1Mol. Psychiatry 2002 -1 7: 416-8
PMID11986986
TitleAssociation between the ionotropic glutamate receptor kainate 3 (GRIK3) ser310ala polymorphism and schizophrenia.
Abstractschizophrenia is a severe psychiatric illness characterised by disturbance of thought, hallucination and delusions.(1) Several studies have suggested that dysfunctions in the glutamatergic transmission are linked to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, and in particular an excessive activation of glutamate receptors seems to be related to the disruption of neuronal ionic gradients leading to excitotoxicity.(2-7) Numerous findings suggested that the kainate ionotropic glutamate receptors are primarily involved in this mechanism. Recently it has been demonstrated that the GRIK3 gene encoding for the ionotropic glutamate receptor kainate 3 contains a functional polymorphism (T928G) leading to the substitution of a serine with an alanine in position 310 of the protein sequence.(8-11) We performed an association study between the ser310ala GRIK3polymorphism and schizophrenia in a sample of 99 schizophrenic patients and 116 controls. We found a significant difference in the genotype distribution and in particular considering the ala allele as dominant (P = 0.0105, odds ratio (OR) 2.031, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.177-3.504). This finding suggests a potential role for GRIK3 for susceptibility to schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
2Mol. Psychiatry 2002 -1 7: 416-8
PMID11986986
TitleAssociation between the ionotropic glutamate receptor kainate 3 (GRIK3) ser310ala polymorphism and schizophrenia.
Abstractschizophrenia is a severe psychiatric illness characterised by disturbance of thought, hallucination and delusions.(1) Several studies have suggested that dysfunctions in the glutamatergic transmission are linked to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, and in particular an excessive activation of glutamate receptors seems to be related to the disruption of neuronal ionic gradients leading to excitotoxicity.(2-7) Numerous findings suggested that the kainate ionotropic glutamate receptors are primarily involved in this mechanism. Recently it has been demonstrated that the GRIK3 gene encoding for the ionotropic glutamate receptor kainate 3 contains a functional polymorphism (T928G) leading to the substitution of a serine with an alanine in position 310 of the protein sequence.(8-11) We performed an association study between the ser310ala GRIK3polymorphism and schizophrenia in a sample of 99 schizophrenic patients and 116 controls. We found a significant difference in the genotype distribution and in particular considering the ala allele as dominant (P = 0.0105, odds ratio (OR) 2.031, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.177-3.504). This finding suggests a potential role for GRIK3 for susceptibility to schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
3Neuropsychobiology 2005 -1 51: 211-3
PMID15897672
TitleNo association between the ionotropic glutamate receptor kainate 3 gene ser310ala polymorphism and schizophrenia.
AbstractThe etiology of schizophrenia has been suggested to be associated with the dysfunction of the glutamatergic system. A positive association between the ionotropic glutamate receptor kainate 3 gene (GRIK3) T928G polymorphism and schizophrenia has been reported, which suggests that people bearing G allele are at a higher risk for schizophrenia. Therefore, we attempted to replicate this study in Chinese with larger sample size. One hundred and sixty schizophrenic patients and 160 healthy controls participated in the current study. Genotype and allele distributions of GRIK3 T928G polymorphism in schizophrenics were similar to those of controls (p = 0.74 and p = 0.59, respectively). Our study indicated that there was no association between this polymorphism and schizophrenia, at least in Chinese.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
4Neuropsychobiology 2005 -1 51: 211-3
PMID15897672
TitleNo association between the ionotropic glutamate receptor kainate 3 gene ser310ala polymorphism and schizophrenia.
AbstractThe etiology of schizophrenia has been suggested to be associated with the dysfunction of the glutamatergic system. A positive association between the ionotropic glutamate receptor kainate 3 gene (GRIK3) T928G polymorphism and schizophrenia has been reported, which suggests that people bearing G allele are at a higher risk for schizophrenia. Therefore, we attempted to replicate this study in Chinese with larger sample size. One hundred and sixty schizophrenic patients and 160 healthy controls participated in the current study. Genotype and allele distributions of GRIK3 T928G polymorphism in schizophrenics were similar to those of controls (p = 0.74 and p = 0.59, respectively). Our study indicated that there was no association between this polymorphism and schizophrenia, at least in Chinese.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
5Neuropsychobiology 2005 -1 51: 211-3
PMID15897672
TitleNo association between the ionotropic glutamate receptor kainate 3 gene ser310ala polymorphism and schizophrenia.
AbstractThe etiology of schizophrenia has been suggested to be associated with the dysfunction of the glutamatergic system. A positive association between the ionotropic glutamate receptor kainate 3 gene (GRIK3) T928G polymorphism and schizophrenia has been reported, which suggests that people bearing G allele are at a higher risk for schizophrenia. Therefore, we attempted to replicate this study in Chinese with larger sample size. One hundred and sixty schizophrenic patients and 160 healthy controls participated in the current study. Genotype and allele distributions of GRIK3 T928G polymorphism in schizophrenics were similar to those of controls (p = 0.74 and p = 0.59, respectively). Our study indicated that there was no association between this polymorphism and schizophrenia, at least in Chinese.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
6Psychiatry Res 2006 Jan 141: 39-51
PMID16325263
TitleAssociation study of polymorphisms in the GluR7, KA1 and KA2 kainate receptor genes (GRIK3, GRIK4, GRIK5) with schizophrenia.
AbstractOn the basis of the glutamatergic dysfunction hypothesis of schizophrenia, we have been conducting a systematic study of the association of glutamate receptor genes with schizophrenia. Here we report association studies of schizophrenia with polymorphisms in three kainate receptor genes: GRIK3, GRIK4 and GRIK5. We selected 16, 24 and 5 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) distributed in the entire gene regions of GRIK3 (>240 kb), GRIK4 (>430 kb) and GRIK5 (>90 kb), respectively. We tested associations of the polymorphisms with schizophrenia using 100 Japanese case-control pairs (the Kyushu set). We observed no significant "single marker" associations with the disease in any of the 45 SNPs tested except for one (rs3767092) in GRIK3 showing a nominal level of significance. The significant association, however, disappeared after the application of the Bonferroni correction. We also observed significant haplotype associations in seven SNP pairs in GRIK3 and in four SNP pairs in GRIK4. None, however, remained significant after Bonferroni correction. We also failed to replicate the nominally significant haplotype associations in a second sample set, the Aichi set (106 cases and 100 controls). We conclude that SNPs in the gene regions of GRIK3, GRIK4 or GRIK5 do not play a major role in schizophrenia pathogenesis in the Japanese population.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
7Schizophr. Res. 2007 Nov 96: 93-9
PMID17826036
TitleGene copy number variation in schizophrenia.
AbstractThe possibility that gene copy number variations play a role in the development of complex disorders is a topic of considerable interest. Recent reports have highlighted the large number of such variations that exist and that their occurrence varies considerably between populations. A recent report has suggested that copy number variations in four genes (GRIK3, EFNA5, AKAP5 and CACNG2) may be associated with schizophrenia. One problem with this area of study is the validation of high throughput methods such as comparative genomic hybridisation, as the latter inevitably generates false positives. We have used two contrasting methodologies to determine the validity of the findings reported above which if true would have major implications for the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Samples from a UK population were tested using a method of allele quantification by DNA pooling and samples from Belgium and northern Sweden were tested using Multiplex Amplicon Quantification (MAQ). Both methods were used to test DNA samples used in the original investigation. No copy number variations were found for any of the genes in any samples. Our data suggests that more reliable methods need to be used to validate the existence of CNVs before full scale association studies are carried out.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
8World J. Biol. Psychiatry 2009 -1 10: 330-3
PMID19921975
TitleAssociation between the ionotropic glutamate receptor kainate3 (GRIK3) Ser310Ala polymorphism and schizophrenia in the Indian population.
AbstractVarious studies have been done to check the status of glutamate receptor gene in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. The T928G (Ser310Ala) polymorphism of ionotropic glutamate receptor kainate 3 gene (GRIK3) and its positive association with schizophrenia was reported in Caucasians, whereas no association of this polymorphism with schizophrenia was shown in two other populations, Chinese and Japanese. However, no literature is available regarding the prevalence of this polymorphism and its association with schizophrenia in the Indian population. As genetic susceptibility profiles in India are often different from those of white Caucasians or Orientals, we investigated the status of Ser310Ala polymorphism of GRIK3 in 100 schizophrenic patients and 100 healthy controls in the Indian population by the PCR-RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) method. A statistically significant difference in the genotype and allelic distributions (P<0.000001 and P=0.01, respectively) of Ser310Ala polymorphism was found in schizophrenics than in control, considering Ala-allele as being associated with the disease (OR=1.7, 95% CI=1.137-2.540). Our study suggests a potential role for GRIK3 for susceptibility to schizophrenia in Indian population.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
9World J. Biol. Psychiatry 2009 -1 10: 330-3
PMID19921975
TitleAssociation between the ionotropic glutamate receptor kainate3 (GRIK3) Ser310Ala polymorphism and schizophrenia in the Indian population.
AbstractVarious studies have been done to check the status of glutamate receptor gene in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. The T928G (Ser310Ala) polymorphism of ionotropic glutamate receptor kainate 3 gene (GRIK3) and its positive association with schizophrenia was reported in Caucasians, whereas no association of this polymorphism with schizophrenia was shown in two other populations, Chinese and Japanese. However, no literature is available regarding the prevalence of this polymorphism and its association with schizophrenia in the Indian population. As genetic susceptibility profiles in India are often different from those of white Caucasians or Orientals, we investigated the status of Ser310Ala polymorphism of GRIK3 in 100 schizophrenic patients and 100 healthy controls in the Indian population by the PCR-RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) method. A statistically significant difference in the genotype and allelic distributions (P<0.000001 and P=0.01, respectively) of Ser310Ala polymorphism was found in schizophrenics than in control, considering Ala-allele as being associated with the disease (OR=1.7, 95% CI=1.137-2.540). Our study suggests a potential role for GRIK3 for susceptibility to schizophrenia in Indian population.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
10World J. Biol. Psychiatry 2009 -1 10: 330-3
PMID19921975
TitleAssociation between the ionotropic glutamate receptor kainate3 (GRIK3) Ser310Ala polymorphism and schizophrenia in the Indian population.
AbstractVarious studies have been done to check the status of glutamate receptor gene in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. The T928G (Ser310Ala) polymorphism of ionotropic glutamate receptor kainate 3 gene (GRIK3) and its positive association with schizophrenia was reported in Caucasians, whereas no association of this polymorphism with schizophrenia was shown in two other populations, Chinese and Japanese. However, no literature is available regarding the prevalence of this polymorphism and its association with schizophrenia in the Indian population. As genetic susceptibility profiles in India are often different from those of white Caucasians or Orientals, we investigated the status of Ser310Ala polymorphism of GRIK3 in 100 schizophrenic patients and 100 healthy controls in the Indian population by the PCR-RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) method. A statistically significant difference in the genotype and allelic distributions (P<0.000001 and P=0.01, respectively) of Ser310Ala polymorphism was found in schizophrenics than in control, considering Ala-allele as being associated with the disease (OR=1.7, 95% CI=1.137-2.540). Our study suggests a potential role for GRIK3 for susceptibility to schizophrenia in Indian population.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
11Psychiatr. Genet. 2009 Feb 19: 6-13
PMID19125103
TitleAssociation analysis of the glutamic acid decarboxylase 2 and the glutamine synthetase genes (GAD2, GLUL) with schizophrenia.
AbstractAs dysfunction of glutamatergic neurotransmission is one of the plausible hypotheses for the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, genes involved in the glutamate neurotransmitter system are candidates for schizophrenia susceptibility. The aim of this study is to clarify the contribution of two genes encoding glutamate metabolic enzymes: the glutamic acid decarboxylase 2 gene (GAD2) and the glutamine synthetase gene (GLUL), in schizophrenia.
We genotyped 300 Japanese schizophrenia patients and 300 healthy controls for 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in GAD2 (approximately 91 kb in size) and six SNPs in GLUL (approximately 14 kb in size). We examined 'single-point' association as well as pairwise haplotype association for all SNPs with schizophrenia.
We observed no significant 'single-point' associations with the disease in any of the 20 SNPs after correction for multiple testing using False Discovery Rate. We also observed no significant haplotype associations with False Discovery Rate. Furthermore, we analyzed gene-gene interactions, including six glutamate receptor genes we have reported previously in the association studies of GRIA4, GRIN2D, GRIK3, GRIK4, GRIK5, and GRM3, using the multifactor dimensionality reduction method. The best interaction model, however, did not show the statistical significance.
These results suggest that GAD2 and GLUL do not play a major role in schizophrenia pathogenesis and there is no gene-gene interaction between the eight genes in the Japanese population.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
12Schizophr. Res. 2009 Feb 107: 242-8
PMID19022628
TitleA possible association between schizophrenia and GRIK3 polymorphisms in a multicenter sample of Scandinavian origin (SCOPE).
AbstractThere is considerable evidence of altered glutamatergic signalling in schizophrenia and a polymorphic variant of the GRIK3 glutamate receptor gene on 1p34-33 has previously been associated to this psychotic disorder. We therefore conducted a systematic association study with 30 HapMap-selected tagging SNPs across GRIK3 in three independent samples of Scandinavian origin from the Scandinavian Collaboration of Psychiatric Etiology (SCOPE), including a total of 839 cases with schizophrenia spectrum and 1473 healthy controls. Four markers (rs6671364, rs17461259, rs472188, and rs535620) attained nominally significant P-values in both the genotypic (0.002, 0.02, 0.03, and 0.05, respectively) and allelic (0.001, 0.006, 0.03, and 0.02, respectively) association tests for the combined sample, and 2 additional markers (rs481047and rs1160751) displayed significance for the genotype (P-values: 0.03 and 0.04). Several haplotypes, that all included at least one of the four SNPs implicated by the single marker analysis, remained significant after adjustment for multiple testing using permutations with 10,000 shuffles. In addition we observed an association for two of the four significant GRIK3 markers (rs472188 and rs535620) to scores for negative symptoms on the PANSS scale. The present results, although not robust, support the importance of more extensive investigations of GRIK3, given its potential role in mediating risk for schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
13Psychiatry Res 2010 Jan 175: 43-6
PMID19995671
TitleAre GRIK3 (T928G) gene variants in schizophrenia patients different from those in their first-degree relatives?
AbstractWe examined whether the GRIK3 (T928G) polymorphic variants in patients with schizophrenia are different from those of their first-degree relatives and healthy controls. The study population was composed of 256 patients with schizophrenia, 305 first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients and 242 healthy control subjects. The GRIK3 (T928G) polymorphism was determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism. The frequency of the TT genotype was predominant, whereas the GG genotype was rare among all groups. The frequencies of GRIK3 (T928G) genotype distributions in the patients with schizophrenia were similar to those of their relatives. The frequency of the GG genotype was significantly higher in patients than in healthy controls. Similarly, GG genotype distribution in relatives was elevated compared with that in controls, but this value did not reach statistical significance. On the other hand, the subgroups of schizophrenia patients did not show a significant association with the GRIK3 (T928G) gene. It appears that the patients share the same (GRIK3) T928G gene variants with their relatives. One interpretation of our findings is that the relatives are at risk for the development of schizophrenia in the future.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
14Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2010 May 34: 958-77
PMID20060416
TitleGenetic association studies of glutamate, GABA and related genes in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: a decade of advance.
Abstractschizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) are debilitating neurobehavioural disorders likely influenced by genetic and non-genetic factors and which can be seen as complex disorders of synaptic neurotransmission. The glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission systems have been implicated in both diseases and we have reviewed extensive literature over a decade for evidence to support the association of glutamate and GABA genes in SZ and BD. Candidate-gene based population and family association studies have implicated some ionotrophic glutamate receptor genes (GRIN1, GRIN2A, GRIN2B and GRIK3), metabotropic glutamate receptor genes (such as GRM3), the G72/G30 locus and GABAergic genes (e.g. GAD1 and GABRB2) in both illnesses to varying degrees, but further replication studies are needed to validate these results. There is at present no consensus on specific single nucleotide polymorphisms or haplotypes associated with the particular candidate gene loci in these illnesses. The genetic architecture of glutamate systems in bipolar disorder need to be better studied in view of recent data suggesting an overlap in the genetic aetiology of SZ and BD. There is a pressing need to integrate research platforms in genomics, epistatic models, proteomics, metabolomics, neuroimaging technology and translational studies in order to allow a more integrated understanding of glutamate and GABAergic signalling processes and aberrations in SZ and BD as well as their relationships with clinical presentations and treatment progress over time.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
15Pharmacogenet. Genomics 2011 Apr 21: 206-16
PMID20859245
TitleGlutamatergic gene variants impact the clinical profile of efficacy and side effects of haloperidol.
AbstractThe glutamatergic system may be relevant to the pathophysiology of psychosis and to the effects of antipsychotic treatments.
We investigated a set of 62 SNPs located in genes coding for subunits of glutamatergic receptors (GAD1, GRIA1, GRIA3, GRIA4, GRID2, GRIK1, GRIK2, GRIK3, GRIK4, GRIN2B, GRM1 and GRM4), and the transporter of glycine (SLC6A5), as modulators of the effects of haloperidol.
We studied a sample of 101 acutely ill psychotic patients. We then validated our result in two independent samples from Slovenia (n=71 and n=118) of schizophrenic patients treated with antipsychotics. We both investigated the antipsychotic effect (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale) and motor side effect (Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale) at baseline and days 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28. SLC6A5 variant (rs2298826) was found to be associated with a rapid rise of motor side effects at the beginning of the treatment (repeated measures of analysis of variance, P=0.0002), followed by a subsequent adaptation, probably dependent on haloperidol doses down titration. A specific effect was noted for dyskinetic symptoms. Haplotype analysis strengthened the relevance of SLC6A5: the C-A-C haplotype (rs1443548, rs883377, rs1945771) was found to be associated with higher Extrapyramidal symptom rating scale scores (overall P=0.01, haplotype P=0.000001). We successfully replicated this finding in the two independent samples from Slovenia.
This result further stresses the relevance of the glutamatergic system in modulating the effects of haloperidol treatment, especially with regards to motor side effects.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
16Biomed Rep 2014 Sep 2: 729-736
PMID25054019
TitleMeta-analyses of 10 polymorphisms associated with the risk of schizophrenia.
Abstractschizophrenia (SCZ) is a severe complex psychiatric disorder that generates problems for the associated family and society and causes disability with regards to work for patients. The aim of the present study was to assess the contribution of 10 genetic polymorphisms to SCZ susceptibility. Meta-analyses were conducted using the data without a limitation for time or language. A total of 27 studies with 7 genes and 10 polymorphisms were selected for the meta-analyses. Two polymorphisms were found to be significantly associated with SCZ. SNAP25 rs3746544 was shown to increase the SCZ risk by 18% [P=0.01; odds ratio (OR), 1.18; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.05-1.34] and GRIK3 rs6691840 was found to increase the risk by 30% (P=0.008; OR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.07-1.58). Significant results were found under the dominant (P=0.001; OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.13-1.65) and additive (P=0.02; OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.06-1.98) model for the SNAP25 rs3746544 polymorphism and under the additive model for the GRIK3 rs6691840 polymorphism (P=0.03; OR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.04-2.85). There were no significant results observed for the other eight polymorphisms, which were CCKAR rs1800857, CHRNA7 rs904952, CHRNA7 rs6494223, CHRNA7 rs2337506, DBH Ins>Del, FEZ1 rs559668, FEZ1 rs597570 and GCLM rs2301022. In conclusion, the present meta-analyses indicated that the SNAP25 rs3746544 and GRIK3 rs6691840 polymorphisms were risk factors of SCZ, which may provide valuable information for the clinical diagnosis of SCZ.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
17Psychiatry Res 2014 Oct 219: 261-7
PMID24930580
TitlePharmacogenetics of adverse events in schizophrenia treatment: comparison study of ziprasidone, olanzapine and perazine.
AbstractThe primary aim of the present study was to assess the possible associations between dopaminergic, serotonergic, and glutamatergic system-related genes and adverse events after antipsychotic treatment in paranoid schizophrenia patients. The second aim of the study was to compare the intensity of these symptoms between atypical (ziprasidone and olanzapine) and typical (perazine) antipsychotic drugs. One-hundred and ninety-one Polish patients suffering from paranoid schizophrenia were genotyped for polymorphisms of DRD2, DAT1, COMT, MAOA, SERT, 5HT2A, and GRIK3. The patients were randomized to treatment with perazine, olanzapine or ziprasidone monotherapy for 3 months. The intensity of side effects (changes in body weights and extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS)) was measured at baseline and after 12 weeks of antipsychotic treatment. After 3 months of therapy, the weight increase was the greatest in the group treated with olanzapine and the least in the group treated with ziprasidone. None of the examined gene polymorphisms was associated with the body weight changes. Perazine treatment was associated with the significantly highest intensity of EPS. None of the examined polymorphisms was associated with the changes in extrapyramidal adverse events after antipsychotic treatment. The selected polymorphisms are not primarily involved in changes in body weights and EPS related to antipsychotic treatment in paranoid schizophrenia patients.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
18Am. J. Med. Genet. A 2014 Feb 164A: 456-60
PMID24449200
Title1p34.3 deletion involving GRIK3: Further clinical implication of GRIK family glutamate receptors in the pathogenesis of developmental delay.
AbstractA growing body of evidence suggests an association between microdeletion/microduplication and schizophrenia/intellectual disability. Abnormal neurogenesis and neurotransmission have been implicated in the pathogenesis of these neuropsychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders. The kainate/AMPA-type ionotropic glutamate receptor (GRIK?=?glutamate receptor, ionotropic, kainate) plays a critical role in synaptic potentiation, which is an essential process for learning and memory. Among the five known GRIK family members, haploinsufficiency of GRIK1, GRIK2, and GRIK4 are known to cause developmental delay, whereas the roles of GRIK3 and GRIK5 remain unknown. Herein, we report on a girl who presented with a severe developmental delay predominantly affecting her language and fine motor skills. She had a 2.6-Mb microdeletion in 1p34.3 involving GRIK3, which encodes a principal subunit of the kainate-type ionotropic glutamate receptor. Given its strong expression pattern in the central nervous system and the biological function of GRIK3 in presynaptic neurotransmission, the haploinsufficiency of GRIK3 is likely to be responsible for the severe developmental delay in the proposita. A review of genetic alterations and the phenotypic effects of all the GRIK family members support this hypothesis. The current observation of a microdeletion involving GRIK3, a kainate-type ionotropic glutamate receptor subunit, and the neurodevelopmental manifestation in the absence of major dysmorphism provides further clinical implication of the possible role of GRIK family glutamate receptors in the pathogenesis of developmental delay.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
19Schizophr. Res. 2015 Sep 167: 73-83
PMID25749020
TitleBuilding models for postmortem abnormalities in hippocampus of schizophrenics.
AbstractPostmortem studies have suggested that there is abnormal GABAergic activity in the hippocampus in schizophrenia (SZ). In micro-dissected human hippocampal slices, a loss of interneurons and a compensatory upregulation of GABAA receptor binding activity on interneurons, but not PNs, has suggested that disinhibitory GABA-to-GABA connections are abnormal in stratum oriens (SO) of CA3/2, but not CA1, in schizophrenia. Abnormal expression changes in the expression of kainate receptor (KAR) subunits 5, 6 and 7, as well as an inwardly-rectifying hyperpolarization-activated cationic channel (Ih3; HCN3) may play important roles in regulating GABA cell activity at the SO CA3/2 locus. The exclusive neurons at this site are GABAergic interneurons; these cells also receive direct projections from the basolateral amygdala (BLA). When the BLA is stimulated by stereotaxic infusion of picrotoxin in rats, KARs influence axodendritic and presynaptic inhibitory mechanisms that regulate both inhibitory and disinhibitory interneurons in the SO-CA3/2 locus. The rat model described here was specifically developed to extend our understanding of these and other postmortem findings and has suggested that GABAergic abnormalities and possible disturbances in oscillatory rhythms may be related to a dysfunction of disinhibitory interneurons at the SO-CA3/2 site of schizophrenics.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
20Schizophr. Res. 2015 Sep 167: 73-83
PMID25749020
TitleBuilding models for postmortem abnormalities in hippocampus of schizophrenics.
AbstractPostmortem studies have suggested that there is abnormal GABAergic activity in the hippocampus in schizophrenia (SZ). In micro-dissected human hippocampal slices, a loss of interneurons and a compensatory upregulation of GABAA receptor binding activity on interneurons, but not PNs, has suggested that disinhibitory GABA-to-GABA connections are abnormal in stratum oriens (SO) of CA3/2, but not CA1, in schizophrenia. Abnormal expression changes in the expression of kainate receptor (KAR) subunits 5, 6 and 7, as well as an inwardly-rectifying hyperpolarization-activated cationic channel (Ih3; HCN3) may play important roles in regulating GABA cell activity at the SO CA3/2 locus. The exclusive neurons at this site are GABAergic interneurons; these cells also receive direct projections from the basolateral amygdala (BLA). When the BLA is stimulated by stereotaxic infusion of picrotoxin in rats, KARs influence axodendritic and presynaptic inhibitory mechanisms that regulate both inhibitory and disinhibitory interneurons in the SO-CA3/2 locus. The rat model described here was specifically developed to extend our understanding of these and other postmortem findings and has suggested that GABAergic abnormalities and possible disturbances in oscillatory rhythms may be related to a dysfunction of disinhibitory interneurons at the SO-CA3/2 site of schizophrenics.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
21Mol. Psychiatry 2016 Jun 21: 749-57
PMID27067015
TitleGenome-wide analysis of over 106?000 individuals identifies 9 neuroticism-associated loci.
AbstractNeuroticism is a personality trait of fundamental importance for psychological well-being and public health. It is strongly associated with major depressive disorder (MDD) and several other psychiatric conditions. Although neuroticism is heritable, attempts to identify the alleles involved in previous studies have been limited by relatively small sample sizes. Here we report a combined meta-analysis of genome-wide association study (GWAS) of neuroticism that includes 91?370 participants from the UK Biobank cohort, 6659 participants from the Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study (GS:SFHS) and 8687 participants from a QIMR (Queensland Institute of Medical Research) Berghofer Medical Research Institute (QIMR) cohort. All participants were assessed using the same neuroticism instrument, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised (EPQ-R-S) Short Form's Neuroticism scale. We found a single-nucleotide polymorphism-based heritability estimate for neuroticism of ?15% (s.e.=0.7%). Meta-analysis identified nine novel loci associated with neuroticism. The strongest evidence for association was at a locus on chromosome 8 (P=1.5 10(-15)) spanning 4?Mb and containing at least 36 genes. Other associated loci included interesting candidate genes on chromosome 1 (GRIK3 (glutamate receptor ionotropic kainate 3)), chromosome 4 (KLHL2 (Kelch-like protein 2)), chromosome 17 (CRHR1 (corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1) and MAPT (microtubule-associated protein Tau)) and on chromosome 18 (CELF4 (CUGBP elav-like family member 4)). We found no evidence for genetic differences in the common allelic architecture of neuroticism by sex. By comparing our findings with those of the Psychiatric Genetics Consortia, we identified a strong genetic correlation between neuroticism and MDD and a less strong but significant genetic correlation with schizophrenia, although not with bipolar disorder. Polygenic risk scores derived from the primary UK Biobank sample captured ?1% of the variance in neuroticism in the GS:SFHS and QIMR samples, although most of the genome-wide significant alleles identified within a UK Biobank-only GWAS of neuroticism were not independently replicated within these cohorts. The identification of nine novel neuroticism-associated loci will drive forward future work on the neurobiology of neuroticism and related phenotypes.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
22Schizophr. Res. 2016 Jan 170: 30-40
PMID26597662
TitleGenetic assessment of additional endophenotypes from the Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia Family Study.
AbstractThe Consortium on the Genetics of schizophrenia Family Study (COGS-1) has previously reported our efforts to characterize the genetic architecture of 12 primary endophenotypes for schizophrenia. We now report the characterization of 13 additional measures derived from the same endophenotype test paradigms in the COGS-1 families. Nine of the measures were found to discriminate between schizophrenia patients and controls, were significantly heritable (31 to 62%), and were sufficiently independent of previously assessed endophenotypes, demonstrating utility as additional endophenotypes. Genotyping via a custom array of 1536 SNPs from 94 candidate genes identified associations for CTNNA2, ERBB4, GRID1, GRID2, GRIK3, GRIK4, GRIN2B, NOS1AP, NRG1, and RELN across multiple endophenotypes. An experiment-wide p value of 0.003 suggested that the associations across all SNPs and endophenotypes collectively exceeded chance. Linkage analyses performed using a genome-wide SNP array further identified significant or suggestive linkage for six of the candidate endophenotypes, with several genes of interest located beneath the linkage peaks (e.g., CSMD1, DISC1, DLGAP2, GRIK2, GRIN3A, and SLC6A3). While the partial convergence of the association and linkage likely reflects differences in density of gene coverage provided by the distinct genotyping platforms, it is also likely an indication of the differential contribution of rare and common variants for some genes and methodological differences in detection ability. Still, many of the genes implicated by COGS through endophenotypes have been identified by independent studies of common, rare, and de novo variation in schizophrenia, all converging on a functional genetic network related to glutamatergic neurotransmission that warrants further investigation.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics