|1||PLoS ONE 2013 -1 8: e60099|
|Title||The DAO gene is associated with schizophrenia and interacts with other genes in the Taiwan Han Chinese population.|
|Abstract||schizophrenia is a highly heritable disease with a polygenic mode of inheritance. Many studies have contributed to our understanding of the genetic underpinnings of schizophrenia, but little is known about how interactions among genes affect the risk of schizophrenia. This study aimed to assess the associations and interactions among genes that confer vulnerability to schizophrenia and to examine the moderating effect of neuropsychological impairment.|
We analyzed 99 SNPs from 10 candidate genes in 1,512 subject samples. The permutation-based single-locus, multi-locus association tests, and a gene-based multifactorial dimension reduction procedure were used to examine genetic associations and interactions to schizophrenia.
We found that no single SNP was significantly associated with schizophrenia. However, a risk haplotype, namely A-T-C of the SNP triplet rsDAO7-rsDAO8-rsDAO13 of the DAO gene, was strongly associated with schizophrenia. Interaction analyses identified multiple between-gene and within-gene interactions. Between-gene interactions including DAO*DISC1 , DAO*NRG1 and DAO*RASD2 and a within-gene interaction for CACNG2 were found among schizophrenia subjects with severe sustained attention deficits, suggesting a modifying effect of impaired neuropsychological functioning. Other interactions such as the within-gene interaction of DAO and the between-gene interaction of DAO and PTK2B were consistently identified regardless of stratification by neuropsychological dysfunction. Importantly, except for the within-gene interaction of CACNG2, all of the identified risk haplotypes and interactions involved SNPs from DAO.
These results suggest that DAO, which is involved in the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor regulation, signaling and glutamate metabolism, is the master gene of the genetic associations and interactions underlying schizophrenia. Besides, the interaction between DAO and RASD2 has provided an insight in integrating the glutamate and dopamine hypotheses of schizophrenia.
|2||BMC Genomics 2016 -1 17: 163|
|Title||Evidence for contribution of common genetic variants within chromosome 8p21.2-8p21.1 to restricted and repetitive behaviors in autism spectrum disorders.|
|Abstract||Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors (RRB), one of the core symptom categories for Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), comprises heterogeneous groups of behaviors. Previous research indicates that there are two or more factors (subcategories) within the RRB domain. In an effort to identify common variants associated with RRB, we have carried out a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange (AGRE) dataset (n?=?1,335, all ASD probands of European ancestry) for each identified RRB subcategory, while allowing for comparisons of associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with associated SNPs in the same set of probands analyzed using all the RRB subcategories as phenotypes in a multivariate linear mixed model. The top ranked SNPs were then explored in an independent dataset.|
Using principal component analysis of item scores obtained from Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), two distinct subcategories within Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors were identified: Repetitive Sensory Motor (RSM) and Insistence on Sameness (IS). Quantitative RSM and IS scores were subsequently used as phenotypes in a GWAS using the AGRE ASD cohort. Although no associated SNPs with genome-wide significance (P?5.0E-08) were detected when RSM or IS were analyzed independently, three SNPs approached genome-wide significance when RSM and IS were considered together using multivariate association analysis. These included the top IS-associated SNP, rs62503729 (P-value?=?6.48E-08), which is located within chromosome 8p21.2-8p21.1, a locus previously linked to schizophrenia. Notably, all of the most significantly associated SNPs are located in close proximity to STMN4 and PTK2B, genes previously shown to function in neuron development. In addition, several of the top-ranked SNPs showed correlations with STMN4 mRNA expression in adult CEU (Caucasian and European descent) human prefrontal cortex. However, the association signals within chromosome 8p21.2-8p21.1 failed to replicate in an independent sample of 2,588 ASD probands; the insufficient sample size and between-study heterogeneity are possible explanations for the non-replication.
Our analysis indicates that RRB in ASD can be represented by two distinct subcategories: RSM and IS. Subsequent univariate and multivariate genome-wide association studies of these RRB subcategories enabled the detection of associated SNPs at 8p21.2-8p21.1. Although these results did not replicate in an independent ASD dataset, genomic features of this region and pathway analysis suggest that common variants in 8p21.2-8p21.1 may contribute to RRB, particularly IS. Together, these observations warrant future studies to elucidate the possible contributions of common variants in 8p21.2-8p21.1 to the etiology of RSM and IS in ASD.