1Eur. Psychiatry 2007 Apr 22: 160-6
PMID17227704
TitleSocial disability in different mental disorders.
AbstractTo assess the social disability of people with different psychiatric disorders.
Cross-site survey in five psychiatric hospitals (Dresden, Wroc?aw, London, Michalovce and Prague). Working-aged patients diagnosed (ICD-10) with schizophrenia and related disorders (F2), affective disorders (F3), anxiety disorders (F4), eating disorders (F5) and personality disorders (F6), were assessed at admission (n=969) and 3 months after discharge (n=753) using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale and the Groningen Social Disability Schedule. The main outcome measure was Interviewer-rated social disability.
During acute episodes patients with personality, eating and schizophrenic disorders functioned less effectively than those with affective or anxiety disorders. After controlling for age and severity of psychopathology, there was no significant effect of the diagnosis (during remission), sex, education and history of disorder on disability. Site, employment and partnership were significant factors for the level of social disability in both measure points.
Severity of psychopathological symptoms, not the diagnosis of a mental disorder, was the most significant factor in determining the level of social functioning, particularly during the remission period. Site, employment and partnership appeared as significant factors influencing the level of social disability.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
2Eur. Psychiatry 2007 Apr 22: 160-6
PMID17227704
TitleSocial disability in different mental disorders.
AbstractTo assess the social disability of people with different psychiatric disorders.
Cross-site survey in five psychiatric hospitals (Dresden, Wroc?aw, London, Michalovce and Prague). Working-aged patients diagnosed (ICD-10) with schizophrenia and related disorders (F2), affective disorders (F3), anxiety disorders (F4), eating disorders (F5) and personality disorders (F6), were assessed at admission (n=969) and 3 months after discharge (n=753) using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale and the Groningen Social Disability Schedule. The main outcome measure was Interviewer-rated social disability.
During acute episodes patients with personality, eating and schizophrenic disorders functioned less effectively than those with affective or anxiety disorders. After controlling for age and severity of psychopathology, there was no significant effect of the diagnosis (during remission), sex, education and history of disorder on disability. Site, employment and partnership were significant factors for the level of social disability in both measure points.
Severity of psychopathological symptoms, not the diagnosis of a mental disorder, was the most significant factor in determining the level of social functioning, particularly during the remission period. Site, employment and partnership appeared as significant factors influencing the level of social disability.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
3Hum Brain Mapp 2010 Nov 31: 1643-52
PMID20162598
TitleOptimal transcranial magnetic stimulation coil placement for targeting the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex using novel magnetic resonance image-guided neuronavigation.
AbstractThe dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of several psychiatric illnesses including major depressive disorder and schizophrenia. In this regard, the DLPFC has been targeted in repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) studies as a form of treatment to those patients who are resistant to medications. The '5-cm method' and the '10-20 method' for positioning the transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) coil over DLPFC have been scrutinised due to poor targeting accuracies attributed to inter-subject variability. We evaluated the accuracy of such methods to localise the DLPFC on the scalp in 15 healthy subjects and compared them with our novel neuronavigational method, which first estimates the DLPFC position in the cortex based on a standard template and then determines the most appropriate position on the scalp in which to place the TMS coil. Our neuronavigational method yielded a scalp position for the left DLPFC between electrodes F3 and F5 in standard space and was closest to electrode F5 in individual space. Further, we found that there was significantly less inter-subject variability using our neuronavigational method for localising the DLPFC on the scalp compared with the '5-cm method' and the '10-20 method'. Our findings also suggest that the '10-20 method' is superior to the '5-cm method' in reducing inter-subject variability and that electrode F5 should be the stimulation location of choice when MRI co-registration is not available.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
4Daru 2011 -1 19: 249-56
PMID22615665
TitleFormulation and evaluation of olanzapine matrix pellets for controlled release.
AbstractOlanzapine is an antipsychotic used in treatment of schizophrenia. This research was carried out to design oral controlled release matrix pellets of water insoluble drug Olanzapine (OZ), using blend of Sodium Alginate (SA) and Glyceryl Palmito-Stearate (GPS) as matrix polymers, micro crystalline cellulose (MCC) as spheronizer enhancer and Sodium Lauryl Sulphate (SLS) as pore forming agent.
OZ formulations were developed by the pelletization technique by drug loaded pellets and characterized with regard to the drug content, size distribution, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray Diffraction study (XRD). Stability studies were carried out on the optimized formulation for a period of 90 days at 402 C and 755% relative humidity.
The drug content was in the range of 93.34-98.12%. The mean particle size of the drug loaded pellets was in the range 1024 to 1087m. SEM photographs and calculated sphericity factor confirmed that the prepared formulations were spherical in nature. The compatibility between drug and polymers in the drug loaded pellets was confirmed by DSC and FTIR studies. Stability studies indicated that pellets are stable. XRD patterns revealed the crystalline nature of the pure OZ. Loose surface crystal study indicated that crystalline OZ is present in all formulations and more clear in formulation F5. Drug release was controlled for more than 24 hrs and mechanism of the drug release followed by Fickian diffusion. It may be concluded that F5 is an ideal formulation for once a day administration.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
5Suppl Clin Neurophysiol 2013 -1 62: 181-96
PMID24053040
TitleConnectivity and local activity within the fronto-posterior brain network in schizophrenia.
AbstractFronto-posterior networks have been implicated in cognitive control and understanding the detailed functional dynamics within this network is important to understand the pathophysiology of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. In a previous study (Sharma et al., 2011), we found reduced event-related coherence between frontal and posterior electrode sites in delta and theta frequencies during cognitive control in schizophrenia. The current study aimed to look at the relationship between locally evoked frontal and posterior activity (measured by event-related potentials (ERPs)) and long-range coherence within the fronto-posterior network in healthy controls and patients with schizophrenia.
16 schizophrenic/schizoaffective patients and 20 age-matched healthy controls performing a choice reaction task took part in the study. We examined ERPs occurring at frontal and posterior sites between 100 and 250 ms (overlapping with the time period where coherence deficits were previously found) for differences between patients and controls. ERPs examined were Pla/P2a and N1/N2b components occurring simultaneously during 100-200/200-250 ms post stimulus at the frontal (F5'/F6') and posterior (P7'/P8') sites, respectively. We further looked at group difference in event-related delta and theta fronto-posterior coherence in the exact same time windows as the ERPs and calculated the correlation between ERP amplitudes and simultaneous event-related delta and theta coherence for both hemispheres and time periods. Bonferroni correction was applied to correct for multiple correlations.
We found a significant reduction in schizophrenia patients of the posterior N2b and a trend for reduction for the frontal P2a which are implicated in target-related information processing while the earlier frontal Pla and posterior N1 associated with more general sensory processing were relatively spared. However, the event-related coherence between the frontal and posterior areas was reduced in patients compared to controls during both the early and late time windows, indicating connectivity deficits to be a more consistent impairment in schizophrenia. There was limited linear correlation between fronto-posterior coherence and frontal and posterior ERP amplitudes but uncorrected correlation coefficients showed coherence in delta frequency to be correlated with P2a amplitude in both hemispheres and with Pla only in the left hemisphere in healthy controls. In the patients, however, this correlation was disrupted in the left hemisphere for both early and later stage evoked activity, whereas they showed a similar degree of correlation as healthy controls between P2a and delta coherence in the right hemisphere. Coherence in theta frequency showed no significant correlation with ERPs nor did N1/N2b show any significant correlation with coherence.
Impaired cognitive control in schizophrenia might be driven by disrupted communication between the frontal and posterior brain areas, long-range connectivity being a more consistent deficit in schizophrenia as compared to locally evoked activity. Event-related fronto-posterior coherence and locally evoked frontal and posterior ERP amplitudes seem to reflect independent aspects of information processing in the brain although some linear relationship may exist between local frontal activity and fronto-posterior coherence in the delta frequency, implicating this frequency in frontal top-down control of information processing. A disruption of this relationship specifically in the left hemisphere is consistent with previously reported disturbances of the left hemisphere in schizophrenia. Connectivity measures may add important information as markers of cognitive pathophysiology in schizophrenia and may represent a fundamental impairment underlying cognitive control deficits in schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
6Suppl Clin Neurophysiol 2013 -1 62: 181-96
PMID24053040
TitleConnectivity and local activity within the fronto-posterior brain network in schizophrenia.
AbstractFronto-posterior networks have been implicated in cognitive control and understanding the detailed functional dynamics within this network is important to understand the pathophysiology of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. In a previous study (Sharma et al., 2011), we found reduced event-related coherence between frontal and posterior electrode sites in delta and theta frequencies during cognitive control in schizophrenia. The current study aimed to look at the relationship between locally evoked frontal and posterior activity (measured by event-related potentials (ERPs)) and long-range coherence within the fronto-posterior network in healthy controls and patients with schizophrenia.
16 schizophrenic/schizoaffective patients and 20 age-matched healthy controls performing a choice reaction task took part in the study. We examined ERPs occurring at frontal and posterior sites between 100 and 250 ms (overlapping with the time period where coherence deficits were previously found) for differences between patients and controls. ERPs examined were Pla/P2a and N1/N2b components occurring simultaneously during 100-200/200-250 ms post stimulus at the frontal (F5'/F6') and posterior (P7'/P8') sites, respectively. We further looked at group difference in event-related delta and theta fronto-posterior coherence in the exact same time windows as the ERPs and calculated the correlation between ERP amplitudes and simultaneous event-related delta and theta coherence for both hemispheres and time periods. Bonferroni correction was applied to correct for multiple correlations.
We found a significant reduction in schizophrenia patients of the posterior N2b and a trend for reduction for the frontal P2a which are implicated in target-related information processing while the earlier frontal Pla and posterior N1 associated with more general sensory processing were relatively spared. However, the event-related coherence between the frontal and posterior areas was reduced in patients compared to controls during both the early and late time windows, indicating connectivity deficits to be a more consistent impairment in schizophrenia. There was limited linear correlation between fronto-posterior coherence and frontal and posterior ERP amplitudes but uncorrected correlation coefficients showed coherence in delta frequency to be correlated with P2a amplitude in both hemispheres and with Pla only in the left hemisphere in healthy controls. In the patients, however, this correlation was disrupted in the left hemisphere for both early and later stage evoked activity, whereas they showed a similar degree of correlation as healthy controls between P2a and delta coherence in the right hemisphere. Coherence in theta frequency showed no significant correlation with ERPs nor did N1/N2b show any significant correlation with coherence.
Impaired cognitive control in schizophrenia might be driven by disrupted communication between the frontal and posterior brain areas, long-range connectivity being a more consistent deficit in schizophrenia as compared to locally evoked activity. Event-related fronto-posterior coherence and locally evoked frontal and posterior ERP amplitudes seem to reflect independent aspects of information processing in the brain although some linear relationship may exist between local frontal activity and fronto-posterior coherence in the delta frequency, implicating this frequency in frontal top-down control of information processing. A disruption of this relationship specifically in the left hemisphere is consistent with previously reported disturbances of the left hemisphere in schizophrenia. Connectivity measures may add important information as markers of cognitive pathophysiology in schizophrenia and may represent a fundamental impairment underlying cognitive control deficits in schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic