levels were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR (QRT-PCR) using the SybrGreen method and dual labeled TaqMan probes. The use of both molecular markers allows a more rapid and precise prediction of schizophrenia and might help find the optimal medication for schizophrenic patients.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
64Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet. 2005 Apr 134B: 6-9
PMID15635698
TitleNo association between 12 dopaminergic genes and schizophrenia in a large Dutch sample.
AbstractIt has been suggested that genes involved in dopamine neurotransmission contribute to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. However, reported associations of the disorder with genetic markers in dopaminergic genes have yielded inconsistent results. Possible explanations are differences in phenotyping, genetic heterogeneity, low marker informativity, and the use of small sample sizes. Here, we present a two-stage analysis of 12 dopaminergic genes in a large sample of Dutch schizophrenic patients. To reduce genetic heterogeneity, only patients with at least three Caucasian grandparents of Dutch ancestry were ascertained. An efficient genotyping strategy was used, in which polymorphic microsatellite markers were first screened for association in DNA pools. Promising results were followed up by individual genotyping in an extended sample. The pooled samples consisted of 208 schizophrenic patients and 288 unmatched control individuals. For each of the genes, more than one microsatellite marker was selected where possible, either intragenic or close to the gene. After correcting for multiple testing, significantly different allele frequencies were detected for DRD5 marker D4S615. Subsequently, we individually genotyped this particular marker and another DRD5 marker, as well as a DRD3 marker that could not be analyzed using the pooling strategy. This was done in an extended sample of 282 schizophrenic patients and a control sample of 585 individuals. In this second stage of the study, we found no association between these three markers and schizophrenia. The results of our comprehensive analysis provide no evidence for association between schizophrenia and 12 dopaminergic genes in a large Dutch sample.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
65Eur. J. Hum. Genet. 2006 Sep 14: 1037-43
PMID16736033
TitleA summary statistic approach to sequence variation in noncoding regions of six schizophrenia-associated gene loci.
AbstractIn order to explore the role of noncoding variants in the genetics of schizophrenia, we sequenced 27 kb of noncoding DNA from the gene loci RAC-alpha serine/threonine-protein kinase (AKT1), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), dopamine receptor-3 (DRD3), dystrobrevin binding protein-1 (DTNBP1), neuregulin-1 (NRG1) and regulator of G-protein signaling-4 (RGS4) in 37 schizophrenia patients and 25 healthy controls. To compare the allele frequency spectrum between the two samples, we separately computed Tajima's D-value for each sample. The results showed a smaller Tajima's D-value in the case sample, pointing to an excess of rare variants as compared to the control sample. When randomly permuting the affection status of sequenced individuals, we observed a stronger decrease of Tajima's D in 2400 out of 100,000 permutations, corresponding to a P-value of 0.024 in a one-sided test. Thus, rare variants are significantly enriched in the schizophrenia sample, indicating the existence of disease-related sequence alterations. When categorizing the sequenced fragments according to their level of human-rodent conservation or according to their gene locus, we observed a wide range of diversity parameter estimates. Rare variants were enriched in conserved regions as compared to nonconserved regions in both samples. Nevertheless, rare variants remained more common among patients, suggesting an increased number of variants under purifying selection in this sample. Finally, we performed a heuristic search for the subset of gene loci, which jointly produces the strongest difference between controls and cases. This showed a more prominent role of variants from the loci AKT1, BDNF and RGS4. Taken together, our approach provides promising strategy to investigate the genetics of schizophrenia and related phenotypes.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
66Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci. 2006 Dec 60: 764-7
PMID17109713
TitleSchizotypy, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and dopamine genes.
AbstractPrevious research has suggested that there may be overlap between schizophrenia and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The relationship between schizotypal personality traits, ADHD features and polymorphisms was evaluated in dopamine-related genes. Thirty-one healthy, Caucasian men completed the Rust Inventory of schizotypal Cognitions (RISC) and the ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS). Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met, dopamine receptors of the D3 type (DRD3) Ser9Gly, DRD4 variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR), and SLC6A3 VNTR polymorphisms were analyzed. RISC score was correlated with ASRS score (r = 0.54, P = 0.003). COMT Met homozygotes had higher ASRS scores than Val homozygotes (P = 0.005). These findings are consistent with evidence of overlap between schizophrenia and ADHD and support an involvement of COMT genotype in ADHD features.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
67Schizophr. Res. 2006 Apr 83: 185-92
PMID16513329
TitleAntipsychotic-induced tardive dyskinesia and the Ser9Gly polymorphism in the DRD3 gene: a meta analysis.
AbstractA polymorphic site in the gene encoding the dopamine 3 receptor (DRD3) resulting in a serine (Ser) into glycine (Gly) substitution has been shown to affect dopamine binding affinity, and may contribute to individual differences in susceptibility to antipsychotic-induced tardive dyskinesia (TD).
A Medline, EMBASE and PsychINFO search of literature published between 1976 and March 2005 yielded 11 studies from which data were extracted for calculation of pooled estimates using meta-analytic techniques.
The Gly allele increased the risk relative to the Ser allele (OR=1.17; 95% CI: 1.01-1.37) with evidence of publication bias. No significant genotype effects were apparent.
TD may be associated with functional variation in the DRD3 allele. However, caution is required in interpreting this finding, as there is evidence of publication bias, genetic methodology has shortcomings, and the relation between antipsychotics, schizophrenia and TD is complex.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
68Neuropsychopharmacology 2006 Jun 31: 1335-44
PMID16395310
TitleA Ser9Gly polymorphism in the dopamine D3 receptor gene (DRD3) and event-related P300 potentials.
AbstractAn important reason for the interest in P300 event-related potentials are findings in patients with psychiatric disorders like schizophrenia or alcoholism in which attenuations of the P300 amplitude are common findings. The P300 wave has been suggested to be a promising endophenotype for genetic research since attenuations of the amplitude and latency can be observed not only in patients but also in relatives. In parallel, the search for genes involved in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders has revealed for both, schizophrenia and alcoholism an association with a DRD3 Ser9Gly polymorphism in a number of studies. In the present study, we have investigated 124 unrelated healthy subjects of German descent and have found diminished parietal and increased frontal P300 amplitudes in Gly9 homozygotes in comparison to Ser9 carriers. This finding suggests a possible role of the DRD3 receptor gene in the interindividual variation of P300 amplitudes. Further studies should address the direct role of the DRD3 Ser9Gly polymorphism in attenuated P300 amplitudes in psychiatric disorders like schizophrenia or alcoholism.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
69Sao Paulo Med J 2006 May 124: 165-7
PMID17119697
TitleInvestigation of possible association between Ser9Gly polymorphism of the D3 dopaminergic receptor gene and response to typical antipsychotics in patients with schizophrenia.
AbstractTypical antipsychotics have a high affinity for dopamine receptors. It is therefore of interest to investigate such loci in pharmacogenetic studies on psychosis. We investigated the hypothesis that Ser9Gly polymorphism of the DRD3 gene may play a role in the differences in individual response to typical antipsychotics between schizophrenic patients. The sample was composed of 53 good responders and 59 poor ones. No significant differences between the good and poor responders were found in the allelic distribution (good responders: Ser9 61.32%, Gly9 38.67%; poor responders: Ser9 64.40%, Gly9 35.59%; odds ratio, OR = 0.88, 0.49 < OR < 1.56; chi2 = 0.23, 1 degree of freedom, df, p = 0.63) and genotype distribution (good responders: Ser9/Ser9 37.73%, Ser9/Gly9 47.16%, Gly9/Gly9 15.09%; poor responders: Ser9/Ser9 42.37%, Ser9/Gly9 44.06%, Gly9/Gly9 13.55%; chi2 = 0.25, 2 df, p = 0.88). Nor was there any association with homozygosity (good responders: homozygous: 52.82%, heterozygous: 47.16%; poor responders: homozygous: 55.92%, heterozygous: 44.06%; odds ratio, OR = 0.88, 0.39 < OR < 1.99; chi2 = 0.11, 1 df, p = 0.74). The results did not support the hypothesis that Ser9Gly polymorphism of the DRD3 gene influences the response to typical antipsychotics in our sample of schizophrenics.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
70Biol. Psychiatry 2006 Sep 60: 570-7
PMID16893532
TitleNovel, replicated associations between dopamine D3 receptor gene polymorphisms and schizophrenia in two independent samples.
AbstractMeta-analyses have suggested an association between schizophrenia (SZ) and a coding polymorphism (rs6280/Ser9Gly) at the dopamine D3 receptor gene (DRD3), but results have been inconsistent. Because most studies have evaluated only rs6280, the inconsistencies might reflect associations with other variants.
We analyzed polymorphisms spanning 109kb in two independent samples (United States: 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 331 cases, 151 trios, 274 control subjects; India: 11 SNPs, 141 trios).
In the U.S. samples, significant associations were detected with eight SNPs, including rs6280 (p = .001, odds ratio: 1.5). Consistent associations in the case-control and family-based analyses were detected with a common haplotype spanning intron 1 to the 3' region of the gene (rs324029-rs7625282-rs324030-rs2134655-rs10934254; case-control, p = .002; transmission disequilibrium test [TDT], p = .0009; global p-values = .002 and .007, respectively). In the Indian sample, one SNP was associated (rs10934254, p = .03). Moreover, over-transmission of the same common haplotype as the U.S. sample was observed in this cohort (TDT, p = .005; global test, p = .009). Ser9Gly (rs6280) was associated with SZ against this haplotype background but not other haplotypes.
These data suggest previous inconsistencies might have resulted from associations with other DRD3 variants. A liability locus might be in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with or carried against, an associated haplotype 3' to rs6280. Comprehensive SNP evaluation in larger samples is needed.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
71Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci. 2006 Dec 60: 764-7
PMID17109713
TitleSchizotypy, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and dopamine genes.
AbstractPrevious research has suggested that there may be overlap between schizophrenia and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The relationship between schizotypal personality traits, ADHD features and polymorphisms was evaluated in dopamine-related genes. Thirty-one healthy, Caucasian men completed the Rust Inventory of schizotypal Cognitions (RISC) and the ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS). Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met, dopamine receptors of the D3 type (DRD3) Ser9Gly, DRD4 variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR), and SLC6A3 VNTR polymorphisms were analyzed. RISC score was correlated with ASRS score (r = 0.54, P = 0.003). COMT Met homozygotes had higher ASRS scores than Val homozygotes (P = 0.005). These findings are consistent with evidence of overlap between schizophrenia and ADHD and support an involvement of COMT genotype in ADHD features.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
72Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci. 2006 Dec 60: 764-7
PMID17109713
TitleSchizotypy, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and dopamine genes.
AbstractPrevious research has suggested that there may be overlap between schizophrenia and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The relationship between schizotypal personality traits, ADHD features and polymorphisms was evaluated in dopamine-related genes. Thirty-one healthy, Caucasian men completed the Rust Inventory of schizotypal Cognitions (RISC) and the ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS). Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met, dopamine receptors of the D3 type (DRD3) Ser9Gly, DRD4 variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR), and SLC6A3 VNTR polymorphisms were analyzed. RISC score was correlated with ASRS score (r = 0.54, P = 0.003). COMT Met homozygotes had higher ASRS scores than Val homozygotes (P = 0.005). These findings are consistent with evidence of overlap between schizophrenia and ADHD and support an involvement of COMT genotype in ADHD features.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
73Sao Paulo Med J 2006 May 124: 165-7
PMID17119697
TitleInvestigation of possible association between Ser9Gly polymorphism of the D3 dopaminergic receptor gene and response to typical antipsychotics in patients with schizophrenia.
AbstractTypical antipsychotics have a high affinity for dopamine receptors. It is therefore of interest to investigate such loci in pharmacogenetic studies on psychosis. We investigated the hypothesis that Ser9Gly polymorphism of the DRD3 gene may play a role in the differences in individual response to typical antipsychotics between schizophrenic patients. The sample was composed of 53 good responders and 59 poor ones. No significant differences between the good and poor responders were found in the allelic distribution (good responders: Ser9 61.32%, Gly9 38.67%; poor responders: Ser9 64.40%, Gly9 35.59%; odds ratio, OR = 0.88, 0.49 < OR < 1.56; chi2 = 0.23, 1 degree of freedom, df, p = 0.63) and genotype distribution (good responders: Ser9/Ser9 37.73%, Ser9/Gly9 47.16%, Gly9/Gly9 15.09%; poor responders: Ser9/Ser9 42.37%, Ser9/Gly9 44.06%, Gly9/Gly9 13.55%; chi2 = 0.25, 2 df, p = 0.88). Nor was there any association with homozygosity (good responders: homozygous: 52.82%, heterozygous: 47.16%; poor responders: homozygous: 55.92%, heterozygous: 44.06%; odds ratio, OR = 0.88, 0.39 < OR < 1.99; chi2 = 0.11, 1 df, p = 0.74). The results did not support the hypothesis that Ser9Gly polymorphism of the DRD3 gene influences the response to typical antipsychotics in our sample of schizophrenics.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
74Sao Paulo Med J 2006 May 124: 165-7
PMID17119697
TitleInvestigation of possible association between Ser9Gly polymorphism of the D3 dopaminergic receptor gene and response to typical antipsychotics in patients with schizophrenia.
AbstractTypical antipsychotics have a high affinity for dopamine receptors. It is therefore of interest to investigate such loci in pharmacogenetic studies on psychosis. We investigated the hypothesis that Ser9Gly polymorphism of the DRD3 gene may play a role in the differences in individual response to typical antipsychotics between schizophrenic patients. The sample was composed of 53 good responders and 59 poor ones. No significant differences between the good and poor responders were found in the allelic distribution (good responders: Ser9 61.32%, Gly9 38.67%; poor responders: Ser9 64.40%, Gly9 35.59%; odds ratio, OR = 0.88, 0.49 < OR < 1.56; chi2 = 0.23, 1 degree of freedom, df, p = 0.63) and genotype distribution (good responders: Ser9/Ser9 37.73%, Ser9/Gly9 47.16%, Gly9/Gly9 15.09%; poor responders: Ser9/Ser9 42.37%, Ser9/Gly9 44.06%, Gly9/Gly9 13.55%; chi2 = 0.25, 2 df, p = 0.88). Nor was there any association with homozygosity (good responders: homozygous: 52.82%, heterozygous: 47.16%; poor responders: homozygous: 55.92%, heterozygous: 44.06%; odds ratio, OR = 0.88, 0.39 < OR < 1.99; chi2 = 0.11, 1 df, p = 0.74). The results did not support the hypothesis that Ser9Gly polymorphism of the DRD3 gene influences the response to typical antipsychotics in our sample of schizophrenics.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
75Mol. Psychiatry 2007 Dec 12: 1058-60
PMID18043709
TitleMultiple variants of the DRD3, but not BDNF gene, influence age-at-onset of schizophrenia.
Abstract-1
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
76J. Alzheimers Dis. 2007 Aug 12: 73-92
PMID17851196
TitleGenetics of Alzheimer's disease. A rapidly evolving field.
AbstractGenetic factors have a variable impact on Alzheimer's Disease (AD), ranging from familial forms that are transmitted in an autosomal dominant fashion to sporadic AD, where a polygenic component is present. Most genes conferring susceptibility to AD are related to amyloid-beta deposition (APP; PS1; PS2; APOE; Cystatin-C; ubiquilin-1), oxidative stress (NOS2; NOS3) and inflammatory response (IL-1 alpha; IL-1 beta; IL-6; TNF-alpha). Genome-wide analyses, transcriptomics and proteomics approaches have pointed also to proapoptotic genes as increasing AD liability. Depression and psychotic symptoms that occur in a large proportion of AD patients have been associated with monoamine genes coding for metabolic enzymes (COMT), transporters (5-HTTLPR) and receptors (DRD1; DRD3). Genetic testing may be useful to confirm the diagnosis of AD in individuals with clinical signs of dementia, while it is generally not recommended as a predictive testing for AD in asymptomatic individuals. Drugs currently in use to treat AD are effective in only 20% of patients; their therapeutic effect is predominantly under genetic control (CYP26 gene; APOE). Environmental factors have been shown to moderate the effects of genes on psychiatric disorders such as depression, schizophrenia and ADHD. The study of gene-environment interactions in AD, that are still poorly understood, is essential to predict disease-risk in asymptomatic individuals. Genomics will provide a dynamic picture of biological processes in AD and new targets for the forthcoming anti-AD drugs.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
77Cell. Physiol. Biochem. 2007 -1 20: 687-702
PMID17982252
TitleMolecular mechanisms of schizophrenia.
Abstractschizophrenia is a complex disorder, where family, twin and adoption studies have been demonstrating a high heritability of the disease and that this disease is not simply defined by several major genes but rather evolves from addition or potentiation of a specific cluster of genes, which subsequently determines the genetic vulnerability of an individual. Linkage and association studies suggest that a genetic vulnerablility, is not forcefully leading to the disease since triggering factors and environmental influences, i.e. birth complications, drug abuse, urban background or time of birth have been identified. This has lead to the assumption that schizophrenia is not only a genetically defined static disorder but a dynamic process leading to dysregulation of multiple pathways. There are several different hypothesis based on several facets of the disease, some of them due to the relatively well-known mechanisms of therapeutic agents. The most widely considered neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia integrates environmental influences and causative genes. The dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia is based on the fact that all common treatments involve antidopaminergic mechanisms and genes such as DRD2, DRD3, DARPP-32, BDNF or COMT are closely related to dopaminergic system functioning. The glutamatergic hypothesis of schizophrenia lead recently to a first successful mGlu2/3 receptor agonistic drug and is underpinned by significant findings in genes regulating the glutamatergic system (SLC1A6, SLC1A2 GRIN1, GRIN2A, GRIA1, NRG1, ErbB4, DTNBP1, DAAO, G72/30, GRM3). Correspondingly, GABA has been proposed to modulate the pathophysiology of the disease which is represented by the involvement of genes like GABRA1, GABRP, GABRA6 and Reelin. Moreover, several genes implicating immune, signaling and networking deficits have been reported to be involved in the disease, i.e. DISC1, RGS4, PRODH, DGCR6, ZDHHC8, DGCR2, Akt, CREB, IL-1B, IL-1RN, IL-10, IL-1B. However, molecular findings suggest that a complex interplay between receptors, kinases, proteins and hormones is involved in schizophrenia. In a unifying hypothesis, different cascades merge into another that ultimately lead to the development of symptoms adherent to schizophrenic disorders.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
78Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 2007 Mar 63: 233-41
PMID17225991
TitleAntipsychotic-induced extrapyramidal symptoms in patients with schizophrenia: associations with dopamine and serotonin receptor and transporter polymorphisms.
AbstractLittle is known about the influence of polymorphisms of the dopamine and serotonin system on the risk for extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) during treatment with antipsychotic drugs.
Of 119 subjects with schizophrenia treated with antipsychotics, 63 had current or previous EPS (acute dystonia, parkinsonism, tardive dyskinesia), and 56 had no such symptoms. All subjects were genotyped for a total of eight dopamine and serotonin receptor and transporter polymorphisms: the Taq1A polymorphism of the dopamine D(2) receptor (DRD2) gene, the Msc1 polymorphism of the dopamine D(3) receptor (DRD3) gene, the variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism of the dopamine transporter (DAT1) gene, four polymorphisms (102T/C, His452Tyr, 516 C/T, and Thr25Asn) of the serotonin 5-HT(2A) receptor (5HTR2A) gene, and the 5HTTLPR polymorphism of the serotonin transporter (5HTT) gene.
The frequency of the A1 allele of the DRD2 Taq1A polymorphism was significantly higher in the EPS group than in the control group [16% vs. 7%, P = 0.040; odds ratio (OR) 2.4; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-5.7]. Also, the 9 repeat allele of the DAT1 VNTR polymorphism was significantly more common in the EPS group (42% vs. 28%, P = 0.030; OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.1-3.3). Being a carrier of both DRD2 Taq1A A1 and DAT1 VNTR 9 repeat alleles was also significantly associated with the occurrence of EPS (19% vs. 6%, P = 0.040; OR 4.0; 95% CI 1.05-15.2) No significant differences in allele frequencies were found for the other polymorphisms.
Presence of the Taq1A A1 allele of the DRD2 and the 9 repeat allele of the DAT1 VNTR polymorphisms might be risk factors for EPS caused by antipsychotic drugs.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
79Int. J. Neuropsychopharmacol. 2007 Oct 10: 639-51
PMID16959057
TitleAssociation study of tardive dyskinesia and twelve DRD2 polymorphisms in schizophrenia patients.
AbstractTardive dyskinesia (TD) is a side-effect of chronic antipsychotic medication. Abnormalities in dopaminergic activity in the nigrostriatal system have been most often suggested to be involved because the agents which cause TD share in common potent antagonism of dopamine D2 receptors (DRD2), that notably is not balanced by effects such as more potent serotonin (5-HT)2A antagonism. Thus, a number of studies have focused on the association of dopamine system gene polymorphisms and TD. The most consistent findings have been found with the Ser9Gly polymorphism of the DRD3 gene. Although DRD2 has long been hypothesized to be the main target for antipsychotics, only a few polymorphisms in DRD2 have been investigated for their potential involvement in the aetiology of TD. In the present study, we investigated 12 polymorphisms spanning the DRD2 gene and their association with TD in our European Caucasian (n=202) and African-American (n=30) samples. Genotype frequencies for a functional polymorphism, C957T (Duan et al., 2003; Hirvonen et al., 2004), and the adjacent C939T polymorphism were found to be significantly associated with TD (p=0.013 and p=0.022 respectively). DRD2 genotypes were not significantly associated with TD severity as measured by AIMS (Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale) with the exception of a trend for C939T (p=0.071). Both TD and total AIMS scores were found to be significantly associated with two-marker haplotypes containing C939T and C957T (p=0.021 and p=0.0087 respectively). Preliminary results indicated that C957T was also associated with TD in our African-American sample (p=0.047). Taken together, the present study suggests that DRD2 may be involved in TD in the Caucasian population, although further studies are warranted.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
80Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet. 2007 Apr 144B: 344-6
PMID17171662
TitleNo association between the Ser9Gly polymorphism of the dopamine D3 receptor gene and schizophrenia in a Spanish sample.
AbstractThis study aims to further evaluate the controversial association between the Ser9Gly polymorphism in codon 9 of the D3 dopamine receptor gene (DRD3) and schizophrenia in psychiatric inpatients acutely hospitalized in two general hospitals in Madrid, Spain. The Ser9Gly polymorphism of the DRD3 was examined in 178 schizophrenic patients, 286 patients with other psychiatric diagnoses, and 132 controls recruited. Genotype frequencies were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. No association was found between schizophrenia and the Ser9Gly polymorphism of the D3 dopamine receptor gene.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
81Acta Neuropsychiatr 2007 Dec 19: 344-50
PMID26952999
TitleLack of association between dopamine D3 receptor Ser9Gly polymorphism and schizophrenia in Han Chinese population.
AbstractThe Ser9Gly polymorphism in dopamine D3 receptor gene (DRD3) was considered an important factor in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Allele and genotype frequencies of this polymorphism were studied in different ethnic groups of schizophrenic patients. However, the results have been inconclusive.
To determine whether the DRD3 Ser9Gly polymorphism is associated with schizophrenia or influences its psychopathological symptoms in Han Chinese population.
We recruited 256 schizophrenic patients and 285 normal controls matched for gender, age and ethnicity. Pretreatment psychotic symptoms were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS) in 128 acutely exacerbated schizophrenic in-patients. Genotyping of Ser9Gly polymorphism was performed with a polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism method and reconfirmed by a direct sequencing technique.
No significant difference was found between either patients with schizophrenia or with more homogeneous schizophrenic subgroups and healthy controls in genotype distributions and allele frequencies for the DRD3 Ser9Gly polymorphism. Similarly, DRD3 Ser9Gly genotype differences failed to reach significance in PANSS global, positive, negative and general symptoms scores. There is a trend (P = 0.064) towards higher PANSS positive symptoms scores in subjects carrying the Gly/Gly genotype.
This study does not support the role of DRD3 Ser9Gly polymorphism in increasing genetic risk for schizophrenia in Han Chinese population. Still, there is a possibility that the DRD3 Ser9Gly variant may reflect genetic variation of severity of positive symptoms in acutely exacerbated schizophrenia. Further studies are warranted to investigate the effect of the DRD3 Ser9Gly polymorphism in relation to longer time course of schizophrenia, including treatment response to antipsychotics.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
82Schizophr. Res. 2007 Feb 90: 123-9
PMID17125970
TitleExtensive linkage disequilibrium mapping at HTR2A and DRD3 for schizophrenia susceptibility genes in the Galician population.
AbstractThe serotonin and dopamine neurotransmitter systems are candidate pathways in the development of schizophrenia because of the assumed causal relationship with the observed symptoms as well as effective targeting of the corresponding receptors by antipsychotic drugs. However, genetic association studies have systematically focused on a limited set of genes and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including T102C at HTR2A and Ser9Gly at DRD3. Meta-analyses of the associations between these two markers and schizophrenia revealed a true increase in risk, the magnitude of the effect being very low. In the present study we analyzed 260 schizophrenic patients and 354 control subjects from a homogeneous population, the Galician population, using an extensive linkage disequilibrium (LD) mapping approach, genotyping a total of 47 SNPs to test for the existence of additional variants that confer higher risk. We detected nominal significant association with schizophrenia for several haplotype tag SNPs (htSNPs) at HTR2A, although the significance was lost after multiple test corrections. In addition, haplotype analyses involving a sliding window approach, with window size 2 to 4 SNPs, revealed significant differences in frequencies of the DRD3 haplotypes at the 3' half of the gene region. This difference, which remains clearly significant after multiple test corrections (p=0.002, 0.0001, and 0.0025, for window sizes 2, 3, and 4, respectively), was mainly due to over-representation of several rare haplotypes in patients, at the expense of a single common haplotype; this represents interesting evidence of rare haplotypes for susceptibility detected using common htSNPs due to their strong effect.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
83Cell. Physiol. Biochem. 2007 -1 20: 687-702
PMID17982252
TitleMolecular mechanisms of schizophrenia.
Abstractschizophrenia is a complex disorder, where family, twin and adoption studies have been demonstrating a high heritability of the disease and that this disease is not simply defined by several major genes but rather evolves from addition or potentiation of a specific cluster of genes, which subsequently determines the genetic vulnerability of an individual. Linkage and association studies suggest that a genetic vulnerablility, is not forcefully leading to the disease since triggering factors and environmental influences, i.e. birth complications, drug abuse, urban background or time of birth have been identified. This has lead to the assumption that schizophrenia is not only a genetically defined static disorder but a dynamic process leading to dysregulation of multiple pathways. There are several different hypothesis based on several facets of the disease, some of them due to the relatively well-known mechanisms of therapeutic agents. The most widely considered neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia integrates environmental influences and causative genes. The dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia is based on the fact that all common treatments involve antidopaminergic mechanisms and genes such as DRD2, DRD3, DARPP-32, BDNF or COMT are closely related to dopaminergic system functioning. The glutamatergic hypothesis of schizophrenia lead recently to a first successful mGlu2/3 receptor agonistic drug and is underpinned by significant findings in genes regulating the glutamatergic system (SLC1A6, SLC1A2 GRIN1, GRIN2A, GRIA1, NRG1, ErbB4, DTNBP1, DAAO, G72/30, GRM3). Correspondingly, GABA has been proposed to modulate the pathophysiology of the disease which is represented by the involvement of genes like GABRA1, GABRP, GABRA6 and Reelin. Moreover, several genes implicating immune, signaling and networking deficits have been reported to be involved in the disease, i.e. DISC1, RGS4, PRODH, DGCR6, ZDHHC8, DGCR2, Akt, CREB, IL-1B, IL-1RN, IL-10, IL-1B. However, molecular findings suggest that a complex interplay between receptors, kinases, proteins and hormones is involved in schizophrenia. In a unifying hypothesis, different cascades merge into another that ultimately lead to the development of symptoms adherent to schizophrenic disorders.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
84Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet. 2007 Apr 144B: 344-6
PMID17171662
TitleNo association between the Ser9Gly polymorphism of the dopamine D3 receptor gene and schizophrenia in a Spanish sample.
AbstractThis study aims to further evaluate the controversial association between the Ser9Gly polymorphism in codon 9 of the D3 dopamine receptor gene (DRD3) and schizophrenia in psychiatric inpatients acutely hospitalized in two general hospitals in Madrid, Spain. The Ser9Gly polymorphism of the DRD3 was examined in 178 schizophrenic patients, 286 patients with other psychiatric diagnoses, and 132 controls recruited. Genotype frequencies were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. No association was found between schizophrenia and the Ser9Gly polymorphism of the D3 dopamine receptor gene.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
85Psychopharmacology (Berl.) 2007 Mar 190: 479-84
PMID17102980
TitleSerotonin and dopamine receptor gene polymorphisms and the risk of extrapyramidal side effects in perphenazine-treated schizophrenic patients.
AbstractPerphenazine, a classical antipsychotic drug, has the potential to induce extrapyramidal side effects (EPS). Dopaminergic and serotonergic pathways are involved in the therapeutic and adverse effects of the drug.
To evaluate the impact of polymorphisms in the dopamine D(2) and D(3) and serotonin 2A and 2C receptor genes (DRD2, DRD3, HTR2A, and HTR2C) on short-term effects of perphenazine monotherapy in schizophrenic patients.
Forty-seven Estonian inpatients were evaluated before and after 4-6 weeks of treatment by Simpson-Angus rating scale, Barnes scale, and Positive and Negative Symptom Scale. Genotyping was performed for common DRD2, DRD3, HTR2A, and HTR2C gene polymorphisms, previously reported to influence receptor expression and/or function.
Most of the patients (n = 37) responded to the treatment and no significant association was observed between the polymorphisms and antipsychotic response. The 102C allele of HTR2A and the -697C and 23Ser alleles of HTR2C were more frequent among patients with EPS (n = 25) compared to patients without EPS (n = 22) (p = 0.02, 0.01, and 0.02, respectively). The difference between patients with and without EPS in variant allele frequencies remained significant after multiple model analyses including age, gender, and duration of antipsychotic treatment as covariants. There was no significant association between EPS occurrence and polymorphisms in the DRD2 and DRD3 genes.
An association was observed between polymorphisms in HTR2A and HTR2C genes and occurrence of acute EPS in schizophrenic patients treated with perphenazine monotherapy. Larger study populations are needed to confirm our findings.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
86Acta Neuropsychiatr 2007 Dec 19: 344-50
PMID26952999
TitleLack of association between dopamine D3 receptor Ser9Gly polymorphism and schizophrenia in Han Chinese population.
AbstractThe Ser9Gly polymorphism in dopamine D3 receptor gene (DRD3) was considered an important factor in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Allele and genotype frequencies of this polymorphism were studied in different ethnic groups of schizophrenic patients. However, the results have been inconclusive.
To determine whether the DRD3 Ser9Gly polymorphism is associated with schizophrenia or influences its psychopathological symptoms in Han Chinese population.
We recruited 256 schizophrenic patients and 285 normal controls matched for gender, age and ethnicity. Pretreatment psychotic symptoms were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS) in 128 acutely exacerbated schizophrenic in-patients. Genotyping of Ser9Gly polymorphism was performed with a polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism method and reconfirmed by a direct sequencing technique.
No significant difference was found between either patients with schizophrenia or with more homogeneous schizophrenic subgroups and healthy controls in genotype distributions and allele frequencies for the DRD3 Ser9Gly polymorphism. Similarly, DRD3 Ser9Gly genotype differences failed to reach significance in PANSS global, positive, negative and general symptoms scores. There is a trend (P = 0.064) towards higher PANSS positive symptoms scores in subjects carrying the Gly/Gly genotype.
This study does not support the role of DRD3 Ser9Gly polymorphism in increasing genetic risk for schizophrenia in Han Chinese population. Still, there is a possibility that the DRD3 Ser9Gly variant may reflect genetic variation of severity of positive symptoms in acutely exacerbated schizophrenia. Further studies are warranted to investigate the effect of the DRD3 Ser9Gly polymorphism in relation to longer time course of schizophrenia, including treatment response to antipsychotics.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
87Schizophr. Res. 2007 Feb 90: 123-9
PMID17125970
TitleExtensive linkage disequilibrium mapping at HTR2A and DRD3 for schizophrenia susceptibility genes in the Galician population.
AbstractThe serotonin and dopamine neurotransmitter systems are candidate pathways in the development of schizophrenia because of the assumed causal relationship with the observed symptoms as well as effective targeting of the corresponding receptors by antipsychotic drugs. However, genetic association studies have systematically focused on a limited set of genes and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including T102C at HTR2A and Ser9Gly at DRD3. Meta-analyses of the associations between these two markers and schizophrenia revealed a true increase in risk, the magnitude of the effect being very low. In the present study we analyzed 260 schizophrenic patients and 354 control subjects from a homogeneous population, the Galician population, using an extensive linkage disequilibrium (LD) mapping approach, genotyping a total of 47 SNPs to test for the existence of additional variants that confer higher risk. We detected nominal significant association with schizophrenia for several haplotype tag SNPs (htSNPs) at HTR2A, although the significance was lost after multiple test corrections. In addition, haplotype analyses involving a sliding window approach, with window size 2 to 4 SNPs, revealed significant differences in frequencies of the DRD3 haplotypes at the 3' half of the gene region. This difference, which remains clearly significant after multiple test corrections (p=0.002, 0.0001, and 0.0025, for window sizes 2, 3, and 4, respectively), was mainly due to over-representation of several rare haplotypes in patients, at the expense of a single common haplotype; this represents interesting evidence of rare haplotypes for susceptibility detected using common htSNPs due to their strong effect.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
88Biol. Psychiatry 2008 Feb 63: e21; author reply e23-5
PMID18068689
TitleA putative DRD3 schizophrenia risk haplotype deconstructed.
Abstract-1
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
89Rev Bras Psiquiatr 2008 Dec 30: 341-5
PMID19142409
TitleMolecular genetic case-control women investigation from the first Brazilian high-risk study on functional psychosis.
AbstractData from epidemiological studies have demonstrated that genetics is an important risk factor for psychosis. The present study is part of a larger project, pioneer in Brazil, which has been conducted by other researchers who intend to follow a high-risk population (children) for the development of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. In this first phase of the project, the objective was to investigate the distribution of four candidate genetic polymorphisms for functional psychosis (Ser9Gly DRD3, 5HTTLPR, the VNTR 3'-UTR SLC6A3 and Val66Met BDNF) in a case-control sample.
A total of 105 women (58 with schizophrenia and 47 with bipolar disorder) and 62 gender-matched controls were investigated.
Allele and genotype distributions of all identified functional polymorphisms did not differ statistically between cases and controls.
These results suggest that the investigated polymorphisms were not related to susceptibility to functional psychoses in our Brazilian sample. These findings need to be validated in larger and independent studies.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
90Pharmacogenomics 2008 Sep 9: 1285-306
PMID18781856
TitleGenetic underpinnings of tardive dyskinesia: passing the baton to pharmacogenetics.
AbstractManifestation of tardive dyskinesia (TD) among schizophrenia subjects on long-term antipsychotic treatment with typical drugs has been a clinical concern. Despite its association with extrapyramidal symptoms, typical drugs are still routinely prescribed globally though marginally superior atypical drugs have long been available. The genetic component in the etiology of TD is well documented. Search for these determinants has led to a few consensus associations of CYP2D6 *10, CYP1A2*1F, DRD2 Taq1A (rs1800497), DRD3 Ser9Gly (rs6280) and MnSOD Ala9Val (rs4880) variants with TD. However, translation of these observations into the clinic has not been achieved so far. This review discusses the salient features of TD etiopathology, current status of TD genetics, interactions between genetic and nongenetic factors, some major drawbacks, challenges and expected focus in TD research over the next decade, with emphasis on pharmacogenetics.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
91Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry 2008 Jul 32: 1236-42
PMID18472202
TitleThe association of genotypic combination of the DRD3 and BDNF polymorphisms on the adhesio interthalamica and medial temporal lobe structures.
AbstractAbnormal neurodevelopment in midline structures such as the adhesio interthalamica (AI), as well as in the medial temporal lobe structures has been implicated in schizophrenia, while its genetic mechanism is unknown. This magnetic resonance imaging study investigated the effect of the genotypic combination of the dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3) Ser9Gly and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphisms on the AI length and volumetric measures of the medial temporal lobe structures (amygdala, hippocampus, and parahippocampal gyrus) in 33 schizophrenia patients and 29 healthy controls. The subjects with a combination of the Ser/Ser genotype of DRD3 and Met-containing genotypes of BDNF (high-risk combination) had a shorter AI than those without it in the healthy controls, but not in the schizophrenia patients. The subjects carrying the high-risk combination had a smaller posterior hippocampus than those without it for both diagnostic groups. These genotypic combination effects on brain morphology were not explained by the independent effect of each polymorphism. These findings suggest the effect of gene-gene interaction between the DRD3 and BDNF variations on brain morphology in midline and medial temporal lobe structures, but do not support its specific role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
92Psychiatr. Genet. 2008 Jun 18: 122-7
PMID18496209
Title-141C Ins/Del polymorphism of the dopamine D2 receptor gene is associated with schizophrenia in a Spanish population.
AbstractIn this study we examined the relationship between dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) polymorphisms (TaqIA, TaqIB, -141C Ins/Del) and dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3) Ser9Gly polymorphism and the risk of schizophrenia in a Spanish population.
Two hundred and forty-three schizophrenia patients and 291 healthy controls from the general population participated in a case-control study.
No significant differences were observed in the allele or genotype frequencies of TaqIA, TaqIB or Ser9Gly polymorphisms between the schizophrenia patients and the healthy controls. The frequency of the -141C Del allele was significantly lower in the former group (odds ratio=0.4, P=0.01). The -141C Del allele, which produces lower expression of DRD2, may protect against dopaminergic hyperactivity in schizophrenia.
This study is one of the few studies of Caucasian participants that supports the results obtained in the original Japanese study, in which the -141C Ins/Del polymorphism was first described. Furthermore, our findings reinforce the hypothesis that excess dopaminergic activity leads to schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
93Hum. Mol. Genet. 2008 Mar 17: 747-58
PMID18045777
TitleA network of dopaminergic gene variations implicated as risk factors for schizophrenia.
AbstractWe evaluated the hypothesis that dopaminergic polymorphisms are risk factors for schizophrenia (SZ). In stage I, we screened 18 dopamine-related genes in two independent US Caucasian samples: 150 trios and 328 cases/501 controls. The most promising associations were detected with SLC6A3 (alias DAT), DRD3, COMT and SLC18A2 (alias VMAT2). In stage II, we comprehensively evaluated these four genes by genotyping 68 SNPs in all 478 cases and 501 controls from stage I. Fifteen (23.1%) significant associations were found (p < or = 0.05). We sought epistasis between pairs of SNPs providing evidence of a main effect and observed 17 significant interactions (169 tests); 41.2% of significant interactions involved rs3756450 (5' near promoter) or rs464049 (intron 4) at SLC6A3. In stage III, we confirmed our findings by genotyping 65 SNPs among 659 Bulgarian trios. Both SLC6A3 variants implicated in the US interactions were overtransmitted in this cohort (rs3756450, p = 0.035; rs464049, p = 0.011). Joint analyses from stages II and III identified associations at all four genes (p(joint) < 0.05). We tested 29 putative interactions from stage II and detected replication between seven locus pairs (p < or = 0.05). Simulations suggested our stage II and stage III interaction results were unlikely to have occurred by chance (p = 0.008 and 0.001, respectively). In stage IV we evaluated rs464049 and rs3756450 for functional effects and found significant allele-specific differences at rs3756450 using electrophoretic mobility shift assays and dual-luciferase promoter assays. Our data suggest that a network of dopaminergic polymorphisms increase risk for SZ.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
94Pharmacogenet. Genomics 2008 Jul 18: 599-609
PMID18551040
TitleNaturalistic pharmacogenetic study of treatment resistance to typical neuroleptics in European-Brazilian schizophrenics.
AbstractThis study aimed to explore the influence of variation in DRD2, DRD3, CYP2D6, CYP3A4, and CYP3A5 genes on treatment resistance to typical neuroleptics in a Brazilian sample of patients with schizophrenia.
One polymorphism at DRD2 gene, five at DRD3, 24 at CYP2D6, nine at CYP3A4 gene, and one at CYP3A5 gene were genotyped in a sample of 186 patients with schizophrenia.
From the nine studied CYP3A4 single nucleotide polymorphisms, only the -392A>G was polymorphic, and significant associations were observed between this single nucleotide polymorphism and efficacy of neuroleptic treatment. Homozygous individuals for the -392A variant [P=0.014, odds ratio (OR)=3.32] were more frequent in the treatment-resistant group, compared with carriers of one copy of the -392G variant. The CYP3A5 low expressor genotype (CYP3A5*3/CYP3A5*3) was found to be associated with refractoriness to neuroleptic treatment (P=0.003, OR=3.16). Among the haplotypes observed in DRD3 gene, the T/A/G/A/C haplotype showed an association with refractoriness to neuroleptics (chi=5.342, P=0.021, OR=1.75). This association showed that carriers of one copy of this haplotype presented intermediate values between noncarriers and homozygous individuals for the haplotype. No association was observed with polymorphisms in DRD2 and CYP2D6 genes. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that the number of copies of DRD3 T/A/G/A/C haplotype and CYP3A5 low expressor genotype were predictors of refractoriness to neuroleptic after controlling for selected risk factors. CYP3A5*3 individuals carrying at least one copy of the T/A/G/A/C haplotype showed a higher risk to be refractory to neuroleptics than CYP3A5*3 homozygotes+non-T/A/G/A/C carriers (chi=5.533, P=0.019, OR=2.32, 95% confidence interval=1.08-5.02). No significant associations were observed with DRD2 and CYP2D6 polymorphisms.
Our results suggest a role for CYP3A5 and DRD3 gene variants on refractoriness to neuroleptic treatment in Brazilians with schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
95Neuropsychobiology 2008 -1 57: 49-54
PMID18451638
TitleAssociation study between antipsychotics- induced restless legs syndrome and polymorphisms of dopamine D1, D2, D3, and D4 receptor genes in schizophrenia.
AbstractThe cause of restless legs syndrome (RLS) is not yet clear, but more promising theories involve dopaminergic deficiency and genetic causes. This study investigated whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the genes of dopamine receptors DRD1, DRD2, DRD3 and DRD4 are associated with antipsychotics-induced RLS in schizophrenia.
We evaluated 190 Korean schizophrenic patients using the diagnostic criteria of the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group and its rating scale for RLS. Genotyping was performed for the DRD1 gene -48A/G, DRD2 gene TaqI A, DRD3 gene Ser9Gly and DRD4 gene -521C/T single-nucleotide polymorphisms. The method of multifactor dimensionality reduction was used to analyze gene-gene interactions.
We classified the schizophrenic patients into 96 with and 94 without RLS symptoms. The genotype frequencies of all polymorphisms investigated did not differ significantly between these 2 groups. MDR analysis did not show a significant effect of the 4 dopamine receptor gene variants on susceptibility to antipsychotic-induced RLS symptoms (p > 0.05).
These genetics data suggest that the analyzed polymorphisms of the dopamine genes may not be associated with RLS symptoms in schizophrenia. Confirming the results reported here requires a larger-scale study involving patients taking specific antipsychotics.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
96Schizophr. Res. 2008 Apr 101: 26-35
PMID18295456
TitleThe Ser9Gly polymorphism of the dopamine D3 receptor gene and risk of schizophrenia: an association study and a large meta-analysis.
AbstractDopamine D3 receptor (DRD3) binds antipsychotic drugs and is abundant in the limbic system of the brain. It has been shown to play important roles in schizophrenia. A number of studies investigated the Ser9Gly polymorphism of the DRD3 gene to test its possible association with schizophrenia; however, the results were inconsistent. Our study aims to further evaluate the possible association between the Ser9Gly polymorphism and schizophrenia using a case-control association study within the Han Chinese population as well as a meta-analysis covering all previous studies. Our study, based on 329 schizophrenic patients and 288 controls, found no significant difference in the genotype or allele distributions of Ser9Gly polymorphism, the meta-analysis showed that the Ser9Gly polymorphism was not associated with schizophrenia. Our study does not support the contention that the Ser9Gly polymorphism of the DRD3 gene plays a major role in schizophrenia in the Chinese population.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
97Hum Psychopharmacol 2008 Jan 23: 61-7
PMID17924589
TitleCould HTR2A T102C and DRD3 Ser9Gly predict clinical improvement in patients with acutely exacerbated schizophrenia? Results from treatment responses to risperidone in a naturalistic setting.
AbstractThis study seeks to replicate previous results indicating that T102C in the serotonin 2A receptor (HTR2A) and Ser9Gly in the dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3) were associated with a risperidone response to acutely exacerbated schizophrenia, and to determine whether possession of these alleles predicts clinical improvement in a naturalistic setting.
We consecutively recruited 100 schizophrenia patients and assessed clinical improvement after 4 weeks of risperidone treatment.
The patients with T/T in the HTR2A gene showed less clinical improvement than did those with T/C or C/C (p = 0.044). In the case of the DRD3 gene, we did not find statically significant association with clinical improvement (p = 0.061). When patients were categorized into responders and nonresponders, the C allele was more frequent in responders (OR = 2.28, 95%CI = 1.06-4.91, p = 0.039). When combinations of the two polymorphisms were considered, patients who had T/T in the HTR2A gene and encoded Ser/Ser or Ser/Gly from DRD3 gene had a higher propensity to non-responsiveness compared to other subjects (OR = 3.57, 95%CI = 1.10-11.62, p = 0.039).
Our findings suggest that the HTR2A T102C could be a potential indicator of clinical improvement after risperidone treatment.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
98Schizophr. Res. 2008 Jan 98: 98-104
PMID17698325
TitleNo association between the DRD3 Ser9Gly polymorphism and schizophrenia.
AbstractTo investigate the association between a Ser9Gly polymorphism of the dopamine D3 receptor gene (DRD3) and schizophrenia.
408 schizophrenic patients and 172 control subjects were compared with regard to their DRD3 Ser9Gly genotypic and allelic frequencies. In addition, we carried out a family-based association study including 183 pedigrees (472 subjects) using the transmission disequilibrium test (TDT).
No significant differences of genotype or homozygosity distribution were identified between patients and controls. When patients were stratified according to gender, response to treatment, age at onset, no significant differences were observed. Neither allele A (Ser), or G (Gly) were preferentially transmitted from parents to affected offspring.
The hypothesis that the DRD3 Ser9Gly polymorphism plays a predisposing role in schizophrenia is not supported by this study.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
99Neurosci. Lett. 2008 Oct 444: 161-5
PMID18703116
TitleGenetic association between the dopamine D3 gene polymorphism (Ser9Gly) and schizophrenia in Japanese populations: evidence from a case-control study and meta-analysis.
AbstractDysregulation in the dopaminergic system has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia (SCZ). Dopamine D3 receptors (DRD3) concentrated in limbic regions of the brain (important for cognitive, emotional and endocrine function) may be particularly relevant to SCZ. A recent meta-analysis with mixed ethnicities reported a marginal significant association between the Ser9Gly homozygosity in the first exon of the DRD3 gene and SCZ. To further evaluate the controversial association between this polymorphism and SCZ, a case-control study and meta-analysis was conducted using the homogeneous Japanese population. In our Japanese case-control sample (246 cases/198 controls), we found an association between the DRD3 Ser9Gly polymorphism and SCZ (genotype: chi(2) = 9.76, d.f. = 2, p = 0.008; Ser allele versus Gly allele: chi(2) = 7.96, d.f. = 1, p = 0.0048; OR = 0.65; 95% CI = 0.48-0.88). However in a meta-analysis of nine Japanese case-control studies comprising 2056 subjects the association between DRD3 Ser9Gly polymorphism and SCZ did not persisted. The Mantel-Haenszel pooled OR for SCZ among carriers of the DRD3 Ser9Gly homozygosity (Ser/Ser homozygotes and Gly/Gly homozygotes) of the nine Japanese studies was 1.16 (95% CI 0.97-1.39), pointing to a non-significant effect of the DRD3 Ser9Gly homozygosity as a risk factor for SCZ. Overall, our results suggest that the DRD3 Ser9Gly polymorphism may not confer susceptibility to SCZ in the Japanese population. Given that the Ser9Gly variant may play a putative role in DRD3 function, further studies on the DRD3 with linked variants are warranted.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
100Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry 2008 Aug 32: 1491-5
PMID18579277
TitleAssociation between dopamine-related polymorphisms and plasma concentrations of prolactin during risperidone treatment in schizophrenic patients.
AbstractHyperprolactinemia is an inevitable consequence of treatment with antipsychotic agents to some extent because prolactin response to antipsychotics is related to dopamine blockade. Recent studies have suggested that polymorphisms of the dopamine receptors are associated with therapeutic response to antipsychotics. Thus, we studied the effects of major polymorphisms of dopamine-related genes on plasma concentration of prolactin. Subjects were 174 schizophrenic patients (68 males, 106 females) receiving 3 mg twice daily of risperidone for at least 4 weeks. Sample collections were conducted 12 h after the bedtime dosing. Five dopamine-related polymorphisms (Taq1A, -141C ins/del for DRD2, Ser9Gly for DRD3, 48 bp VNTR for DRD4, Val158Met for COMT) were identified. The mean (+/-SD) plasma concentration of prolactin in females was significantly higher than males (54.3+/-27.2 ng/ml versus 126.8+/-70.2 ng/ml, p<0.001). No dopamine-related polymorphisms differed the plasma concentration of prolactin in males or females. Multiple regression analyses including plasma drug concentration and age revealed that plasma concentration of prolactin correlated with gender (standardized partial correlation coefficients (beta)=0.551, p<0.001) and negatively with age (standardized beta=-0.202, p<0.01). No correlations were found between prolactin concentration and dopamine-related polymorphisms. These findings suggest that plasma prolactin concentrations in females are much higher than in males but the dopamine-related variants are not predominantly associated with plasma concentration of prolactin.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
101Schizophr. Res. 2008 Apr 101: 26-35
PMID18295456
TitleThe Ser9Gly polymorphism of the dopamine D3 receptor gene and risk of schizophrenia: an association study and a large meta-analysis.
AbstractDopamine D3 receptor (DRD3) binds antipsychotic drugs and is abundant in the limbic system of the brain. It has been shown to play important roles in schizophrenia. A number of studies investigated the Ser9Gly polymorphism of the DRD3 gene to test its possible association with schizophrenia; however, the results were inconsistent. Our study aims to further evaluate the possible association between the Ser9Gly polymorphism and schizophrenia using a case-control association study within the Han Chinese population as well as a meta-analysis covering all previous studies. Our study, based on 329 schizophrenic patients and 288 controls, found no significant difference in the genotype or allele distributions of Ser9Gly polymorphism, the meta-analysis showed that the Ser9Gly polymorphism was not associated with schizophrenia. Our study does not support the contention that the Ser9Gly polymorphism of the DRD3 gene plays a major role in schizophrenia in the Chinese population.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
102Pharmacogenet. Genomics 2008 Jul 18: 599-609
PMID18551040
TitleNaturalistic pharmacogenetic study of treatment resistance to typical neuroleptics in European-Brazilian schizophrenics.
AbstractThis study aimed to explore the influence of variation in DRD2, DRD3, CYP2D6, CYP3A4, and CYP3A5 genes on treatment resistance to typical neuroleptics in a Brazilian sample of patients with schizophrenia.
One polymorphism at DRD2 gene, five at DRD3, 24 at CYP2D6, nine at CYP3A4 gene, and one at CYP3A5 gene were genotyped in a sample of 186 patients with schizophrenia.
From the nine studied CYP3A4 single nucleotide polymorphisms, only the -392A>G was polymorphic, and significant associations were observed between this single nucleotide polymorphism and efficacy of neuroleptic treatment. Homozygous individuals for the -392A variant [P=0.014, odds ratio (OR)=3.32] were more frequent in the treatment-resistant group, compared with carriers of one copy of the -392G variant. The CYP3A5 low expressor genotype (CYP3A5*3/CYP3A5*3) was found to be associated with refractoriness to neuroleptic treatment (P=0.003, OR=3.16). Among the haplotypes observed in DRD3 gene, the T/A/G/A/C haplotype showed an association with refractoriness to neuroleptics (chi=5.342, P=0.021, OR=1.75). This association showed that carriers of one copy of this haplotype presented intermediate values between noncarriers and homozygous individuals for the haplotype. No association was observed with polymorphisms in DRD2 and CYP2D6 genes. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that the number of copies of DRD3 T/A/G/A/C haplotype and CYP3A5 low expressor genotype were predictors of refractoriness to neuroleptic after controlling for selected risk factors. CYP3A5*3 individuals carrying at least one copy of the T/A/G/A/C haplotype showed a higher risk to be refractory to neuroleptics than CYP3A5*3 homozygotes+non-T/A/G/A/C carriers (chi=5.533, P=0.019, OR=2.32, 95% confidence interval=1.08-5.02). No significant associations were observed with DRD2 and CYP2D6 polymorphisms.
Our results suggest a role for CYP3A5 and DRD3 gene variants on refractoriness to neuroleptic treatment in Brazilians with schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
103Schizophr. Res. 2008 Jan 98: 98-104
PMID17698325
TitleNo association between the DRD3 Ser9Gly polymorphism and schizophrenia.
AbstractTo investigate the association between a Ser9Gly polymorphism of the dopamine D3 receptor gene (DRD3) and schizophrenia.
408 schizophrenic patients and 172 control subjects were compared with regard to their DRD3 Ser9Gly genotypic and allelic frequencies. In addition, we carried out a family-based association study including 183 pedigrees (472 subjects) using the transmission disequilibrium test (TDT).
No significant differences of genotype or homozygosity distribution were identified between patients and controls. When patients were stratified according to gender, response to treatment, age at onset, no significant differences were observed. Neither allele A (Ser), or G (Gly) were preferentially transmitted from parents to affected offspring.
The hypothesis that the DRD3 Ser9Gly polymorphism plays a predisposing role in schizophrenia is not supported by this study.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
104Neuropsychobiology 2008 -1 57: 49-54
PMID18451638
TitleAssociation study between antipsychotics- induced restless legs syndrome and polymorphisms of dopamine D1, D2, D3, and D4 receptor genes in schizophrenia.
AbstractThe cause of restless legs syndrome (RLS) is not yet clear, but more promising theories involve dopaminergic deficiency and genetic causes. This study investigated whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the genes of dopamine receptors DRD1, DRD2, DRD3 and DRD4 are associated with antipsychotics-induced RLS in schizophrenia.
We evaluated 190 Korean schizophrenic patients using the diagnostic criteria of the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group and its rating scale for RLS. Genotyping was performed for the DRD1 gene -48A/G, DRD2 gene TaqI A, DRD3 gene Ser9Gly and DRD4 gene -521C/T single-nucleotide polymorphisms. The method of multifactor dimensionality reduction was used to analyze gene-gene interactions.
We classified the schizophrenic patients into 96 with and 94 without RLS symptoms. The genotype frequencies of all polymorphisms investigated did not differ significantly between these 2 groups. MDR analysis did not show a significant effect of the 4 dopamine receptor gene variants on susceptibility to antipsychotic-induced RLS symptoms (p > 0.05).
These genetics data suggest that the analyzed polymorphisms of the dopamine genes may not be associated with RLS symptoms in schizophrenia. Confirming the results reported here requires a larger-scale study involving patients taking specific antipsychotics.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
105Neuropsychopharmacology 2008 Jan 33: 305-11
PMID17429404
TitleEffects of the dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3) gene polymorphisms on risperidone response: a pharmacogenetic study.
AbstractPrevious observations of the anatomical distribution and pharmacological profile of the dopamine D(3) receptor (DRD3) have indicated its potential role in antipsychotic drug action. Risperidone, an effective first-line atypical antipsychotic agent, exhibits a relatively high affinity for this receptor. Recent studies have reported an association of the Ser9Gly polymorphism in the DRD3 gene with therapeutic response to risperidone, but the results were inconsistent. We therefore postulated that the Ser9Gly polymorphism might be in linkage disequilibrium with an undetected variant that exerts a direct influence on risperidone efficacy. The present study genotyped eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) distributed throughout the DRD3 gene and examined five of these for association with treatment outcome, following an 8-week period of risperidone monotherapy in 130 schizophrenic patients from mainland China. Clinical symptoms were assessed before and after the treatment period, using the Brief Psychiatry Rating Scale (BPRS). The confounding effects of non-genetic factors were estimated and the baseline symptom score was included as a covariate for adjustment. Neither was any association observed between the five polymorphisms and improvement in total BPRS scores nor was any combined effect of these variants detected in the haplotype analysis. The current results indicate that genetic variations within the DRD3 gene may not contribute significantly to interindividual differences in the therapeutic efficacy of risperidone.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
106Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry 2009 Aug 33: 1064-9
PMID19508883
TitleARVCF single marker and haplotypic association with schizophrenia.
AbstractWe present a schizophrenia association study using an extensive linkage disequilibrium (LD) mapping approach in seven candidate genes with a well established link to dopamine, including receptors (DRD2, DRD3) and genes involved in its metabolism and transport (ACE, COMT, DAT, MAO-A, MAO-B). The sample included 242 subjects diagnosed with schizophrenia and related disorders and 373 hospital-based controls. 84 tag SNPs in candidate genes were genotyped. After extensive data cleaning 70 SNPs were analyzed for association of single markers and haplotypes. One block of four SNPs (rs165849, rs2518823, rs887199 and rs2239395) in the 3' downstream region of the COMT gene which included a non-dopaminergic candidate gene, the ARVCF (Armadillo like VeloCardio Facial) gene, was associated with the risk of schizophrenia. The genetic region including the ARVCF gene in the 22q11.21 chromosome is associated with schizophrenia in a Spanish series. Our results will assist in the interpretation of the controversy generated by genetic associations of COMT and schizophrenia, which could be the result of different LD patterns between COMT markers and the 3' region of the ARVCF gene.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
107Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2009 May 19: 317-28
PMID19217756
TitleGenetic study of BDNF, DRD3, and their interaction in tardive dyskinesia.
AbstractTardive dyskinesia (TD) is a neuroleptic-induced movement disorder. Its pathophysiology is unclear. The most consistent genetic findings have shown an association with the Ser9Gly polymorphism of the DRD3 gene. However, only few polymorphisms within DRD3 has been tested, and a comprehensive examination of DRD3 in TD is still lacking. Further, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a neuronal growth and survival peptide, regulates DRD3 expression and may be involved in the neuronal degeneration observed in TD. In the present study, we investigated 15 tag DRD3 polymorphisms and four tag BDNF polymorphisms for association with TD in our sample of Caucasian schizophrenia patients (N=171). While BDNF markers showed no association, a haplotype containing rs3732782, rs905568, and rs7620754 in the 5' region of DRD3 was associated with TD diagnosis (p[10,000 permutations]=0.007). We also found evidence of interaction between BDNF and DRD3 polymorphisms. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
108Pharmacogenomics J. 2009 Jun 9: 168-74
PMID19238168
TitleAssociation study of tardive dyskinesia and five DRD4 polymorphisms in schizophrenia patients.
AbstractTardive dyskinesia (TD) is a side effect of chronic antipsychotic medication exposure. Abnormalities in dopaminergic activity in the nigro-striatal system have been most often suggested to be involved because the agents that cause TD share in common potent antagonism of dopamine D(2) receptors (DRD2). Thus, a number of studies have focused on the association of dopamine system gene polymorphisms and TD, with the most consistent findings being an association between TD and the Ser9Gly polymorphism of the DRD3 gene and the TaqIA site 3' of the DRD2 gene. The DRD4 gene codes for the third member of the D(2)-like dopamine receptor family, and the variable number tandem-repeat polymorphism in exon 3 of DRD4 has been associated with TD. However, other polymorphisms have not been thoroughly examined. In this study, we investigated five polymorphisms spanning the DRD4 gene and their association with TD in our European Caucasian sample (N=171). Although the exon 3 variable number tandem repeat was not associated with TD, haplotypes consisting of four tag polymorphisms were associated with TD in males. This study suggests that DRD4 may be involved in TD in the Caucasian population, although further replication studies are needed.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
109Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet. 2009 Jan 150B: 56-60
PMID18449897
TitleLack of association between DRD3 gene polymorphism and response to clozapine in Turkish schizoprenia patients.
AbstractIt is hypothesized that molecular components of dopaminergic system, especially the dopamine D3 receptor gene (DRD3), may play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, because it is abundant in the limbic system of the brain and it binds antipsychotic drugs. Several groups attempted to find an association between a serine-to-glycine polymorphism of the DRD3 gene (Ser9Gly) and schizophrenia; however, the results were inconsistent. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship of the Serine/Glycine polymorphism of the DRD3 gene with therapeutic response to clozapine treatment between Turkish schizophrenia patients (N = 92) and healthy controls (N = 100). Genotype groups were comparable in BPRS, SAPS, SANS analysis of response to clozapine. Our results suggest that an association between the Ser/Gly polymorphism of DRD3 gene and response to clozapine in Turkish schizophrenia patients is unlikely to exist.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
110Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry 2009 Apr 33: 470-4
PMID19302829
TitleEffects of the DRD3 Ser9Gly polymorphism on aripiprazole efficacy in schizophrenic patients as modified by clinical factors.
AbstractAripiprazole, a novel antipsychotic agent, has a unique pharmacological action (partial agonist) on the dopamine neurotransmission system. Aripiprazole has high affinity for dopamine D2 and D3 receptors (DRD2 and DRD3). We investigated whether the efficacy of aripiprazole can be predicted by a functional DRD3 gene polymorphism Ser9Gly (rs6280) as modified by clinical factors in Han Chinese hospitalized patients with acutely exacerbated schizophrenia. After hospitalization, the patients (n=128) were given aripiprazole for up to four weeks. Patients were genotyped for DRD3 Ser9Gly polymorphism by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) method. Clinical factors such as gender, age, duration of illness, education level, diagnostic subtype and medication dosage were recorded. Psychopathology was measured biweekly with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). The effects of genetic and clinical factors on PANSS performance after aripiprazole treatment were analyzed by a mixed model regression approach (SAS Proc MIXED). We found that, although the Ser carriers have numerically larger score reductions when compared with non-carriers in almost all PANSS dimensions, the difference of their effects are statically not significant. However, the clinical factors, including dosage of aripiprazole, age, duration of illness, and diagnostic subtype could influence PANSS performance after aripiprazole treatment. This study suggests that DRD3 Ser9Gly polymorphism may not contribute significantly to inter-individual differences in therapeutic efficacy of aripiprazole, but some clinical factors may predict treatment efficacy.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
111Hum. Genet. 2009 Jan 124: 607-13
PMID18987889
TitleA common haplotype of DRD3 affected by recent positive selection is associated with protection from schizophrenia.
AbstractThe number and frequency of susceptibility alleles at loci associated to most psychiatric disorders is largely unknown, in spite of its relevance for the design of studies aiming to find these alleles. Both, common polymorphisms and rare mutations may contribute to the genetic susceptibility to complex psychiatric disorders, being the relative relevance of each type of variation currently under debate. Here, we confirmed the existence of a common protective haplotype against schizophrenia at the dopamine D(3) receptor (DRD3) gene, by replication and pooled analysis with previous data (Mantel-Haenszel chi(2) P value = 0.00227; OR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.68-0.92, based on 794 cases and 1,078 controls from three independent populations of European origin). This protective haplotype is at very low frequency in Sub-Saharan Africans (median 0.06) and at intermediate frequencies in other populations (median 0.25). We also revealed, by examining the patterns of linkage disequilibrium around this gene, that the protective haplotype has reached high frequency in non-African populations due to selection acting, most probably, on a linked functional polymorphism, the non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism Ser9Gly (rs6280), also at DRD3. Thus, this finding shows that the natural selection may play a role in the existence of common alleles conferring different susceptibility to schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
112Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry 2009 Apr 33: 470-4
PMID19302829
TitleEffects of the DRD3 Ser9Gly polymorphism on aripiprazole efficacy in schizophrenic patients as modified by clinical factors.
AbstractAripiprazole, a novel antipsychotic agent, has a unique pharmacological action (partial agonist) on the dopamine neurotransmission system. Aripiprazole has high affinity for dopamine D2 and D3 receptors (DRD2 and DRD3). We investigated whether the efficacy of aripiprazole can be predicted by a functional DRD3 gene polymorphism Ser9Gly (rs6280) as modified by clinical factors in Han Chinese hospitalized patients with acutely exacerbated schizophrenia. After hospitalization, the patients (n=128) were given aripiprazole for up to four weeks. Patients were genotyped for DRD3 Ser9Gly polymorphism by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) method. Clinical factors such as gender, age, duration of illness, education level, diagnostic subtype and medication dosage were recorded. Psychopathology was measured biweekly with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). The effects of genetic and clinical factors on PANSS performance after aripiprazole treatment were analyzed by a mixed model regression approach (SAS Proc MIXED). We found that, although the Ser carriers have numerically larger score reductions when compared with non-carriers in almost all PANSS dimensions, the difference of their effects are statically not significant. However, the clinical factors, including dosage of aripiprazole, age, duration of illness, and diagnostic subtype could influence PANSS performance after aripiprazole treatment. This study suggests that DRD3 Ser9Gly polymorphism may not contribute significantly to inter-individual differences in therapeutic efficacy of aripiprazole, but some clinical factors may predict treatment efficacy.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
113Psychiatry Res 2010 May 177: 266-7
PMID20334932
TitleSer9Gly polymorphism of the DRD3 gene is associated with worse premorbid social functioning and an earlier age of onset in female but not male schizophrenic patients.
Abstract-1
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
114Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry 2010 Dec 34: 1412-8
PMID20667458
TitleAssociation study of BDNF and DRD3 genes in schizophrenia diagnosis using matched case-control and family based study designs.
Abstractschizophrenia (SCZ) is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder with prominent genetic etiologic factors. The dopamine receptor DRD3 gene is a strong candidate in genetic studies of SCZ because of the dopamine hypothesis of SCZ and the selective expression of D(3) in areas of the limbic system implicated in the disease. We examined 15 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in DRD3 in our sample of European origin consisting of 95 small nuclear SCZ families and 167 case-control pairs. We also examined four BDNF SNPs in our samples because of evidence for BDNF regulation of DRD3 expression (Guillin et al., 2001). We found a nominally significant genotypic association with rs7633291 and allelic association with rs1025398 alleles. However, these observations did not survive correction for multiple testing. We did not find a statistically significant association with the other DRD3 and BDNF polymorphisms. Taken together, the results from the present study suggest that BDNF and DRD3 may not be involved in SCZ susceptibility.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
115Ann. Hum. Genet. 2010 Jul 74: 291-8
PMID20456319
TitleAssociation of polymorphisms in the BDNF, DRD1 and DRD3 genes with tobacco smoking in schizophrenia.
AbstractEmerging evidence indicates that the DRD1-BDNF-DRD3 cluster plays an important role in nicotine addiction. We have performed an association analysis of 42 SNPs within these genes with cigarette consumption in a group of 341 schizophrenia patients. The ACCG haplotype consisting of four BDNF markers (Val66Met (rs6265), rs11030104, rs2049045 and rs7103411) showed an association with the risk of smoking (p = 0.0002). Both DRD1 markers tested (rs4532 and rs686) and the DRD3 marker (rs1025398) showed association with quantity of tobacco smoked (p = 0.01, 0.005 and 0.002, respectively). Our findings are preliminary; however, they support the involvement of the DRD1, BDNF and DRD3 genes in smoking behaviour.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
116Molecules 2010 Jul 15: 4875-89
PMID20657396
TitleMachine learning techniques for single nucleotide polymorphism--disease classification models in schizophrenia.
AbstractSingle nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) can be used as inputs in disease computational studies such as pattern searching and classification models. schizophrenia is an example of a complex disease with an important social impact. The multiple causes of this disease create the need of new genetic or proteomic patterns that can diagnose patients using biological information. This work presents a computational study of disease machine learning classification models using only single nucleotide polymorphisms at the HTR2A and DRD3 genes from Galician (Northwest Spain) schizophrenic patients. These classification models establish for the first time, to the best knowledge of the authors, a relationship between the sequence of the nucleic acid molecule and schizophrenia (Quantitative Genotype-Disease Relationships) that can automatically recognize schizophrenia DNA sequences and correctly classify between 78.3-93.8% of schizophrenia subjects when using datasets which include simulated negative subjects and a linear artificial neural network.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
117Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry 2010 Feb 34: 26-31
PMID19766158
TitleGenetic polymorphisms in the dopamine-2 receptor (DRD2), dopamine-3 receptor (DRD3), and dopamine transporter (SLC6A3) genes in schizophrenia: Data from an association study.
AbstractTo investigate the association between dopaminergic polymorphisms [DRD2 -141C Ins/Del, DRD3 Ser9Gly, and SLC6A3 VNTR] and schizophrenia.
Two hundred and eighty-eight outpatients with schizophrenia (DSM-IV criteria) [mean age (SD)=36.4 (12.4), 60.1% males] and 421 unrelated healthy controls [mean age (SD)=40.6 (11.3), 51.3% males] from a homogeneous Spanish Caucasian population were genotyped using standard methods.
There was a significant difference in genotype distribution for the DRD2 -141C Ins/Del polymorphism [(chi(2) (2)=12.35, corrected p=0.012]. The -141C Del allele was more common in patients than in controls [0.19 vs. 0.13; chi(2) (1)=9.14, corrected p=0.018, OR (95% CI)=1.57 (1.17-2.10)]. Genotype and allele distributions for DRD3 Ser9Gly and SLC6A3 VNTR polymorphisms were similar in both groups. However, there was tentative evidence of an interaction effect between DRD3 Ser9Gly and SLC6A3 VNTR [Wald=9.56 (4), p=0.049]. Compared to the SLC6A3 10/10 genotype category, the risk of schizophrenia was halved among those with 9/10 [OR=0.51 (95% CI=0.30-0.89), p=0.017]. This protective effect was only present in combination with DRD3 Ser/Ser genotype because of the significant interaction between 9/10 and both Ser/Gly [OR=2.45 (95% CI=1.16-5.17), p=0.019] and Gly/Gly [OR=3.80 (95% CI=1.24-11.63), p=0.019].
This study provides evidence that a genetic variant in the DRD2 gene and possible interaction between DRD3 and SLC6A3 genes are associated with schizophrenia. These findings warrant examination in replication studies.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
118Schizophr. Res. 2010 Jan 116: 61-7
PMID19897343
TitleThe dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3) gene and risk of schizophrenia: case-control studies and an updated meta-analysis.
AbstractThe dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3) has been suggested to be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. DRD3 has been tested for an association with schizophrenia, but with conflicting results. A recent meta-analysis suggested that the haplotype T-T-T-G for the SNPs rs7631540-rs1486012-rs2134655-rs963468 may confer protection against schizophrenia. However, almost all previous studies of the association between DRD3 and schizophrenia have been performed using a relatively small sample size and a limited number of markers. To assess whether DRD3 is implicated in vulnerability to schizophrenia, we conducted case-control association studies and performed an updated meta-analysis. In the first population (595 patients and 598 controls), we examined 16 genotyped single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including tagging SNPs selected from the HapMap database and SNPs detected through resequencing, as well as 58 imputed SNPs that are not directly genotyped. To confirm the results obtained, we genotyped the SNPs rs7631540-rs1486012-rs2134655-rs963468 in a second, independent population (2126 patients and 2228 controls). We also performed an updated meta-analysis of the haplotype, combining the results obtained in five populations, with a total sample size of 7551. No supportive evidence was obtained for an association between DRD3 and schizophrenia in our Japanese subjects. Our updated meta-analysis also failed to confirm the existence of a protective haplotype. To draw a definitive conclusion, further studies using larger samples and sufficient markers should be carried out in various ethnic populations.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
119Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars) 2010 -1 70: 86-94
PMID20407490
TitleInfluence of dopaminergic and serotoninergic genes on working memory in healthy subjects.
AbstractWorking memory is an ability to keep information in short-term memory and manipulate them 'on line'. Working memory is also involved in complex frontal executive functions. The role of dopaminergic system in modulating working memory processes in prefrontal cortex is well established. Also the role of serotoninergic receptors is postulated. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between the polymorphisms of dopaminergic (DRD1, DRD3, DRD4, COMT) and serotoninergic (SERT--serotonin transporter, 5HT2A, 5HT2C) genes' polymorphisms and performance on WCST in 200 volunteers from the Polish population. We found the association between DRD1, DRD4, COMT and SERT genes polymorphisms and the performance on WCST. The results obtained in the study indicate that dopaminergic and serotoninergic genes may play a role in modulating the executive function and working memory processes in healthy subjects. The pattern of this influence may be different in males and females. Moreover, the relationship between the efficacy of prefrontal cognitive function and genes polymorphisms may differ between healthy subjects and schizophrenic patients.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
120Molecules 2010 Jul 15: 4875-89
PMID20657396
TitleMachine learning techniques for single nucleotide polymorphism--disease classification models in schizophrenia.
AbstractSingle nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) can be used as inputs in disease computational studies such as pattern searching and classification models. schizophrenia is an example of a complex disease with an important social impact. The multiple causes of this disease create the need of new genetic or proteomic patterns that can diagnose patients using biological information. This work presents a computational study of disease machine learning classification models using only single nucleotide polymorphisms at the HTR2A and DRD3 genes from Galician (Northwest Spain) schizophrenic patients. These classification models establish for the first time, to the best knowledge of the authors, a relationship between the sequence of the nucleic acid molecule and schizophrenia (Quantitative Genotype-Disease Relationships) that can automatically recognize schizophrenia DNA sequences and correctly classify between 78.3-93.8% of schizophrenia subjects when using datasets which include simulated negative subjects and a linear artificial neural network.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
121Genet. Mol. Res. 2011 -1 10: 1850-5
PMID21948748
TitleNo evidence for association between DRD3 and COMT with schizophrenia in a Malay population.
AbstractMolecular components of the dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3) may play an important role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Previous studies have demonstrated an association between DRD3 Ser9Gly and cathechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT, SNP = rs165656) polymorphisms and schizophrenia but the results were inconclusive. We investigated this apparent association between Ser9Gly (A/G) polymorphism and an intronic SNP (dbSNP or rs165656) in 261 Malay patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and 216 controls, using PCR-RFLP. The genotype distribution of the polymorphism DRD3 Ser9Gly was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) for patients (P = 0.1251) and out of HWE for controls (P = 0.0137). However, both healthy controls and schizophrenia patients were out of HWE for the polymorphism COMT rs165656. Based on allele and genotype frequencies in both groups, we found no significant association of DRD3 Ser9Gly polymorphisms and COMT (rs165656) with schizophrenia in Malays. Further studies should examine the association between other dopamine-related genes and the behavioral phenotypes of schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
122Schizophr Bull 2011 Sep 37: 988-1000
PMID20100784
TitleImplication of the env gene of the human endogenous retrovirus W family in the expression of BDNF and DRD3 and development of recent-onset schizophrenia.
AbstractRetrovirus has been suggested as one of agents involved in the development of schizophrenia. In the present study, we examined the role of the human endogenous retrovirus W family (HERV-W) env gene in the etiopathogenesis of recent-onset schizophrenia, using molecular and epidemiological approaches.
Nested RT-PCR was used to detect the messenger RNA (mRNA) of the HERV-w env gene in plasmas. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was employed to detect the viral reverse transcriptase activity in human sera. Human U251 glioma cells were used to study the potential role of the HERV-W env gene in the etiopathogenesis of recent-onset schizophrenia.
We identified genes with mRNA sequences homologous to HERV-W env gene from plasmas of 42 out of 118 individuals with recent-onset schizophrenia but not from any of 106 normal persons (P < .01, t test). Quantitative real-time PCR showed a significantly increase in the reverse transcriptase activity in the sera of patients (by 35.59%) compared with controls (by 2.83%) (P < .05, t test). Overexpression of HERV-w env in human U251 glioma cells upregulated brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), an important schizophrenia-associated gene, neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor type 2 (NTRK2, also called TrkB), and dopamine receptor D3 and increased the phosphorylation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding (CREB) protein. BDNF promoter reporter gene assays showed that the HERV-W env triggers BDNF production in human U251 glioma cells. Using gene knockdown, we found that CREB is required for the expression of BDNF that is regulated by env.
Our data revealed that the transcriptional activation of HERV is associated with the development of schizophrenia in some patients and indicated that HERV-W env regulates the expression of schizophrenia-associated genes. This report is the first to elucidate the signaling pathway responsible for the upregulation of HERV-W env-triggered BDNF. Our study provides new evidence for the involvement of HERV-W in the central nervous system, which will benefit the diagnosis and treatment of the devastating schizophrenia and related disorders.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
123Med. Hypotheses 2011 Dec 77: 1108-10
PMID21963356
TitleDopamine receptor DRD3 codes for trait aggression as Mendelian recessive.
AbstractThe dopamine receptor gene DRD3 and in particular the single nucleotide polymorphism Ser9Gly has been extensively investigated and found to have potential association with a wide variety of conditions. These include essential tremor, unipolar and bipolar depression, as well as a loose association with schizophrenia. Evaluation of (1) these known associations with DRD3, (2) the recent finding of Costas and colleagues that a haplotype containing Ser-9 is associated with protection from schizophrenia, and (3) an extant trait model of personality, leads to the hypothesis that an allele DRD3/Ser codes for trait aggression by Mendelian recessive inheritance. The implications of this hypothesis are that (1) DRD3 is a pleiotropic gene having allelic polymorphism related to both behavior and disease, and (2) models of personality based on genetic traits hold promise. In the area of schizophrenia, the hypothesis implies that schizophrenic patients can be divided into two broad classes: those having genotype DRD3/Ser/Ser and those who lack this homozygosity. The hypothesis of the association of DRD3 with trait aggression could be readily evaluated by testing groups of healthy individuals by personality inventory focused on aggression and by biochemical assay of neurotransmitter levels.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
124Neuropsychopharmacology 2011 Jun 36: 1385-96
PMID21412225
TitleDopamine receptor mediation of the exploratory/hyperactivity effects of modafinil.
AbstractModafinil (2-((diphenylmethyl)sulfinyl)acetamide) is described as an atypical stimulant and is a putative cognition enhancer for schizophrenia, but the precise mechanisms of action remain unclear. Receptor knockout (KO) mice offer an opportunity to identify receptors that contribute to a drug-induced effect. Here we examined the effects of modafinil on exploration in C57BL/6J mice, in dopamine drd1, drd2, DRD3, and drd4 wild-type (WT), heterozygous (HT), and KO mice, and in 129/SJ mice pretreated with the drd1 antagonist SCH23390 using a cross-species test paradigm based on the behavioral pattern monitor. Modafinil increased activity, specific exploration (rearing), and the smoothness of locomotor paths (reduced spatial d) in C57BL/6J and 129/SJ mice (increased holepoking was also observed in these mice). These behavioral profiles are similar to that produced by the dopamine transporter inhibitor GBR12909. Modafinil was ineffective at increasing activity in male drd1 KOs, rearing in female drd1 KOs, or reducing spatial d in all drd1 KOs, but produced similar effects in drd1 WT and HT mice as in C57BL/6J mice. Neither dopamine drd2 nor DRD3 mutants attenuated modafinil-induced effects. Drd4 mutants exhibited a genotype dose-dependent attenuation of modafinil-induced increases in specific exploration. Furthermore, the drd1 KO effects were largely supported by the SCH23390 study. Thus, the dopamine drd1 receptor appears to exert a primary role in modafinil-induced effects on spontaneous exploration, whereas the dopamine drd4 receptor appears to be important for specific exploration. The modafinil-induced alterations in exploratory behavior may reflect increased synaptic dopamine and secondary actions mediated by dopamine drd1 and drd4 receptors.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
125Psychiatry Res 2011 Dec 190: 367-8
PMID21737144
TitleAssociation study of DRD3 gene in schizophrenia in Mexican sib-pairs.
Abstractschizophrenia is a heritable, complex mental disorder. We analysed the DRD3 gene as a candidate to be related to schizophrenia and clinical features in affected sib-pairs. A positive association with the -250A/Ser9 haplotype and a trend toward an association with formal thought disorder were observed. A synergic effect of DRD3 polymorphisms on schizophrenia susceptibility is suggested.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
126Iran. J. Public Health 2011 -1 40: 6-10
PMID23113067
TitleGenetic Association Analysis of Dopamine DRD3 Ser9Gly Polymorphism and Schizophrenia in Malay Population.
AbstractMolecular components of the dopamine receptor (DRD3) play an important role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia (SCZ). Previous studies have demonstrated an association between the DRD3 Ser9Gly polymorphism and SCZ but the results have been inconclusive.
In this study, we investigated this controversial association between the Ser9Gly (A/G) polymorphism and SCZ using Malay cases-control (261 cases/157 controls) samples. PCR-RFLP was performed to genotype the distribution of the DRD3 Ser9Gly polymorphism.
Both healthy control and SCHZ patient groups were in of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for the analyzed genetic variability. There was a significant association between the genotype distribution DRD3 polymorphisms and SCZ (?(2)= 9.359; df = 2; P = 0.009).
We believe that further studies are required to examine the association between others dopamine-related genes and the behavioral phenotypes of SCZ.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
127Mol. Biol. Rep. 2011 Apr 38: 2569-72
PMID21110120
TitleIs the dopamine D3 receptor mRNA on blood lymphocytes help to for identification and subtyping of schizophrenia?
Abstractschizophrenia is one of the neuropathological disorders, which are associated with dopamine and its receptors. In recent years, it has been shown that mRNA of D3, D4 and D5 dopamine receptor (DRD3, DRD4, DRD5) subtypes is expressed in human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). A total 55 schizophrenic patients and 51 healthy subjects were included in the study to investigate the levels of DRD3 mRNA in PBL of schizophrenic patients and whether DRD3 mRNA level in PBL can serve as peripheral marker for schizophrenia. RNA was isolated from lymphocytes of both groups and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed for DRD3 mRNA. We found a significant difference in PBL DRD3 mRNA levels among schizophrenia subtypes (P=0.030) while no difference was detected between control subjects and schizophrenics. We concluded that the levels of DRD3 mRNA can help understanding and severity of clinical manifestations in schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
128Curr Pharmacogenomics Person Med 2011 Jun 9: 94-101
PMID22282718
TitleEthical and Policy Considerations in the Application of Pharmacogenomic Testing for Tardive Dyskinesia: Case Study of the Dopamine D3 Receptor.
AbstractTardive dyskinesia (TD) is a serious adverse effect often associated with the first generation antipsychotic medications used in the management of mental health disorders such as schizophrenia. Pharmacogenomics is the study of human genomic variation in relation to individual and population variability in medication response and side effects. Neuropsychiatry is one of the clinical domains in which pharmacogenomic approaches have been extensively studied. In the late 1990s, the Glycine9 (Gly9) allele of the Serine-9-Glycine (Ser9Gly) polymorphism in dopamine D3 receptor gene (DRD3) was found to be associated with both a liability to, and worsened severity of, TD in schizophrenic patients treated with typical antipsychotics. This initial discovery has been subsequently replicated and testing for the Ser9Gly polymorphism has now become commercially available. The question that currently presents itself is whether its use should be encouraged for patients who may be prescribed a typical or atypical antipsychotic medication. However, the translation of this new technology to clinical practice presents multiple social, ethical and policy challenges. Though pharmacogenomic testing holds much promise in this scenario, many important questions remain to be answered before its widespread use can be medically and ethically justified. This article highlights the key advances in our understanding of the role of human genetic variation in the D3 receptor in relation to TD. Then, issues of uncertainty, consent, confidentiality, and access are considered with respect to the use of DRD3 polymorphism testing in risk stratification for susceptibility to tardive dyskinesia. We propose three recommendations that may help bring this technology into the clinic: 1) prospective pharmacogenomic studies of DRD3 polymorphism and TD risk should be conducted; 2) the design of such studies should be influenced by scientists, ethicists and policy makers to protect potentially vulnerable patients; and 3) appropriate knowledge transfer to front-line health care workers must take place.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
129Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet. 2011 Jul 156B: 613-9
PMID21595009
TitleConverging evidence implicates the dopamine D3 receptor gene in vulnerability to schizophrenia.
AbstractThe dopamine D3 receptor has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia (SZ). A glycine-to-serine polymorphism at codon 9 of the dopamine D3 receptor gene (DRD3), rs6280, has been widely studied for its association with SZ, but with conflicting results. Altered levels of DRD3 mRNA have also been reported in SZ compared with normal controls. Moreover, it has been suggested that DRD3 is subject to recent positive selection in European populations. To explore the potential role of DRD3 in SZ from these various aspects, we conducted a threefold study. First, we tested the genetic association of rs6280 with SZ in 685 SZ patients and 768 normal controls. Second, we examined DRD3 mRNA levels in peripheral leukocytes in a subset of 37 patients and 37 controls. Finally, we investigated the possible recent positive selection on DRD3 in an East Asian population. Consequently, we observed that the genotypic distribution of rs6280 was nominally associated with SZ (P = 0.045), with the ancestral CC genotype being significantly over-represented in SZ patients. DRD3 mRNA levels were significantly lower in patients than in controls (P = 5.91E-5). The derived C-allele of rs6280 might have been subject to recent positive selection (P < 0.001) in the East Asian population. Taken together, our results suggest that DRD3, a gene possibly under natural selection, might be involved in vulnerability to SZ in the Han Chinese population. These findings may further add to the body of data implicating DRD3 as a schizophrenia risk gene.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
130Med. Hypotheses 2011 Dec 77: 1108-10
PMID21963356
TitleDopamine receptor DRD3 codes for trait aggression as Mendelian recessive.
AbstractThe dopamine receptor gene DRD3 and in particular the single nucleotide polymorphism Ser9Gly has been extensively investigated and found to have potential association with a wide variety of conditions. These include essential tremor, unipolar and bipolar depression, as well as a loose association with schizophrenia. Evaluation of (1) these known associations with DRD3, (2) the recent finding of Costas and colleagues that a haplotype containing Ser-9 is associated with protection from schizophrenia, and (3) an extant trait model of personality, leads to the hypothesis that an allele DRD3/Ser codes for trait aggression by Mendelian recessive inheritance. The implications of this hypothesis are that (1) DRD3 is a pleiotropic gene having allelic polymorphism related to both behavior and disease, and (2) models of personality based on genetic traits hold promise. In the area of schizophrenia, the hypothesis implies that schizophrenic patients can be divided into two broad classes: those having genotype DRD3/Ser/Ser and those who lack this homozygosity. The hypothesis of the association of DRD3 with trait aggression could be readily evaluated by testing groups of healthy individuals by personality inventory focused on aggression and by biochemical assay of neurotransmitter levels.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
131Mol. Biol. Rep. 2011 Apr 38: 2569-72
PMID21110120
TitleIs the dopamine D3 receptor mRNA on blood lymphocytes help to for identification and subtyping of schizophrenia?
Abstractschizophrenia is one of the neuropathological disorders, which are associated with dopamine and its receptors. In recent years, it has been shown that mRNA of D3, D4 and D5 dopamine receptor (DRD3, DRD4, DRD5) subtypes is expressed in human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). A total 55 schizophrenic patients and 51 healthy subjects were included in the study to investigate the levels of DRD3 mRNA in PBL of schizophrenic patients and whether DRD3 mRNA level in PBL can serve as peripheral marker for schizophrenia. RNA was isolated from lymphocytes of both groups and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed for DRD3 mRNA. We found a significant difference in PBL DRD3 mRNA levels among schizophrenia subtypes (P=0.030) while no difference was detected between control subjects and schizophrenics. We concluded that the levels of DRD3 mRNA can help understanding and severity of clinical manifestations in schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
132Mol. Biol. Rep. 2011 Apr 38: 2569-72
PMID21110120
TitleIs the dopamine D3 receptor mRNA on blood lymphocytes help to for identification and subtyping of schizophrenia?
Abstractschizophrenia is one of the neuropathological disorders, which are associated with dopamine and its receptors. In recent years, it has been shown that mRNA of D3, D4 and D5 dopamine receptor (DRD3, DRD4, DRD5) subtypes is expressed in human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). A total 55 schizophrenic patients and 51 healthy subjects were included in the study to investigate the levels of DRD3 mRNA in PBL of schizophrenic patients and whether DRD3 mRNA level in PBL can serve as peripheral marker for schizophrenia. RNA was isolated from lymphocytes of both groups and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed for DRD3 mRNA. We found a significant difference in PBL DRD3 mRNA levels among schizophrenia subtypes (P=0.030) while no difference was detected between control subjects and schizophrenics. We concluded that the levels of DRD3 mRNA can help understanding and severity of clinical manifestations in schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
133Curr Pharmacogenomics Person Med 2011 Jun 9: 94-101
PMID22282718
TitleEthical and Policy Considerations in the Application of Pharmacogenomic Testing for Tardive Dyskinesia: Case Study of the Dopamine D3 Receptor.
AbstractTardive dyskinesia (TD) is a serious adverse effect often associated with the first generation antipsychotic medications used in the management of mental health disorders such as schizophrenia. Pharmacogenomics is the study of human genomic variation in relation to individual and population variability in medication response and side effects. Neuropsychiatry is one of the clinical domains in which pharmacogenomic approaches have been extensively studied. In the late 1990s, the Glycine9 (Gly9) allele of the Serine-9-Glycine (Ser9Gly) polymorphism in dopamine D3 receptor gene (DRD3) was found to be associated with both a liability to, and worsened severity of, TD in schizophrenic patients treated with typical antipsychotics. This initial discovery has been subsequently replicated and testing for the Ser9Gly polymorphism has now become commercially available. The question that currently presents itself is whether its use should be encouraged for patients who may be prescribed a typical or atypical antipsychotic medication. However, the translation of this new technology to clinical practice presents multiple social, ethical and policy challenges. Though pharmacogenomic testing holds much promise in this scenario, many important questions remain to be answered before its widespread use can be medically and ethically justified. This article highlights the key advances in our understanding of the role of human genetic variation in the D3 receptor in relation to TD. Then, issues of uncertainty, consent, confidentiality, and access are considered with respect to the use of DRD3 polymorphism testing in risk stratification for susceptibility to tardive dyskinesia. We propose three recommendations that may help bring this technology into the clinic: 1) prospective pharmacogenomic studies of DRD3 polymorphism and TD risk should be conducted; 2) the design of such studies should be influenced by scientists, ethicists and policy makers to protect potentially vulnerable patients; and 3) appropriate knowledge transfer to front-line health care workers must take place.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
134PLoS ONE 2012 -1 7: e36561
PMID22615781
TitleCandidate gene-based association study of antipsychotic-induced movement disorders in long-stay psychiatric patients: a prospective study.
AbstractFour types of antipsychotic-induced movement disorders: tardive dyskinesia (TD), parkinsonism, akathisia and tardive dystonia, subtypes of TD (orofacial and limb truncal dyskinesia), subtypes of parkinsonism (rest tremor, rigidity, and bradykinesia), as well as a principal-factor of the movement disorders and their subtypes, were examined for association with variation in 10 candidate genes (PPP1R1B, BDNF, DRD3, DRD2, HTR2A, HTR2C, COMT, MnSOD, CYP1A2, and RGS2).
Naturalistic study of 168 white long-stay patients with chronic mental illness requiring long-term antipsychotic treatment, examined by the same rater at least two times over a 4-year period, with a mean follow-up time of 1.1 years, with validated scales for TD, parkinsonism, akathisia, and tardive dystonia. The authors genotyped 31 SNPs, associated with movement disorders or schizophrenia in previous studies. Genotype and allele frequency comparisons were performed with multiple regression methods for continuous movement disorders.
VARIOUS SNPS REACHED NOMINAL SIGNIFICANCE: TD and orofacial dyskinesia with rs6265 and rs988748, limb truncal dyskinesia with rs6314, rest tremor with rs6275, rigidity with rs6265 and rs4680, bradykinesia with rs4795390, akathisia with rs4680, tardive dystonia with rs1799732, rs4880 and rs1152746. After controlling for multiple testing, no significant results remained.
The findings suggest that selected SNPs are not associated with a susceptibility to movement disorders. However, as the sample size was small and previous studies show inconsistent results, definite conclusions cannot be made. Replication is needed in larger study samples, preferably in longitudinal studies which take the fluctuating course of movement disorders and gene-environment interactions into account.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
135J Psychiatr Res 2012 Jun 46: 762-6
PMID22521161
TitleBrain-derived neurotrophic factor Val66Met polymorphism and obsessive-compulsive symptoms in Egyptian schizophrenia patients.
AbstractBrain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been advanced as a candidate gene for schizophrenia. BDNF promote the function and growth of 5-HT neurons in the brain and modulate the synaptic plasticity of DRD3-secreting neurons in the striatum, suggesting involvement of BDNF in the mediation of obsessive-compulsive disorder.
To test the hypothesis that the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism influence obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) in schizophrenia, we examined the association between the BDNF Val66Met genotypes and OCS in a group of patients with schizophrenia.
320 schizophrenia patients were assessed using the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (YBOCS). BDNF Val66Met polymorphism was genotyped using PCR-RFLP method, and severity of OCS were compared between the genotype groups.
Out of the 320 schizophrenia patients, 120 patients (37.5%) had significant OCS. There was a significant excess of valine allele in the schizophrenia with-OCS group compared to the without-OCS group. The mean YBOCS scores were significantly different among the three genotype groups. Val/Val homozygote patients had higher mean YBOCS scores compared to Val/Met genotype (p = 0.0001) as well as to the Met/Met homozygote group (p = 0.003).
Our data suggested an association between BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and OCS in Egyptian schizophrenia patients.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
136Psychol Med 2012 Mar 42: 607-16
PMID21854684
TitleHypothesis-driven candidate genes for schizophrenia compared to genome-wide association results.
AbstractCandidate gene studies have been a key approach to the genetics of schizophrenia (SCZ). However, the results of these studies are confusing and no genes have been unequivocally implicated. The hypothesis-driven candidate gene literature can be appraised by comparison with the results of genome-wide association studies (GWAS).
We describe the characteristics of hypothesis-driven candidate gene studies from the SZGene database, and use pathway analysis to compare hypothesis-driven candidate genes with GWAS results from the International schizophrenia Consortium (ISC).
SZGene contained 732 autosomal genes evaluated in 1374 studies. These genes had poor statistical power to detect genetic effects typical for human diseases, assessed only 3.7% of genes in the genome, and had low marker densities per gene. Most genes were assessed once or twice (76.9%), providing minimal ability to evaluate consensus across studies. The ISC studies had 89% power to detect a genetic effect typical for common human diseases and assessed 79% of known autosomal common genetic variation. Pathway analyses did not reveal enrichment of smaller ISC p values in hypothesis-driven candidate genes, nor did a comprehensive evaluation of meta-hypotheses driving candidate gene selection (SCZ as a disease of the synapse or neurodevelopment). The most studied hypothesis-driven candidate genes (COMT, DRD3, DRD2, HTR2A, NRG1, BDNF, DTNBP1 and SLC6A4) had no notable ISC results.
We did not find support for the idea that the hypothesis-driven candidate genes studied in the literature are enriched for the common genetic variation involved in the etiology of SCZ. Larger samples are required to evaluate this conclusion definitively.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
137PLoS ONE 2012 -1 7: e50970
PMID23226551
TitleAntipsychotic-induced movement disorders in long-stay psychiatric patients and 45 tag SNPs in 7 candidate genes: a prospective study.
AbstractFour types of antipsychotic-induced movement disorders: tardive dyskinesia (TD), parkinsonism, akathisia and tardive dystonia, subtypes of TD (orofacial and limb truncal dyskinesia), subtypes of parkinsonism (rest tremor, rigidity, and bradykinesia), as well as a principal-factor of the movement disorders and their subtypes, were examined for association with variation in 7 candidate genes (GRIN2B, GRIN2A, HSPG2, DRD3, DRD4, HTR2C, and NQO1).
Naturalistic study of 168 white long-stay patients with chronic mental illness requiring long-term antipsychotic treatment, examined by the same rater at least two times over a 4-year period, with a mean follow-up time of 1.1 years, with validated scales for TD, parkinsonism, akathisia, and tardive dystonia. The authors genotyped 45 tag SNPs in 7 candidate genes, associated with movement disorders or schizophrenia in previous studies. Genotype and allele frequency comparisons were performed with multiple regression methods for continuous movement disorders.
Various tag SNPs reached nominal significance; TD with rs1345423, rs7192557, rs1650420, as well as rs11644461; orofacial dyskinesia with rs7192557, rs1650420, as well as rs4911871; limb truncal dyskinesia with rs1345423, rs7192557, rs1650420, as well as rs11866328; bradykinesia with rs2192970; akathisia with rs324035; and the principal-factor with rs10772715. After controlling for multiple testing, no significant results remained.
The findings suggest that selected tag SNPs are not associated with a susceptibility to movement disorders. However, as the sample size was small and previous studies show inconsistent results, definite conclusions cannot be made. Replication is needed in larger study samples, preferably in longitudinal studies which take the fluctuating course of movement disorders and gene-environment interactions into account.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
138Neurosci. Lett. 2012 Jun 518: 41-4
PMID22569179
TitleRs1076560, a functional variant of the dopamine D2 receptor gene, confers risk of schizophrenia in Han Chinese.
AbstractThe dopamine receptor genes have been implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, but definitive evidence of association is still lacking. To identify whether functional variants of the D2-like receptors (DRD2, DRD3 and DRD4) confer risk of schizophrenia, we conducted a two-stage association study. We firstly examined the SNPs in functional genomic regions, such as mRNA splicing, protein coding and the promoter regions in DRD2, DRD3 and DRD4, respectively, for association in 289 Han Chinese cases with schizophrenia and 367 healthy controls and then further analyzed the significantly associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with this disorder in an additional Han Chinese sample consisted of 1351 cases and 1640 control subjects. In the first stage, the chi-square test (?(2)) showed disease association for rs1076560 in DRD2 (p=0.040 for allelic association and p=0.033 for genotypic association, respectively). However, rs6280 in DRD3 and rs3758653 in DRD4 failed to show either allelic or genotypic association with the illness. The association between rs1076560 and schizophrenia was replicated in the second stage. The rs1076560-T allele, which shifts splicing from the D2 short isoform (D2S) to the D2 long isoform (D2L), was over-presented in the patient group (44%) than in the control group (41%) (?(2)=5.19, p=0.023, OR=1.13, 95% CI=1.02-1.25). Therefore, the rs1076560 variant of DRD2 reliably influences risk of schizophrenia in Han Chinese, although more data are required to elucidate the pathophysiological mechanisms of possessing this risk-conferring variant.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
139Neurosci. Lett. 2012 Jan 507: 52-6
PMID22172931
TitleGenetic association between the dopamine D3 receptor gene polymorphism (Ser9Gly) and tardive dyskinesia in patients with schizophrenia: a reevaluation in East Asian populations.
AbstractThe dopamine D3 receptor gene (DRD3) is considered being one of the candidate genes contributing to the development of tardive dyskinesia (TD). In a recent meta-analysis with mixed ethnicities, only a barely positive association was found between the functional DRD3 Ser9Gly polymorphism and TD in patients with schizophrenia (OR=1.17; 95% CI: 1.01-1.37; p=0.041). To further evaluate the controversial association between the polymorphism and TD using only Japanese subjects, we tested the association in a case-control design. We also conducted a meta-analysis including 8 studies with 3 East Asian populations (Japanese, Chinese, and Korean). In our Japanese case-control sample (43 with TD/157 without TD), we found no association between the DRD3 Ser9Gly polymorphism in schizophrenia and TD (genotype: p=0.92; allele: p=1.00). Furthermore, no significant difference in the mean AIMS score among the three genotypic groups was observed in our sample. The meta-analysis comprising 1291 East Asian subjects also showed no association between the polymorphism and TD; the Mantel-Haenszel pooled OR for TD among carriers of the DRD3 Ser9Gly of the eight Asian studies was 0.94 (95% CI: 0.78-1.12). Overall, our results suggest that the DRD3 Ser9Gly polymorphism may not confer susceptibility to TD in East Asian populations. Given that the Ser9Gly variant may play a putative role in the DRD3 function, further studies on the DRD3 are warranted.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
140Psychiatry Res 2013 Jan 205: 7-12
PMID22940547
TitlePreliminary evidence for association between schizophrenia and polymorphisms in the regulatory Regions of the ADRA2A, DRD3 and SNAP-25 Genes.
AbstractThe results of linkage and candidate gene association studies have led to a range of hypotheses about the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. We limited our study to polymorphisms in candidate genes involved in dopaminergic and noradrenergic systems, and in the 25KDa synaptosomal-associated protein (SNAP-25) gene that is related to neurotransmitter exocytosis. Eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in regulating or coding regions of genes for the alpha-2A adrenergic receptor (ADRA2A), dopamine receptors D1 and D3 (DRD1 and DRD3), dopamine ?-hydroxylase (DBH) and SNAP-25 were genotyped in male patients with schizophrenia (n=192) and in healthy controls (n=213). These polymorphisms were previously associated with schizophrenia. The allelic association between schizophrenia and ADRA2A rs1800544 polymorphism, SNAP-25 rs1503112 polymorphism, and DRD3 rs6280 polymorphism was found in our study. However, only observations for rs1503112 survived correction for multiple testing. Association was also evaluated by considering the polymorphisms as interactions; in this case, a likelihood ratio test (LRT) revealed evidence for association with schizophrenia in four polymorphism combinations: two DRD3*SNAP-25 combinations (rs6280*rs3746544 and rs6280*rs3746544, P=0.02), one ADRA2A*SNAP25 combination (rs1800544*rs3746544) and one ADRA2A*DBH combination (rs1800544*rs2519152). Our results are in agreement with the previously proposed role of DNA polymorphisms involved in dopaminergic, noradrenergic and synaptic functions in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Further relevant studies including larger sample size and more markers are needed to confirm our results.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
141Pharmacogenomics J. 2013 Apr 13: 197-204
PMID22212732
TitleAssociation of common genetic variants with risperidone adverse events in a Spanish schizophrenic population.
AbstractRisperidone non-compliance is often high due to undesirable side effects, whose development is in part genetically determined. Studies with genetic variants involved in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of risperidone have yielded inconsistent results. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the putative association of genetic markers with the occurrence of four frequently observed adverse events secondary to risperidone treatment: sleepiness, weight gain, extrapyramidal symptoms and sexual adverse events. A series of 111 schizophrenia inpatients were genotyped for genetic variants previously associated with or potentially involved in risperidone response. Presence of adverse events was the main variable and potential confounding factors were considered. Allele 16Gly of ADRB2 was significantly associated with a higher risk of sexual adverse events. There were other non-significant trends for DRD3 9Gly and SLC6A4 S alleles. Our results, although preliminary, provide new candidate variants of potential use in risperidone safety prediction.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
142Schizophr Bull 2013 Jul 39: 848-56
PMID22532702
TitleIntermediate phenotype analysis of patients, unaffected siblings, and healthy controls identifies VMAT2 as a candidate gene for psychotic disorder and neurocognition.
AbstractPsychotic disorders are associated with neurocognitive alterations that aggregate in unaffected family members, suggesting that genetic vulnerability to psychotic disorder impacts neurocognition. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether selected schizophrenia candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with (1) neurocognitive functioning across populations at different genetic risk for psychosis (2) and psychotic disorder. The association between 152 SNPs in 43 candidate genes and a composite measure of neurocognitive functioning was examined in 718 patients with psychotic disorder. Follow-up analyses were carried out in 750 unaffected siblings and 389 healthy comparison subjects. In the patients, 13 associations between SNPs and cognitive functioning were significant at P < .05, situated in DRD1, DRD3, SLC6A3, BDNF, FGF2, SLC18A2, FKBP5, and DNMT3B. Follow-up of these SNPs revealed a significant and directionally similar association for SLC18A2 (alternatively VMAT2) rs363227 in siblings (B = -0.13, P = .04) and a trend association in control subjects (B = -0.10, P = .12). This association was accompanied by a significantly increased risk for psychotic disorder associated with the T allele (linear OR = 1.51, 95% CI 1.10-2.07, P = .01), which was reduced when covarying for cognitive performance (OR = 1.29, 95% CI 0.92-1.81, P = .14), suggesting mediation. Genetic variation in VMAT2 may be linked to alterations in cognitive functioning underlying psychotic disorder, possibly through altered transport of monoamines into synaptic vesicles.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
143J Psychiatr Res 2013 Nov 47: 1615-22
PMID23932573
TitleDopaminergic gene polymorphisms and cognitive function in a north Indian schizophrenia cohort.
AbstractAssociations of polymorphisms from dopaminergic neurotransmitter pathway genes have mostly been reported in Caucasian ancestry schizophrenia (SZ) samples. As studies investigating single SNPs with SZ have been inconsistent, more detailed analyses utilizing multiple SNPs with the diagnostic phenotype as well as cognitive function may be more informative. Therefore, these analyses were conducted in a north Indian sample.
Indian SZ case-parent trios (n = 601 families); unscreened controls (n = 468) and an independent set of 118 trio families were analyzed. Representative SNPs in the Dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3), dopamine transporter (SLC6A3), vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (SLC18A2), catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT) and dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) were genotyped using SNaPshot/SNPlex assays (n = 59 SNPs). The Trail Making Test (TMT) was administered to a subset of the sample (n = 260 cases and n = 302 parents).
Eight SNPs were nominally associated with SZ in either case-control or family based analyses (p < 0.05, rs7631540 and rs2046496 in DRD3; rs363399 and rs10082463 in SLC18A2; rs4680, rs4646315 and rs9332377 in COMT). rs6271 at DBH was associated in both analyses. Haplotypes of DRD3 SNPs incorporating rs7631540-rs2134655-rs3773678-rs324030-rs6280-rs905568 showed suggestive associations in both case-parent and trio samples. At SLC18A2, rs10082463 was nominally associated with psychomotor performance and rs363285 with executive functions using the TMT but did not withstand multiple corrections.
Suggestive associations with dopaminergic genes were detected in this study, but convincing links between dopaminergic polymorphisms and SZ or cognitive function were not observed.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
144Transl Psychiatry 2013 -1 3: e245
PMID23571810
TitleAssociation of dopamine-related genetic loci to dopamine D3 receptor antagonist ABT-925 clinical response.
AbstractABT-925, a selective dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3) antagonist, was tested in schizophrenia. A DRD3 gene polymorphism results in an S9G amino-acid change that has been associated with lower risk of schizophrenia, higher affinity for dopamine and some antipsychotics, and differential response to some antipsychotics. The effect of S9G genotype on response to ABT-925 was examined. DNA samples (N=117) were collected in a proof-of-concept, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of ABT-925 (50 or 150 mg QD) in acute exacerbation of schizophrenia. A pre-specified analysis assessed impact of genotype (SS versus SG+GG) on change from baseline to final evaluation for the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score using analysis of covariance with genotype, treatment and genotype-by-treatment interaction as factors, and baseline score as covariate. Significant genotype-by-treatment interaction (P=0.015) was observed for change from baseline to final evaluation for the PANSS total score. Within subgroup analyses showed significant improvement from placebo in the SG+GG group treated with ABT-925 150 mg. More favorable clinical outcomes were observed in patients treated with ABT-925 150 mg who carried the DRD3 G allele than in those who carried the DRD3 SS genotype.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
145Pharmacogenomics J. 2013 Apr 13: 197-204
PMID22212732
TitleAssociation of common genetic variants with risperidone adverse events in a Spanish schizophrenic population.
AbstractRisperidone non-compliance is often high due to undesirable side effects, whose development is in part genetically determined. Studies with genetic variants involved in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of risperidone have yielded inconsistent results. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the putative association of genetic markers with the occurrence of four frequently observed adverse events secondary to risperidone treatment: sleepiness, weight gain, extrapyramidal symptoms and sexual adverse events. A series of 111 schizophrenia inpatients were genotyped for genetic variants previously associated with or potentially involved in risperidone response. Presence of adverse events was the main variable and potential confounding factors were considered. Allele 16Gly of ADRB2 was significantly associated with a higher risk of sexual adverse events. There were other non-significant trends for DRD3 9Gly and SLC6A4 S alleles. Our results, although preliminary, provide new candidate variants of potential use in risperidone safety prediction.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
146Recent Pat Biotechnol 2014 -1 8: 152-9
PMID25185985
TitlePharmacogenomics in psychiatry: implications for practice.
AbstractPsychotropic medications are used for numerous psychiatric and neurologic disorders, and are associated with in some cases life-threatening adverse effects, high acquisition costs, stringent monitoring requirements, and potential interactions with other medications. Because of the risks of adverse effects and need for adherence, risk mitigation strategies are being implemented to protect consumers. An understanding of receptor activities, cytochrome P450 2D6 and 2C19 metabolism, overlapping pharmacology, and polymorphic biomarkers for the dopamine 2 D2 receptor gene (DRD2) and dopamine 3 D3 receptor gene (DRD3), serotonin 2A and 2C receptor genes (5HTR2A and 5HTR2C), and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) variants creates opportunities for the integration of pharmacogenomics, and can assist in the application of personalized medicine in this arena. In this review, we discuss the current impression of pharmacogenomic principles pertaining to select psychotropics, with attention given to the atypical antipsychotics, due to their wide use across a broad spectrum of psychiatric disorders (e.g. bipolar disorder, depression, schizophrenia). Patents involving aripiprazole, clozapine, olanzapine, and risperidone will be discussed.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
147Schizophr. Res. 2014 Aug 157: 163-8
PMID24893910
TitleEffect of antipsychotic drugs on gene expression in the prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR).
AbstractAntipsychotic drugs (APDs) are the standard treatment for schizophrenia. The therapeutic effect of these drugs is dependent upon the dopaminergic D2 blockade, but they also modulate other neurotransmitter pathways. The exact mechanisms underlying the clinical response to APDs are not fully understood. In this study, we compared three groups of animals for the expression of 84 neurotransmitter genes in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and nucleus accumbens (NAcc). Each group was treated with a different APD (risperidone, clozapine or haloperidol), and with a non-treated group of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), which is an animal model for schizophrenia. This study also explored whether or not differential expression was regulated by DNA methylation in the promoter region (PR). In the clozapine group, we found that Chrng was downregulated in the NAcc and six genes were downregulated in the PFC. In the haloperidol group, Brs3 and Glra1 were downregulated, as was Drd2 in the clozapine group and DRD3, Galr3 and Gabrr1 in the clozapine and haloperidol groups. We also encountered four hypermethylated CG sites in the Glra1 PR, as well as three in the risperidone group and another in the haloperidol group, when compared to non-treated rats. Following the APD treatment, the gene expression results revealed the involvement of genes that had not previously been described, in addition to the activity of established genes. The investigation of the involvement of these novel genes can lead to better understanding about the specific mechanisms of action of the individual APDs studied.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
148Psychiatry Res 2014 Dec 220: 772-7
PMID25262640
TitleSignificant association between DRD3 gene body methylation and schizophrenia.
AbstractThe current study was the first one to reveal the contribution of DRD3 methylation to the risk of different (SCZ) subtypes. This study comprised a total of 30 paranoid (15 males and 15 females) and 29 undifferentiated (15 males and 14 females) SCZ patients and 26 age- and gender-matched controls. Our results showed a significant association of CpG2 with SCZ. A breakdown analysis by gender showed that CpG2 and CpG3 methylation were significantly higher in male patients than male controls, and that CpG5 methylation was significantly higher in female patients than female controls. A further breakdown analysis by both gender and SCZ subtype showed that CpG2 and CpG3 methylation were significantly higher in male paranoid SCZ and male undifferentiated SCZ than male controls. In contrast, CpG2 and CpG3 methylation were significantly lower in female undifferentiated SCZ than female controls. Additionally, CpG5 methylation was significantly higher in female paranoid SCZ than female controls. In conclusion, our findings supported that DRD3 gene body hypermethylation was significantly associated with the risk of SCZ. Future study is needed to clarify the mechanisms by which DRD3 gene body hypermethylation contributes to the risk of SCZ.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
149Mol Cytogenet 2014 -1 7: 23
PMID24650298
TitleAdult expression of a 3q13.31 microdeletion.
AbstractThe emerging 3q13.31 microdeletion syndrome appears to encompass diverse neurodevelopmental conditions. However, the 3q13.31 deletion is rare and few adult cases have yet been reported. We examined a cohort with schizophrenia (n?=?459) and adult control subjects (n?=?26,826) using high-resolution microarray technology for deletions and duplications at the 3q13.31 locus.
We report on the extended adult phenotype associated with a 3q13.31 microdeletion in a 41-year-old male proband with schizophrenia and a nonverbal learning disability. He was noted to have a speech impairment, delayed motor skills, and other features consistent with the 3q13.31 microdeletion syndrome. The 2.06áMb deletion overlapped two microRNAs and seven RefSeq genes, including GAP43, LSAMP, DRD3, and ZBTB20. No overlapping 3q13.31 deletions or duplications were identified in control subjects.
Later-onset conditions like schizophrenia are increasingly associated with rare copy number variations and associated genomic disorders like the 3q13.31 microdeletion syndrome. Detailed phenotype information across the lifespan facilitates genotype-phenotype correlations, accurate genetic counselling, and anticipatory care.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
150J Trauma Stress 2014 Aug 27: 379-87
PMID25158632
TitleThe dopamine D3 receptor gene and posttraumatic stress disorder.
AbstractThe dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3) gene has been implicated in schizophrenia, autism, and substance use-disorders and is related to emotion reactivity, executive functioning, and stress-responding, processes impaired in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The aim of this candidate gene study was to evaluate DRD3 polymorphisms for association with PTSD. The discovery sample was trauma-exposed White, non-Hispanic U.S. veterans and their trauma-exposed intimate partners (N = 491); 60.3% met criteria for lifetime PTSD. The replication sample was 601 trauma-exposed African American participants living in Detroit, Michigan; 23.6% met criteria for lifetime PTSD. Genotyping was based on high-density bead chips. In the discovery sample, 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs2134655, rs201252087, rs4646996, and rs9868039, showed evidence of association with PTSD and withstood correction for multiple testing. The minor alleles were associated with reduced risk for PTSD (OR range = 0.59 to 0.69). In the replication sample, rs2251177, located 149 base pairs away from the most significant SNP in the discovery sample, was nominally associated with PTSD in men (OR = 0.32). Although the precise role of the D3 receptor in PTSD is not yet known, its role in executive functioning and emotional reactivity, and the sensitivity of the dopamine system to environmental stressors could potentially explain this association.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
151Int Clin Psychopharmacol 2015 Mar 30: 82-8
PMID25025989
TitlePharmacogenetics of quetiapine in healthy volunteers: association with pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and adverse effects.
AbstractQuetiapine is an atypical antipsychotic used for treatment of schizophrenia. Variability in response to this drug may be associated with pharmacogenetics. The aim of this study was to identify genetic markers related to the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and adverse effects of quetiapine. The study population comprised 79 healthy volunteers from two bioequivalence trials who were genotyped to identify polymorphisms in genes encoding enzymes, receptors, and transporters. Quetiapine plasma levels were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Prolactin plasma levels were detected by indirect chemiluminescence. Possible adverse effects were recorded throughout the study. Factors with P value of 0.1 or less in the univariate analysis were included in a multiple regression analysis (logistic regression for adverse reactions). The area under the curve and clearance of quetiapine were affected by polymorphisms in CYP1A2 and DRD3, respectively. Men had a lower quetiapine area under the curve compared with women. Prolactin iC(max) was higher in volunteers harboring polymorphisms in CYP2C19 and AGT. An association was detected between polymorphisms in CYP1A1 and CYP2C9 and somnolence. Several polymorphisms are responsible for differences in the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of quetiapine in healthy individuals.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
152Prilozi 2015 -1 36: 53-67
PMID26076775
TitlePharmacogenetics and antipsychotic treatment response.
Abstract(Full text is available at http://www.manu.edu.mk/prilozi). Antipsychotic drugs are widely used in the treatment of schizophrenia and psychotic disorder. The lack of antipsychotic response and treatment-induced side-effects, such as neuroleptic syndrome, polydipsia, metabolic syndrome, weight gain, extrapyramidal symptoms, tardive dyskinesia or prolactin increase, are the two main reasons for non-compliance and increased morbidity in schizophrenic patients. During the past decades intensive research has been done in order to determine the influence of genetic variations on antipsychotics dosage, treatment efficacy and safety. The present work reviews the molecular basis of treatment response of schizophrenia. It highlights the most important findings about the impact of functional polymorphisms in genes coding the CYP450 metabolizing enzymes, ABCB1 transporter gene, dopaminergic and serotonergic drug targets (DRD2, DRD3, DRD4, 5-HT1, 5HT-2A, 5HT-2C, 5HT6) as well as genes responsible for metabolism of neurotransmitters and G signalling pathways (5-HTTLPR, BDNF, COMT, RGS4) and points their role as potential biomarkers in everyday clinical practice. Pharmacogenetic testing has predictive power in the selection of antipsychotic drugs and doses tailored according to the patient's genetic profile. In this perception pharmacogenetics could help in the improvement of treatment response by using different medicinal approaches that would avoid potential adverse effects, reduce stabilization time and will advance the prognosis of schizophrenic patients. Key words: Pharmacogenetics, antipsychotics, schizophrenia, biomarkers, CYP450, P-glycoprotein, seroto-nergic receptors, dopaminergic receptors, COMT, BDNF.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
153World J. Biol. Psychiatry 2015 Apr 16: 171-9
PMID25264289
TitleInvestigation of the genetic interaction between BDNF and DRD3 genes in suicidical behaviour in psychiatric disorders.
AbstractSuicide is a serious public health concern, and it is partly genetic. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene has been a strong candidate in genetic studies of suicide (Dwivedi et al., Arch Gen Psychiatry 2010;60:804-815; Zai et al., Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2012;34:1412-1418) and BDNF regulates the expression of the dopamine D3 receptor.
We examined the role of the BDNF and DRD3 genes in suicide.
We analysed four tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in BDNF and 15 SNPs in the D3 receptor gene DRD3 for possible association with suicide attempt history in our Canadian sample of schizophrenia (SCZ) patients of European ancestry (N = 188).
In this sample, we found a possible interaction between the BDNF Val66Met and DRD3 Ser9Gly SNPs in increasing the risk of suicide attempt(s) in our SCZ sample. Specifically, a larger proportion of SCZ patients who were carrying at least one copy of the minor allele at each of the Val66Met and Ser9Gly functional markers have attempted suicides compared to patients with other genotypes (Bonferroni P < 0.05). However, we could not replicate this finding in samples from other psychiatric populations.
Taken together, the results from the present study suggest that an interaction between BDNF and DRD3 may not play a major role in the risk for suicide attempt, though further studies, especially in SCZ, are required.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
154Pharmacogenomics J. 2015 Aug -1: -1
PMID26282453
TitleAssociation studies of genomic variants with treatment response to risperidone, clozapine, quetiapine and chlorpromazine in the Chinese Han population.
Abstractschizophrenia is a widespread mental disease with a prevalence of about 1% in the world population. Continuous long-term treatment is required to maintain social functioning and prevent symptom relapse of schizophrenia patients. However, there are considerable individual differences in response to the antipsychotic drugs. There is a pressing need to identify more drug-response-related markers. But most pharmacogenomics of schizophrenia have typically focused on a few candidate genes in small sample size. In this study, 995 subjects were selected for discovering the drug-response-related markers. A total of 77 single-nucleotide polymorphisms of 25 genes have been investigated for four commonly used antipsychotic drugs in China: risperidone, clozapine, quetiapine, and chlorpromazine. Significant associations with treatment response for several genes, such as CYP2D6, CYP2C19, COMT, ABCB1, DRD3 and HTR2C have been verified in our study. Also, we found several new candidate genes (TNIK, RELN, NOTCH4 and SLC6A2) and combinations (haplotype rs1544325-rs5993883-rs6269-rs4818 in COMT) that are associated with treatment response to the four drugs. Also, multivariate interactions analysis demonstrated the combination of rs6269 in COMT and rs3813929 in HTR2C may work as a predictor to improve the clinical antipsychotic response. So our study is of great significance to improve current knowledge on the pharmacogenomics of schizophrenia, thus promoting the implementation of personalized medicine in schizophrenia.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 18 August 2015; doi:10.1038/tpj.2015.61.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
155Int J Mol Sci 2015 -1 16: 26677-86
PMID26561806
TitleThe mRNA Expression Status of Dopamine Receptor D2, Dopamine Receptor D3 and DARPP-32 in T Lymphocytes of Patients with Early Psychosis.
AbstractPeripheral blood lymphocytes are an attractive tool because there is accumulating evidence indicating that lymphocytes may be utilized as a biomarker in the field of psychiatric study as they could reveal the condition of cells distributed in the brain. Here, we measured the mRNA expression status of dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2), DRD3, and dopamine and cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate regulated phosphoprotein-32 (DARPP-32) in T lymphocytes of patients with early psychosis by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) and explored the relationships between their mRNA levels and the psychopathological status of patients. The present study demonstrated that the mRNA expression levels of DRD3 in T lymphocytes were significantly different among controls, and in patients with psychotic disorder not otherwise specified (NOS) and schizophrenia/schizophreniform disorder. However, no significant differences in mRNA expression levels of DRD2 and DARPP-32 were found among the three groups. We found a significant positive correlation between the DRD2 mRNA level and the score of the excited factor of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) in patients with schizophrenia/schizophreniform disorder. These findings suggest that DRD3 mRNA levels may serve as a potential diagnostic biomarker differentiating patients with early psychosis from controls.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
156Prilozi 2015 -1 36: 53-67
PMID26076775
TitlePharmacogenetics and antipsychotic treatment response.
Abstract(Full text is available at http://www.manu.edu.mk/prilozi). Antipsychotic drugs are widely used in the treatment of schizophrenia and psychotic disorder. The lack of antipsychotic response and treatment-induced side-effects, such as neuroleptic syndrome, polydipsia, metabolic syndrome, weight gain, extrapyramidal symptoms, tardive dyskinesia or prolactin increase, are the two main reasons for non-compliance and increased morbidity in schizophrenic patients. During the past decades intensive research has been done in order to determine the influence of genetic variations on antipsychotics dosage, treatment efficacy and safety. The present work reviews the molecular basis of treatment response of schizophrenia. It highlights the most important findings about the impact of functional polymorphisms in genes coding the CYP450 metabolizing enzymes, ABCB1 transporter gene, dopaminergic and serotonergic drug targets (DRD2, DRD3, DRD4, 5-HT1, 5HT-2A, 5HT-2C, 5HT6) as well as genes responsible for metabolism of neurotransmitters and G signalling pathways (5-HTTLPR, BDNF, COMT, RGS4) and points their role as potential biomarkers in everyday clinical practice. Pharmacogenetic testing has predictive power in the selection of antipsychotic drugs and doses tailored according to the patient's genetic profile. In this perception pharmacogenetics could help in the improvement of treatment response by using different medicinal approaches that would avoid potential adverse effects, reduce stabilization time and will advance the prognosis of schizophrenic patients. Key words: Pharmacogenetics, antipsychotics, schizophrenia, biomarkers, CYP450, P-glycoprotein, seroto-nergic receptors, dopaminergic receptors, COMT, BDNF.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
157Neurosci. Lett. 2016 Apr 619: 126-30
PMID26957229
TitleAssociations between a locus downstream DRD1 gene and cerebrospinal fluid dopamine metabolite concentrations in psychosis.
AbstractDopamine activity, mediated by the catecholaminergic neurotransmitter dopamine, is prominent in the human brain and has been implicated in schizophrenia. Dopamine targets five different receptors and is then degraded to its major metabolite homovanillic acid (HVA). We hypothesized that genes encoding dopamine receptors may be associated with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) HVA concentrations in patients with psychotic disorder. We searched for association between 67 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the five dopamine receptor genes i.e., DRD1, DRD2, DRD3, DRD4 and DRD5, and the CSF HVA concentrations in 74 patients with psychotic disorder. Nominally associated SNPs were also tested in 111 healthy controls. We identified a locus, located downstream DRD1 gene, where four SNPs, rs11747728, rs11742274, rs265974 and rs11747886, showed association with CSF HVA concentrations in psychotic patients. The associations between rs11747728, which is a regulatory region variant, and rs11742274 with HVA remained significant after correction for multiple testing. These associations were restricted to psychotic patients and were absent in healthy controls. The results suggest that the DRD1 gene is implicated in the pathophysiology of psychosis and support the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal
158PLoS ONE 2016 -1 11: e0155631
PMID27244229
TitlePeripheral Immune Cell Populations Associated with Cognitive Deficits and Negative Symptoms of Treatment-Resistant Schizophrenia.
AbstractHypothetically, psychotic disorders could be caused or conditioned by immunological mechanisms. If so, one might expect there to be peripheral immune system phenotypes that are measurable in blood cells as biomarkers of psychotic states.
We used multi-parameter flow cytometry of venous blood to quantify and determine the activation state of 73 immune cell subsets for 18 patients with chronic schizophrenia (17 treated with clozapine), and 18 healthy volunteers matched for age, sex, BMI and smoking. We used multivariate methods (partial least squares) to reduce dimensionality and define populations of differentially co-expressed cell counts in the cases compared to controls.
schizophrenia cases had increased relative numbers of NK cells, na´ve B cells, CXCR5+ memory T cells and classical monocytes; and decreased numbers of dendritic cells (DC), HLA-DR+ regulatory T-cells (Tregs), and CD4+ memory T cells. Likewise, within the patient group, more severe negative and cognitive symptoms were associated with decreased relative numbers of dendritic cells, HLA-DR+ Tregs, and CD4+ memory T cells. Motivated by the importance of central nervous system dopamine signalling for psychosis, we measured dopamine receptor gene expression in separated CD4+ cells. Expression of the dopamine D3 (DRD3) receptor was significantly increased in clozapine-treated schizophrenia and covaried significantly with differentiated T cell classes in the CD4+ lineage.
Peripheral immune cell populations and dopaminergic signalling are disrupted in clozapine-treated schizophrenia. Immuno-phenotypes may provide peripherally accessible and mechanistically specific biomarkers of residual cognitive and negative symptoms in this treatment-resistant subgroup of patients.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics, schizotypy, schizophrenias, schizotypal