1Brain Struct Funct 2008 Sep 213: 255-71
TitleAge-related changes in the expression of schizophrenia susceptibility genes in the human prefrontal cortex.
AbstractThe molecular basis of complex neuropsychiatric disorders most likely involves many genes. In recent years, specific genetic variations influencing risk for schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders have been reported. We have used custom DNA microarrays and qPCR to investigate the expression of putative schizophrenia susceptibility genes and related genes of interest in the normal human brain. Expression of 31 genes was measured in Brodmann's area 10 (BA10) in the prefrontal cortex of 72 postmortem brain samples spanning half a century of human aging (18-67 years), each without history of neuropsychiatric illness, neurological disease, or drug abuse. Examination of expression across age allowed the identification of genes whose expression patterns correlate with age, as well as genes that share common expression patterns and that possibly participate in common cellular mechanisms related to the emergence of schizophrenia in early adult life. The expression of GRM3 and RGS4 decreased across the entire age range surveyed, while that of PRODH and DARPP-32 was shown to increase with age. NRG1, ERBB3, and NGFR show expression changes during the years of greatest risk for the development of schizophrenia. Expression of FEZ1, GAD1, and RGS4 showed especially high correlation with one another, in addition to the strongest mean levels of absolute correlation with all other genes studied here. All microarray data are available at NCBI's Gene Expression Omnibus: GEO Series accession number GSE11546 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo) [corrected]
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia
2BBA Clin 2014 Jun 1: 24-9
TitleNerve growth factor and its receptor in schizophrenia.
AbstractPromising studies suggest that defects in synaptic plasticity detected in schizophrenia may be linked to neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative abnormalities and contribute to disease-associated cognitive impairment. We aimed to clarify the role of the synaptic plasticity regulatory proteins, nerve growth factor (NGF) and its receptor (NGFR) in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia by comparative analysis of their blood levels and functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes encoding these proteins (NGF and NGFR) in schizophrenia-affected and healthy subjects. Relationships between the selected SNPs' genotypes and NGF and NGFR plasma levels were also assessed. Our results demonstrated a positive association between schizophrenia and the NGF rs6330 as well as the NGFR rs11466155 and rs2072446 SNPs. Also, a negative association between this disorder and NGF rs4839435 as well as NGFR rs734194 was found. In both, haloperidol-treated and antipsychotic-free patients decreased blood levels of the NGF and NGFR were found, and a positive interrelation between rs6330 and rs2072446 carriage and decreased NGF and NGFR levels, respectively, was revealed. In conclusion, our results demonstrate association of schizophrenia with the rs6330, rs4839435 and rs734194, rs11466155, rs2072446 as well as with the decreased blood levels of corresponding proteins. Our findings indicate the implication of alterations in NGFR and NGFR genes in schizophrenia, particularly, in defects of synaptic plasticity. Furthermore, the data obtained suggests that at least in Armenian population the NGF rs6330*T and NGFR rs11466155*T, rs2072446*T alleles might be nominated as risk factors, whereas the NGF rs4839435*A and NGFR rs734194*G alleles might be protective against developing schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia
3PLoS ONE 2014 -1 9: e94968
TitleHeat shock alters the expression of schizophrenia and autism candidate genes in an induced pluripotent stem cell model of the human telencephalon.
Abstractschizophrenia (SZ) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are highly heritable neuropsychiatric disorders, although environmental factors, such as maternal immune activation (MIA), play a role as well. Cytokines mediate the effects of MIA on neurogenesis and behavior in animal models. However, MIA stimulators can also induce a febrile reaction, which could have independent effects on neurogenesis through heat shock (HS)-regulated cellular stress pathways. However, this has not been well-studied. To help understand the role of fever in MIA, we used a recently described model of human brain development in which induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) differentiate into 3-dimensional neuronal aggregates that resemble a first trimester telencephalon. RNA-seq was carried out on aggregates that were heat shocked at 39C for 24 hours, along with their control partners maintained at 37C. 186 genes showed significant differences in expression following HS (p<0.05), including known HS-inducible genes, as expected, as well as those coding for NGFR and a number of SZ and ASD candidates, including SMARCA2, DPP10, ARNT2, AHI1 and ZNF804A. The degree to which the expression of these genes decrease or increase during HS is similar to that found in copy loss and copy gain copy number variants (CNVs), although the effects of HS are likely to be transient. The dramatic effect on the expression of some SZ and ASD genes places HS, and perhaps other cellular stressors, into a common conceptual framework with disease-causing genetic variants. The findings also suggest that some candidate genes that are assumed to have a relatively limited impact on SZ and ASD pathogenesis based on a small number of positive genetic findings, such as SMARCA2 and ARNT2, may in fact have a much more substantial role in these disorders - as targets of common environmental stressors.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia