1Schizophr. Res. 2001 Jan 47: 49-58
TitleLack of association between the T-->C 267 serotonin 5-HT6 receptor gene (HTR6) polymorphism and prediction of response to clozapine in schizophrenia.
AbstractThe affinity of clozapine for 5-HT2A, 5-HT2C, 5-HT6, 5-HT7, and 5-HT1A receptors has been suggested to contribute to various aspects of its complex clinical actions. This study examined the hypothesis that genetic variation in 5-HT1A, 5-HT6, and 5-HT7 receptor genes is involved in the variability observed in response to clozapine. We employed a pharmacogenetic approach in a group (n=185) of schizophrenia patients that have been clinically well characterized for clozapine response. Polymorphisms in the 5-HT6 (HTR6), 5-HT1A (HTR1A) and 5-HT7 (HTR7) receptor genes were genotyped. No evidence for either an allelic or genotypic association of the T-->C 267 HTR6 polymorphism with response to clozapine was found in our sample (allele: chi(2)=0.06, 1 df, P=0.80; genotype: chi(2)=1.21, 2 df, P=0.55). The pro16leu HTR1A polymorphism was not observed in our sample; all individuals genotyped were pro/pro 16 homozygotes. With respect to the pro279leu HTR7 polymorphism, one Caucasian male responder to clozapine was observed to be heterozygous (pro/leu 279 genotype). This individual was clinically similar to the other clozapine responders. Overall, our findings do not support a role for the T-->C 267 polymorphism of the 5-HT6 receptor gene in response to clozapine, although replication is required to confirm this finding.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia
2Psychiatry Res 2002 Jun 110: 97-102
TitleGenetic association analysis of 5-HT(6) receptor gene polymorphism (267C/T) with tardive dyskinesia.
AbstractPossible involvement of serotonergic (5-hydroxytryptamine: 5-HT) receptors in the pathophysiology of tardive dyskinesia (TD) has been suggested. In the present study, the relationship between the 5-HT(6) receptor gene (HTR6) polymorphisms and TD was studied in 173 Japanese patients with schizophrenia. The 267C/T allele of HTR6 was genotyped using PCR amplification followed by endonuclease digestion. The patients with the three 267C/T genotypes showed no significant difference in gender, age, duration of illness, or current antipsychotic dose. In addition, there were no significant differences in total AIMS scores among patients with the three genotypes. Moreover, no significant differences in genotypes and allele frequencies were observed between subjects with and without TD. These results suggest that the 267C/T polymorphism of HTR6 does not confer increased susceptibility to TD.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia
3Pharmacogenomics 2005 Mar 6: 139-49
TitlePharmacogenetic studies of response to risperidone and other newer atypical antipsychotics.
AbstractRisperidone and other newer atypical antipsychotics are becoming the mainstay for schizophrenia treatment. Recent studies suggest that the 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2A (5-HT2A) gene (HTR2A) T102C and G-1438A polymorphisms may influence treatment response of risperidone or olanzapine for schizophrenia's negative symptoms (e.g., blunted affect and social withdrawal). In addition, the HTR6 T267C polymorphism has been linked to risperidone response for positive symptoms (delusions and hallucinations). The dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) Ser311Cys polymorphism may also play a role in determining risperidone efficacy for positive, negative and cognitive symptoms, the DRD2 Ins-A2/Del-A1 diplotype may predict better risperidone response, and the DRD3 Ser311Cys variant may affect general treatment response of several atypical agents. Although investigators have started to explore genetic effects on cognitions of schizophrenia patients receiving antipsychotics, future larger sized pharmacogenetic studies on both psychotic symptoms and cognitive functions are warranted.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia
4Pharmacogenomics 2008 Oct 9: 1437-43
TitleVariants of dopamine and serotonin candidate genes as predictors of response to risperidone treatment in first-episode schizophrenia.
AbstractAbnormalities in dopaminergic and serotonergic transmission systems are thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of antipsychotics. We conducted a pharmacogenetic study to evaluate whether variants in dopamine-related genes (DRD1-DRD5, AKT1 and GSK3beta) and serotonin receptor genes (HTR1A, HTR1B, HTR1D, HTR2A, HTR2C, HTR6 and HTR7) can be used to predict the efficacy of risperidone treatment for schizophrenia.
A total of 120 first-episode neuroleptic-naive schizophrenia patients were treated with risperidone monotherapy for 8 weeks and clinical symptoms were evaluated by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale.
Among the 30 variants that we examined, two SNPs in DRD2 (-241A>G [rs1799978] and TaqIA [rs1800497]) and two SNPs in AKT1 (AKT1-SNP1 [rs3803300] and AKT1-SNP5 [rs2494732]) were significant predictors of treatment response to risperidone.
These data suggest that the SNPs in DRD2 and AKT1 may influence the treatment response to risperidone in schizophrenia patients.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia
5Drug Alcohol Depend 2011 Jan 113: 1-7
TitleSerotonin 6 receptor gene is associated with methamphetamine-induced psychosis in a Japanese population.
AbstractAltered serotonergic neural transmission is hypothesized to be a susceptibility factor for psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia. The serotonin 6 (5-HT6) receptor is therapeutically targeted by several second generation antipsychotics, such as clozapine and olanzapine, and d-amphetamine-induced hyperactivity in rats is corrected with the use of a selective 5-HT6 receptor antagonist. In addition, the disrupted prepulse inhibition induced by d-amphetamine or phencyclidine was restored by 5-HT6 receptor antagonist in an animal study using rats. These animal models were considered to reflect the positive symptoms of schizophrenia, and the above evidence suggests that altered 5-HT6 receptors are involved in the pathophysiology of psychotic disorders. The symptoms of methamphetamine (METH)-induced psychosis are similar to those of paranoid type schizophrenia. Therefore, we conducted an analysis of the association of the 5-HT6 gene (HTR6) with METH-induced psychosis.
Using five tagging SNPs (rs6693503, rs1805054, rs4912138, rs3790757 and rs9659997), we conducted a genetic association analysis of case-control samples (197 METH-induced psychosis patients and 337 controls) in the Japanese population. The age and sex of the control subjects did not differ from those of the methamphetamine dependence patients.
rs6693503 was associated with METH-induced psychosis patients in the allele/genotype-wise analysis. Moreover, this association remained significant after Bonferroni correction. In the haplotype-wise analysis, we detected an association between two markers (rs6693503 and rs1805054) and three markers (rs6693503, rs1805054 and rs4912138) in HTR6 and METH-induced psychosis patients, respectively.
HTR6 may play an important role in the pathophysiology of METH-induced psychosis in the Japanese population.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia
6Hum Psychopharmacol 2012 Jan 27: 63-9
TitleSerotonin 6 receptor gene and schizophrenia: case-control study and meta-analysis.
AbstractSeveral lines of evidence suggest that genetic alterations in serotonin 6 (5-HT6) receptors might be associated with the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. We sought to assess the relationship between genotype alterations in 5-HT6 receptors and schizophrenia both in a case-control study and a meta-analysis.
We conducted an association study of the 5-HT6 receptor gene (HTR6) in Japanese patients with schizophrenia (n = 836) and controls (n = 857). Five tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including rs1805054 (C267T) in HTR6, were selected. In addition, we carried out a meta-analysis between rs1805054, which has been examined in other studies, and schizophrenia, searching PubMed through August 2011.
There were no significant associations between the tagging SNPs in HTR6 and schizophrenia in any of the genotype models in both the simple and the multiple logistic regression analyses correcting for potential confounds. Similarly, no significant association was found in the all-marker haplotype multiple logistic regression analysis (p = 0.491). Moreover, in the meta-analysis of rs1805054, drawing data from five studies, including our own (schizophrenia patients = 1366, controls = 1376), rs1805054 was also not associated with schizophrenia.
Our results indicate that tagging SNPs in HTR6 may not play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia