1Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry 2000 Feb 24: 241-9
PMID10800747
TitleMorphological changes in neuropeptide Y-positive fiber in the hippocampal formation of schizophrenics.
Abstract1. The authors observed NPY-positive fibers in the CA4 area of the hippocampus from schizophrenics and normal controls using immunohistochemical techniques. 2. Positive fibers followed a straight course and were oriented to exit the CA4 region of hippocampus in normal controls. 3. Many NPY-positive fibers in the CA4 area appeared coiled or helix-like or appeared wasted and thread-like in schizophrenic brains, compared to those of normal controls. 4. These findings may indicate a dysfunction of the interneuron in the schizophrenic brain and support the hypothesis of developmental impairments of the CNS in schizophrenia, and these morphological changes in fibers may relate to schizophrenic symptoms such as memory or/and learning deterioration.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
2Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry 2000 Feb 24: 241-9
PMID10800747
TitleMorphological changes in neuropeptide Y-positive fiber in the hippocampal formation of schizophrenics.
Abstract1. The authors observed NPY-positive fibers in the CA4 area of the hippocampus from schizophrenics and normal controls using immunohistochemical techniques. 2. Positive fibers followed a straight course and were oriented to exit the CA4 region of hippocampus in normal controls. 3. Many NPY-positive fibers in the CA4 area appeared coiled or helix-like or appeared wasted and thread-like in schizophrenic brains, compared to those of normal controls. 4. These findings may indicate a dysfunction of the interneuron in the schizophrenic brain and support the hypothesis of developmental impairments of the CNS in schizophrenia, and these morphological changes in fibers may relate to schizophrenic symptoms such as memory or/and learning deterioration.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
3Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry 2000 Feb 24: 241-9
PMID10800747
TitleMorphological changes in neuropeptide Y-positive fiber in the hippocampal formation of schizophrenics.
Abstract1. The authors observed NPY-positive fibers in the CA4 area of the hippocampus from schizophrenics and normal controls using immunohistochemical techniques. 2. Positive fibers followed a straight course and were oriented to exit the CA4 region of hippocampus in normal controls. 3. Many NPY-positive fibers in the CA4 area appeared coiled or helix-like or appeared wasted and thread-like in schizophrenic brains, compared to those of normal controls. 4. These findings may indicate a dysfunction of the interneuron in the schizophrenic brain and support the hypothesis of developmental impairments of the CNS in schizophrenia, and these morphological changes in fibers may relate to schizophrenic symptoms such as memory or/and learning deterioration.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
4Neuropharmacology 2000 Apr 39: 1292-302
PMID10760371
TitleInhibition of amphetamine- and apomorphine-induced behavioural effects by neuropeptide Y Y(1) receptor antagonist BIBO 3304.
AbstractNeuropeptide Y (NPY) has an important role in the regulation of stress responses and feeding behaviour. There is evidence that some effects elicited by NPY occur due to modulation of action of regular neurotransmitters. The main objective of the present study was to test behavioural effects of the novel neuropeptide Y (NPY) Y(1) receptor antagonist (R)-N-[[4-(aminocarbonylaminomethyl)-phenyl]methyl]-N(2)-(diphe nylacetyl)-argininamide trifluoroacetate (BIBO 3304) on dopamine-dependent behaviour. Intracerebroventricular administration of BIBO 3304 (1, 10, 50 nmol) had no effect on locomotor activity as measured by number of rearings and number of squares visited in an open field test in rats, but at 50 nmol dose defecation was significantly increased. BIBO 3304 (10 nmol) reduced amphetamine-induced increases in horizontal and vertical activity whereas its S-configurated enantiomer BIBO 3457 was inactive. In an open field test BIBO 3304 (10 nmol) inhibited purposeless running in rats sensitized to direct dopaminergic agonist apomorphine (0.5 mg/kg, s.c.). BIBO 3304 (10 nmol but not 1 nmol, i.c.v.) reduced fighting in apomorphine-induced aggression paradigm. Apomorphine-induced aggression was reduced by another, structurally similar, but less potent NPY Y(1) receptor antagonist BIBP 3226 (10 nmol, i.c.v.). A lower dose of BIBP 3226 (1 nmol, i.c.v.) was inactive. Concomitant administration of BIBO 3304 (10 nmol) with low doses of apomorphine (0.5 mg/kg s.c.) over the course of 10 days failed to prevent the development of apomorphine-induced aggressiveness. These data demonstrate that behavioural response to indirectly (amphetamine) and directly (apomorphine) acting dopaminergic stimulants is inhibited by NPY Y(1) receptor antagonists and suggest that NPY Y(1) receptor activation might be important in pathophysiology of disorders associated with hyperactivity of dopaminergic pathways, such as psychosis, schizophrenia and drug abuse. We propose that the effects of BIBO 3304 on amphetamine/apomorphine-induced locomotion and apomorphine-induced aggressiveness are due to modulation of postsynaptic dopaminergic responses rather than direct effects of NPY Y(1) receptor antagonists on dopamine or NPY release.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
5Brain Res. Gene Expr. Patterns 2001 Aug 1: 17-21
PMID15018814
TitleReduced neuropeptide Y mRNA levels in the frontal cortex of people with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
AbstractTo study the change of gene expression in the brain tissues of schizophrenia, we used the gene expression monitoring technology and compared two sets of pools each containing four RNA samples of frontal cortex that were randomly selected from the control or schizophrenia group. We found that the expression of two genes were commonly altered in four pairwise comparisons; the expression of DEAD-box protein p72 (p72) gene was increased and neuropeptide Y (NPY) gene expression was decreased in the schizophrenia group compared with the control group. To substantiate these results, we estimated their mRNA levels by the real time TaqMan method in the 15 samples of each frontal or temporal cortex of four matched groups of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depression and normal controls. A statistically significant decrease was observed for NPY in the frontal, but not in the temporal cortex, in the schizophrenia group (P=0.003). A decrease was also observed in the frontal cortex of the bipolar disorder group (P=0.031). In contrast, p72 gene expression showed no significant difference among the four groups. In conclusion, by novel technology of DNA array and TaqMan PCR analyses, we found that neuropeptide Y mRNA levels were significantly reduced in the frontal cortex in both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
6Neuropsychopharmacology 2001 Jul 25: 91-7
PMID11377922
TitleNeuropeptide Y Y(1) and Y(2) receptor mRNA expression in the prefrontal cortex of psychiatric subjects. Relationship of Y(2) subtype to suicidal behavior.
AbstractIt has been hypothesized that the neuropeptide Y (NPY) system is involved in the pathogenesis of mood disorder. In this study, Y(1) and Y(2) receptor mRNA expression levels were analyzed in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of subjects affected with major depression, bipolar disorder, or schizophrenia and compared to normal controls. No significant alterations in Y(1) or Y(2) mRNA expression levels were observed between the groups. However, the Y(2) mRNA expression was elevated in layer IV in subjects with suicide as a cause of death. For the Y(1) mRNA expression, there was a negative correlation with increasing subject age in the prefrontal cortex. Analysis of covariance revealed a significant elevation of the Y(1) mRNA expression levels in individuals with a current history of marijuana use but no other drug. In summary, the current results suggest distinct alterations of the prefrontal Y(1) and Y(2) neuronal populations in aging and suicide.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
7Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 2002 Sep 59: 825-31
PMID12215082
TitleA functional neuropeptide Y Leu7Pro polymorphism associated with alcohol dependence in a large population sample from the United States.
AbstractQuantitative trait locus studies, and observations in animals manipulated for the neuropeptide Y (NPY) gene suggest that variation within this gene may contribute to alcoholism. A recent population study suggested that the Pro7 allele of a functional NPY polymorphism (Leu7Pro) may be associated with increased alcohol consumption. We tested whether the Pro7 allele is associated with alcohol dependence in European Americans (EA).
The design was a population study comparing the Leu7Pro allele frequencies in alcohol-dependent subjects and controls. Population stratification potential and diagnostic specificity was studied by genotyping individuals from additional populations and psychiatric diagnostic classes. We studied 2 independently collected samples of EA alcohol-dependent subjects (sample 1, n = 307; sample 2, n = 160) and a sample of psychiatrically screened EA controls (n = 202); 8 population samples, including African Americans and European Americans (total n = 551); and 4 samples of individuals with Alzheimer disease, schizophrenia, posttraumatic stress disorder, and major depression (total n = 502). The main outcome measure was the difference in Leu7Pro allele frequencies between alcohol-dependent subjects and controls.
The frequency of the Pro7 allele was higher in the alcohol-dependent subjects (sample 1, 5.5%; sample 2, 5.0%) compared with the screened EA controls (2.0%) (sample 1 vs controls, P=.006; sample 2 vs controls, P=.03). The attributable fraction (excess morbidity) in similarly affected populations, owing to the Pro7 allele, was estimated to be 7.3%. The frequency of the Pro7 allele was equal or lower in the population samples, as compared with the screened EA controls (0%-2.2%), with 1 exception (Bedouins). We found no significant evidence that the association of the Pro7 allele with alcohol dependence was due to an association with a comorbid psychiatric disorder.
These results suggest that the NPY Pro7 allele is a risk factor for alcohol dependence. This is only the second specific genetic mechanism ever identified that modulates risk for alcohol dependence.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
8Neuropharmacology 2002 May 42: 798-806
PMID12015206
TitleEarly maternal deprivation alters hippocampal levels of neuropeptide Y and calcitonin-gene related peptide in adult rats.
AbstractStressful events early in life are reported to be more prevalent among patients with an adult life psychiatric disorder. Early maternal deprivation is considered an animal model of early life stress. Maternally deprived adult rats display long-term alterations in the neuroendocrine system, brain and behavior that are in many ways analogous to depressive and schizophrenic symptomatology. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP) have been implicated in both disorders and also been suggested to play a role in the neuroadaptational response to stress. Consequently, male Wistar rat-pups were subjected to early maternal deprivation or control handling, on postnatal day (pnd) 9. On pnd 21, pups were weaned and split into two groups that were reared either on a saw-dust floor or on a grid-floor, considered to be a mild stressor. On pnd 67, all animals were subjected to the prepulse inhibition test. One week later, the animals were sacrificed, the brains removed and dissected on ice. Levels of NPY-like immunoreactivity (LI) and CGRP-LI were quantified by radioimmunoassay in brain regional extracts. Maternal deprivation led to a significant reduction in basal startle amplitude and disruption of prepulse inhibition. These findings were paralleled by significantly reduced levels of NPY and CGRP in the hippocampus and occipital cortex. It is hypothesised that these changes may be of relevance to aspects of schizophrenic and affective symptomatology. The present study further shows that brain NPY and, in particular, CGRP are sensitive to long-term mild stress and further implicate the involvement of these peptides in the neuroendocrine stress response.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
9Hum Psychopharmacol 2003 Oct 18: 551-7
PMID14533137
TitleThe relationship of changes in leptin, neuropeptide Y and reproductive hormones to antipsychotic induced weight gain.
AbstractWeight gain is an important side effect of antipsychotic (AP) treatment. Weight is regulated by multiple systems, including leptin, neuropeptide Y (NPY) and gonadal steroids. The aim was to investigate whether AP-induced weight gain was related to leptin and NPY abnormalities and whether these were associated with a disruption of gonadal steroid production.
Twenty two female patients with schizophrenia receiving standard AP treatment were studied over a 3-month period. Plasma leptin, NPY, gonadal steroids and their regulators were measured along with weight and BMI.
Weight, leptin and testosterone levels increased over time. There were significant relationships between a change in oestrogen levels and both a change in NPY levels and a change in BMI. Change in BMI, weight and leptin all correlated strongly with a change in the testosterone/luteinizing hormone ratio.
AP treatment results in increase in weight over time and this increase is accompanied by increased leptin levels. AP-induced weight gain is also associated with disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Altered regulation of NPY, either through abnormal leptin control or serotonin blockade, is a possible explanation for the effects of AP medication on both weight and gonadal steroid levels.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
10Neurosci. Lett. 2003 Aug 347: 202-4
PMID12875921
TitleAssociation between a novel polymorphism in the promoter region of the neuropeptide Y gene and schizophrenia in humans.
AbstractHypoactivity of neuropeptide Y (NPY) is thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, because post-mortem brain studies revealed a decrease of the NPY in schizophrenia, and antipsychotic treatments increase the NPY in animal brains and in cerebrospinal fluid of patients. We performed genetic analysis of the NPY gene in schizophrenia. Mutation screening of the gene detected nine single nucleotide polymorphisms, of which we typed a -485C>T variation from potential functional relevance. The -485T allele was overly represented in the disease group (P=0.0043). An in vitro promoter assay revealed that a C to T change at nt -485 significantly reduced transcriptional activity. These results suggest that the -485T allele in NPY may confer susceptibility to schizophrenia by decreasing the neuropeptide in brains.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
11Biochim. Biophys. Acta 2004 Nov 1690: 238-49
PMID15511631
TitleA high proportion of polymorphisms in the promoters of brain expressed genes influences transcriptional activity.
AbstractThere is increasing interest in the possibility that polymorphisms affecting gene expression are responsible for a significant proportion of heritable human phenotypic variation, including human disease. We have sought to determine if polymorphisms in the promoters of brain expressed genes are commonly functional. We screened for polymorphism 56 genes previously reported to be differentially expressed in the brains of schizophrenics [Y. Hakak, J.R. Walker, C. Li, W.H. Wong, K.L. Davis, J.D. Buxbaum, V. Haroutunian, A.A. Fienberg, Genome-wide expression analysis reveals dysregulation of myelination-related genes in chronic schizophrenia. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 98 (2001) 4746-4751.]. We found 60 variants distributed across 31 of the genes. A total of 77 haplotypes representing 28 different putative promoters were analyzed in a reporter gene assay in two cell lines. Of a total of 54 sequence variants represented in the haplotypes, 12 (or around 22%) were functional according to a highly conservative definition. These were found in the promoters of eight genes: NPY, PCSK1, NEFL, KIAA0513, LMO4, HSPA1B, TF and MDH1. We therefore estimate that around 20-25% of promoter polymorphisms in brain expressed genes are functional, and this is likely to be an underestimate. Our data therefore provide for the first time empirical evidence that promoter element polymorphisms, at least in brain expressed genes, should be afforded a high priority for molecular genetic studies.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
12Biochim. Biophys. Acta 2004 Nov 1690: 238-49
PMID15511631
TitleA high proportion of polymorphisms in the promoters of brain expressed genes influences transcriptional activity.
AbstractThere is increasing interest in the possibility that polymorphisms affecting gene expression are responsible for a significant proportion of heritable human phenotypic variation, including human disease. We have sought to determine if polymorphisms in the promoters of brain expressed genes are commonly functional. We screened for polymorphism 56 genes previously reported to be differentially expressed in the brains of schizophrenics [Y. Hakak, J.R. Walker, C. Li, W.H. Wong, K.L. Davis, J.D. Buxbaum, V. Haroutunian, A.A. Fienberg, Genome-wide expression analysis reveals dysregulation of myelination-related genes in chronic schizophrenia. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 98 (2001) 4746-4751.]. We found 60 variants distributed across 31 of the genes. A total of 77 haplotypes representing 28 different putative promoters were analyzed in a reporter gene assay in two cell lines. Of a total of 54 sequence variants represented in the haplotypes, 12 (or around 22%) were functional according to a highly conservative definition. These were found in the promoters of eight genes: NPY, PCSK1, NEFL, KIAA0513, LMO4, HSPA1B, TF and MDH1. We therefore estimate that around 20-25% of promoter polymorphisms in brain expressed genes are functional, and this is likely to be an underestimate. Our data therefore provide for the first time empirical evidence that promoter element polymorphisms, at least in brain expressed genes, should be afforded a high priority for molecular genetic studies.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
13Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry 2004 Mar 28: 379-83
PMID14751436
TitleDistribution of neuropeptide Y interneurons in the dorsal prefrontal cortex of schizophrenia.
AbstractThe distribution of neuropeptide Y (NPY) containing neurons was investigated in the dorsal prefrontal region in the brains of the schizophrenic patients and compared to those of normal control. Proportional comparison of NPY neurons in four compartments, upper cortical layers, lower cortical layers, subcortical white matter and deep white matter, demonstrated differential distribution between schizophrenic brains and controls. The proportion of NPY neurons in the upper cortical layers was low in disorganized form and subsequently in paranoid form in comparison to controls. The proportion of NPY neurons in the deep white matter was, conversely, high in the disorganized form and subsequently in the paranoid form. These results indicate that there may be a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic deficit in schizophrenic patients, especially, in the disorganized form. These results also support the hypothesis of neurodevelopmental dysfunction of schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
14Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry 2004 Mar 28: 379-83
PMID14751436
TitleDistribution of neuropeptide Y interneurons in the dorsal prefrontal cortex of schizophrenia.
AbstractThe distribution of neuropeptide Y (NPY) containing neurons was investigated in the dorsal prefrontal region in the brains of the schizophrenic patients and compared to those of normal control. Proportional comparison of NPY neurons in four compartments, upper cortical layers, lower cortical layers, subcortical white matter and deep white matter, demonstrated differential distribution between schizophrenic brains and controls. The proportion of NPY neurons in the upper cortical layers was low in disorganized form and subsequently in paranoid form in comparison to controls. The proportion of NPY neurons in the deep white matter was, conversely, high in the disorganized form and subsequently in the paranoid form. These results indicate that there may be a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic deficit in schizophrenic patients, especially, in the disorganized form. These results also support the hypothesis of neurodevelopmental dysfunction of schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
15Med. Hypotheses 2004 -1 62: 406-12
PMID14975512
TitleThe "Yoking" of glutamatergic brain mechanisms involved in controlling brain neuronal excitability and psychosis to brain mechanisms involved in appetite regulation: a new hypothesis on the origin of psychosis.
AbstractThe authors speculate that the human primate evolved psychosis generating brain mechanisms in the service of certain feeding behaviors (i.e., appetite, foraging) during the course of evolution. Furthermore, these "psychosis generating brain mechanisms" may have grown directly out of brain mechanisms servicing appetite, of which neuropeptide Y (NPY) played an important role. A case is made for an NPY contribution to the pathophysiology of psychosis. We hypothesize that the psychomimetic effects of NPY extend to supporting certain "psychomotor" functions that might have been useful for obtaining food resources in "stressful environments" (potentially food resource rich/predator-competitor dangerous). The "psychomotor" functions proposed include helping the evolving ancestral human primate overcome behavioral inhibitions and fears related to venturing into "stressful environments" (potentially food resource rich/predator-competitor dangerous) after their home ranges had been stripped of resources, by providing feelings of decreased anxiety (anxiolysis), infatigability, and, perhaps, even grandiose delusions of physical ability and supernatural supports. We further speculate that it is this NPY mechanism that in part becomes dysregulated in idiopathic psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia. The NPY connection with psychosis could theoretically account for the possible associations between weight changes and antipsychotic response (e.g. [Acta Psychiatr. Scand. 100 (1999) 3] reported by others and body mass index and cocaine-induced psychosis by our group (i.e. [Israel J. Psychiatr. (2004), in submission]).
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
16Yi Chuan Xue Bao 2005 Dec 32: 1235-40
PMID16459651
Title[Association study between NPY and YWHAH gene polymorphisms and schizophrenia].
AbstractA case-control study was carried out on a sample of 583 cases vs. 372 controls in the Chinese Han population, investigating several published polymorphisms in the YWHAH and NPY genes, which reported to be associated with schizophrenia. The polymorphism -134 (GCCTGCA)2-4, in the YWHAH was not analyzed for the failure of amplification, and the polymorphism T1128C in the NPY is not existent in the samples. The analysis was then emphasized on the variants -485C > T(NPY) and G753A(YWHAH). However, no significant differences of allele frequencies (with P values of 0.696 and 0.743, OR values of 1.041 and 0.962 respectively) or genotype frequencies (with P value of 0.45 and 0.75, chi2 = 1.51 and 0.58 respectively) among the matched groups were found. No sex-dependent effect was found either. Also,the analysis of the relative risk between the genotypes of the two genes indicates that the two genes could not cooperate with each other to add the risk of disease (P > 0.05). The results suggest that the polymorphisms - 485C > T (NPY) and G753A (YWHAH) are unlikely to be linked with genetic susceptibility to schizophrenia in the Chinese Han population.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
17Neurosci. Lett. 2005 Apr 379: 32-6
PMID15814194
TitleA family-based association study of schizophrenia with polymorphisms at three candidate genes.
AbstractClinical researches have shown that there is a genetic contribution to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Recent studies have suggested that three genes neuropeptide Y (NPY), phosphoinositide-3-kinase class 3 (PIK3C3) and 14-3-3 eta chain gene (YWHAH) are probably associated with schizophrenia. To replicate these findings, we carried out a family-based study on a sample of 235 trios. Our results suggest that the polymorphisms at the NPY and YWHAH genes are unlikely to be linked with genetic susceptibility to schizophrenia. However, we found significant evidence of preferential transmission of the -432C allele of the PIK3C3 gene in the entire trios (Z=2.91, d.f.=1, P=0.0036) and the male probands trios (Z=2.66, d.f.=1, P=0.0079).
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
18Acta Psychiatr Scand 2006 Jan 113: 54-8
PMID16390370
TitleNo association between the -399 C > T polymorphism of the neuropeptide Y gene and schizophrenia, unipolar depression or panic disorder in a Danish population.
AbstractA polymorphism in the promoter region of the NPY gene at position -399 C > T was recently reported to be associated with schizophrenia in a Japanese population and with treatment refractory unipolar depression in a Swedish population. The objective of this study was to investigate potential associations between the polymorphism and three psychiatric disorders in a Danish population.
We investigated the occurrence of the polymorphism in patients with schizophrenia (n = 291), unipolar depression (n = 256) and panic disorder (n = 142) compared with controls (n = 716).
We detected the polymorphism -399 C > T at a frequency of 48% in controls. No significant differences were found between genotype or allele frequencies in controls vs. the patient groups.
The lack of association between the -399 C > T polymorphism and schizophrenia, unipolar depression or panic disorder, respectively, suggests that the polymorphism is not involved in the etiology of these disorders in the Danish population.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
19Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2006 Dec 16: 592-600
PMID16524702
TitleEffects of acute and subchronic d-amphetamine on ventral striatal concentrations of neurotensin and neuropeptide Y in rats treated with antipsychotic drugs.
AbstractWe have reported that acute d-amphetamine increases extracellular concentrations (efflux) of neurotensin-like immunoreactivity (NT-LI) and neuropeptide Y-LI (NPY-LI) in the ventral striatum (VSTR) of freely moving rats, effects that are abolished by chronic administration of haloperidol and risperidone admixed to food pellets. In this study we further investigated the d-amphetamine effects on NT-LI and NPY-LI efflux in VSTR and their content in selected brain regions. Rats received haloperidol, risperidone or vehicle for 30days and saline or d-amphetamine either on days 22-29 and/or day 30. Seven day d-amphetamine administration decreased basal NT-LI and NPY-LI efflux in vehicle-treated rats; pretreatment with haloperidol counteracted these effects, while pretreatment with risperidone had effect only on NT-LI. Acute d-amphetamine after the seven day d-amphetamine increased NT-LI only. Pretreatment with haloperidol or risperidone abolished the effects of acute d-amphetamine on NT-LI and NPY-LI. Acute and seven day d-amphetamine increased NT-LI and NPY-LI contents in striatum; seven day d-amphetamine also increased NT-LI in frontal and occipital cortex and both NT-LI and NPY-LI in hippocampus. Our results suggest that NT and NPY are involved in both the pathophysiology and the therapeutics of schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
20Neuropeptides 2006 Jun 40: 213-9
PMID16516965
TitleNeuropeptide Y mRNA expression levels following chronic olanzapine, clozapine and haloperidol administration in rats.
AbstractUsing quantitative in situ hybridization, this study examined regional changes in rat brain mRNA levels encoding neuropeptide Y (NPY) following olanzapine, clozapine and haloperidol administration (1.2, 1.5 and 2.0 mg/kg, oral) for 36 days. The NPY mRNA expression levels and patterns were examined after the last drug administration at both time points enabling the measurement of immediate effect at 2h and the effects after 48 h of drug administration. It was found that all these drugs had an immediate effect on NPY mRNA expression, while virtually all these changes normalized 48 h after the drug treatments. A similarity in altered NPY mRNA expression patterns was seen between the olanzapine and clozapine groups; however, haloperidol was very different. Olanzapine and clozapine administration decreased NPY mRNA levels in the nucleus accumbens, striatum and anterior cingulate cortex (from -60% to -77%, p<0.05). Haloperidol decreased NPY mRNA expression in the amygdala and hippocampus (-69%, -64%, p<0.05). In the lateral septal nucleus, NPY mRNA levels significantly decreased in the olanzapine group (-66%, p<0.05), a trend toward a decrease was observed in the clozapine group, and no change was found in the haloperidol treated group. These results suggest that the different effects of atypical and typical antipsychotics on NPY systems may reflect the neural chemical mechanisms responsible for the differences between these drugs in their effects in treating positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. The immediate decrease of NPY mRNA levels suggests an immediate reduction of NPY biosynthesis in response to these drugs.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
21World J. Biol. Psychiatry 2007 -1 8: 12-22
PMID17366345
TitlePotential genetic variants in schizophrenia: a Bayesian analysis.
AbstractA number of different gene polymorphisms have been found to dispose for the development of schizophrenia. However, no single gene polymorphism is sufficient for the precipitation of schizophrenia. Swedish psychosis patients (n=103) and control subjects (n=89) were analyzed for 36 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 30 candidate genes for schizophrenia. Evidence of association was analyzed with Bayesian statistical methods. Variants in the genes coding for dopamine-D2 receptor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neuropeptide Y (NPY), neuregulin 1, reelin and synapsin 3 showed association with schizophrenia, although few subjects were found in the minority allele for the two latter variants. The six gene variants, all with suspected connection to schizophrenia, were found to be risk factors when considered in combination, but not separately. The results indicate that the Bayesian statistical method gives additional possibilities in the search for risk factors for schizophrenia or other complex disorders.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
22Int. Rev. Neurobiol. 2007 -1 78: 327-76
PMID17349866
TitleInvolvement of neuropeptide systems in schizophrenia: human studies.
AbstractNeuropeptides are heterogeneously distributed throughout the digestive, circulatory, and nervous systems and serve as neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, and hormones. Neuropeptides are phylogenetically conserved and have been demonstrated to regulate numerous behaviors. They have been hypothesized to be pathologically involved in several psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. On the basis of preclinical data, numerous studies have sought to examine the role of neuropeptide systems in schizophrenia. This chapter reviews the clinical data, linking alterations in neuropeptide systems to the etiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of schizophrenia. Data for the following neuropeptide systems are included: arginine-vasopressin, cholecystokinin (CCK), corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), interleukins, neuregulin 1 (NRG1), neurotensin (NT), neuropeptide Y (NPY), opioids, secretin, somatostatin, tachykinins, thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). Data from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), postmortem and genetic studies, as well as clinical trials are described. Despite the inherent difficulties associated with human studies (including small sample size, variable duration of illness, medication status, the presence of comorbid psychiatric disorders, and diagnostic heterogeneity), several findings are noteworthy. Postmortem studies support disease-related alterations in several neuropeptide systems in the frontal and temporal cortices. The strongest genetic evidence supporting a role for neuropeptides in schizophrenia are those studies linking polymorphisms in NRG1 and the CCKA receptor with schizophrenia. Finally, the only compounds that act directly on neuropeptide systems that have demonstrated therapeutic efficacy in schizophrenia are neurokinin receptor antagonists. Clearly, additional investigation into the role of neuropeptide systems in the etiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of schizophrenia is warranted.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
23Curr Top Med Chem 2007 -1 7: 1645-59
PMID17979774
TitleRelevance of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in psychiatry.
AbstractExtensive preclinical studies suggest neuropeptide Y (NPY) to be involved in stress regulation and coping. NPY counteracts the behavioral consequences of stress and anxiety to maintain emotional homeostasis. NPY is also involved in learning, memory, and cognition, all of which are dysregulated in many psychiatric states. Dense localization of NPY and NPY receptors is found in brain areas implicated in psychopathology such as the amygdala, hippocampus, neocortex, septum, caudate-putamen, hypothalamus and locus coeruleus. Impaired central NPY signaling may therefore be involved in the pathophysiology of depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, alcoholism, and trauma-induced disorders like PTSD. Studies on the readily accessible plasma from psychiatric patients have provided some information on the relevance of NPY as a marker for sympathetic tone in certain conditions. Reports on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) NPY in subjects with depression indicate a dysregulation of central NPY in this disorder, however, other conditions still need to be investigated.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
24J. Neurosci. 2007 Oct 27: 11254-62
PMID17942719
TitlePrefrontal dysfunction in schizophrenia involves mixed-lineage leukemia 1-regulated histone methylation at GABAergic gene promoters.
AbstractAlterations in GABAergic mRNA expression play a key role for prefrontal dysfunction in schizophrenia and other neurodevelopmental disease. Here, we show that histone H3-lysine 4 methylation, a chromatin mark associated with the transcriptional process, progressively increased at GAD1 and other GABAergic gene promoters (GAD2, NPY, SST) in human prefrontal cortex (PFC) from prenatal to peripubertal ages and throughout adulthood. Alterations in schizophrenia included decreased GAD1 expression and H3K4-trimethylation, predominantly in females and in conjunction with a risk haplotype at the 5' end of GAD1. Heterozygosity for a truncated, lacZ knock-in allele of mixed-lineage leukemia 1 (Mll1), a histone methyltransferase expressed in GABAergic and other cortical neurons, resulted in decreased H3K4 methylation at GABAergic gene promoters. In contrast, Gad1 H3K4 (tri)methylation and Mll1 occupancy was increased in cerebral cortex of mice after treatment with the atypical antipsychotic, clozapine. These effects were not mimicked by haloperidol or genetic ablation of dopamine D2 and D3 receptors, suggesting that blockade of D2-like signaling is not sufficient for clozapine-induced histone methylation. Therefore, chromatin remodeling mechanisms at GABAergic gene promoters, including MLL1-mediated histone methylation, operate throughout an extended period of normal human PFC development and play a role in the neurobiology of schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
25Peptides 2007 Feb 28: 326-33
PMID17196302
TitleBehavioral profiling of NPY in aggression and neuropsychiatric diseases.
AbstractThe abundantly expressed neuropeptide Y (NPY) has potent effects on feeding, body weight, and blood pressure, and exhibits important functions in various behavioral domains such as motor activity and anxiety. The potent neurotransmitter exerts its biological effects through at least five G-protein coupled receptors termed Y(1), Y(2), Y(4), Y(5), and y(6). The behavioral profile of NPY function has been extensively studied using traditional pharmacological and classic genetic animal models. Based on these studies, variations in the profile of NPY and its receptors have been found. To limit the variability and inconsistencies in the behavioral profile of NPY and to clarify its effects on certain domains in further detail, it is important to design a rational standardized strategy for behavioral testing, using a complement of different well-established and reproducible tests. This strategy can minimize the risk that false positive or false negative results lead to a contradictory and inconsistent behavioral characterization of NPY function. Ideally, such screening should be composed of an initial monitoring of general health, sensory functions, and motor abilities, before specific behavioral domains such as anxiety or aggression are investigated using a multi-tiered phenotyping approach. In this review, we will focus on a brief description of the latest insights into the behavioral profile of NPY in the selective lesser investigated domains such as aggression and depression-schizophrenia-related behaviors. We will combine this information with possible strategies to evaluate the different specific phenotypes in more detail.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
26Mol. Psychiatry 2008 Feb 13: 147-61
PMID17471287
TitleAlterations in GABA-related transcriptome in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of subjects with schizophrenia.
AbstractIn subjects with schizophrenia, impairments in working memory are associated with dysfunction of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). This dysfunction appears to be due, at least in part, to abnormalities in gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated inhibitory circuitry. To test the hypothesis that altered GABA-mediated circuitry in the DLPFC of subjects with schizophrenia reflects expression changes of genes that encode selective presynaptic and postsynaptic components of GABA neurotransmission, we conducted a systematic expression analysis of GABA-related transcripts in the DLPFC of 14 pairs of schizophrenia and age-, sex- and post-mortem interval-matched control subjects using a customized DNA microarray with enhanced sensitivity and specificity. Subjects with schizophrenia exhibited expression deficits in GABA-related transcripts encoding (1) presynaptic regulators of GABA neurotransmission (67 kDa isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD(67)) and GABA transporter 1), (2) neuropeptides (somatostatin (SST), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and cholecystokinin (CCK)) and (3) GABA(A) receptor subunits (alpha1, alpha4, beta3, gamma2 and delta). Real-time qPCR and/or in situ hybridization confirmed the deficits for six representative transcripts tested in the same pairs and in an extended cohort, respectively. In contrast, GAD(67), SST and alpha1 subunit mRNA levels, as assessed by in situ hybridization, were not altered in the DLPFC of monkeys chronically exposed to antipsychotic medications. These findings suggest that schizophrenia is associated with alterations in inhibitory inputs from SST/NPY-containing and CCK-containing subpopulations of GABA neurons and in the signaling via certain GABA(A) receptors that mediate synaptic (phasic) or extrasynaptic (tonic) inhibition. In concert with previous findings, these data suggest that working memory dysfunction in schizophrenia is mediated by altered GABA neurotransmission in certain DLPFC microcircuits.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
27BMC Psychiatry 2008 -1 8: 87
PMID18992145
TitlePutative psychosis genes in the prefrontal cortex: combined analysis of gene expression microarrays.
AbstractRecent studies have shown similarities between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder in phenotypes and in genotypes, and those studies have contributed to an ongoing re-evaluation of the traditional dichotomy between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Bipolar disorder with psychotic features may be closely related to schizophrenia and therefore, psychosis may be an alternative phenotype compared to the traditional diagnosis categories.
We performed a cross-study analysis of 7 gene expression microarrays that include both psychosis and non-psychosis subjects. These studies include over 400 microarray samples (163 individual subjects) on 3 different Affymetrix microarray platforms.
We found that 110 transcripts are differentially regulated (p < 0.001) in psychosis after adjusting for confounding variables with a multiple regression model. Using a quantitative PCR, we validated a set of genes such as up-regulated metallothioneins (MT1E, MT1F, MT1H, MT1K, MT1X, MT2A and MT3) and down-regulated neuropeptides (SST, TAC1 and NPY) in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of psychosis patients.
This study demonstrates the advantages of cross-study analysis in detecting consensus changes in gene expression across multiple microarray studies. Differential gene expression between individuals with and without psychosis suggests that psychosis may be a useful phenotypic variable to complement the traditional diagnosis categories.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
28Biol. Psychiatry 2009 Jun 65: 1006-14
PMID19121517
TitleMolecular determinants of dysregulated GABAergic gene expression in the prefrontal cortex of subjects with schizophrenia.
AbstractPrefrontal deficits in gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic gene expression, including neuropeptide Y (NPY), somatostatin (SST), and parvalbumin (PV) messenger RNAs (mRNAs), have been reported for multiple schizophrenia cohorts. Preclinical models suggest that a subset of these GABAergic markers (NPY/SST) is regulated by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which in turn is under the inhibitory influence of small noncoding RNAs. However, it remains unclear if these mechanisms are important determinants for dysregulated NPY and SST expression in prefrontal cortex (PFC) of subjects with schizophrenia.
Using a postmortem case-control design, the association between BDNF protein, NPY/SST/PV mRNAs, and two BDNF-regulating microRNAs (miR-195 and miR-30a-5p) was determined in samples from the PFC of 20 schizophrenia and 20 control subjects. Complementary studies were conducted in cerebral cortex of mice subjected to antipsychotic treatment or a brain-specific ablation of the Bdnf gene.
Subjects with schizophrenia showed deficits in NPY and PV mRNAs. Within-pair differences in BDNF protein levels showed strong positive correlations with NPY and SST and a robust inverse association with miR-195 levels, which in turn were not affected by antipsychotic treatment or genetic ablation of Bdnf.
Taken together, these results suggest that prefrontal deficits in a subset of GABAergic mRNAs, including NPY, are dependent on the regional supply of BDNF, which in turn is fine-tuned through a microRNA (miRNA)-mediated mechanism.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
29Neurosci. Lett. 2009 Mar 452: 72-4
PMID19150389
TitleNo association between a functional polymorphism in the promoter region of the neuropeptide Y gene (-485C>T) and schizophrenia.
AbstractIt has been suggested that hypoactivity of neuropeptide Y (NPY) may be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. A post-mortem study revealed a decreased level of NPY in the brain of patients with schizophrenia. An increased level of NPY after antipsychotic treatment was also reported in animal brain and cerebrospinal fluid of patients. Previously Itokawa et al. reported a positive association between the functional -485C>T polymorphism in the NPY gene and schizophrenia in a Japanese population. The aim of this study is to replicate their positive findings in an independent Japanese case-control sample. Our sample includes 260 patients with schizophrenia (DSM-IV) and 196 control subjects. No significant differences in distribution of genotype or allele frequencies between patients and controls were observed. Our results suggest that the NPY -485C>T polymorphism may not confer susceptibility to schizophrenia, at least in our sample. Further studies in larger samples are warranted.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
30Psychopharmacology (Berl.) 2009 May 203: 693-702
PMID19052729
TitleHyperphagia and increased meal size are responsible for weight gain in rats treated sub-chronically with olanzapine.
AbstractAtypical antipsychotic-induced weight gain is a significant impediment in the treatment of schizophrenia.
In a putative model of antipsychotic drug-induced weight gain, we investigated the effects of sub-chronic olanzapine on body weight, meal patterns, the expression of genes encoding for hypothalamic feeding-related neuropeptides and the contribution of hyperphagia to olanzapine-induced weight gain in rats.
In experiment 1, female rats received either olanzapine (1 mg/kg, p.o.) or vehicle, twice daily for 7 days, while meal patterns were recorded. At the end of the treatment regimen, we measured the levels of hypothalamic messenger RNAs (mRNAs) encoding neuropeptide-Y (NPY), hypocretin/orexin (HCRT), melanin concentrating hormone and pro-opiomelanocortin. NPY and HCRT mRNA levels were also assessed in a separate cohort of female rats treated acutely with olanzapine (1 mg/kg, p.o.). In experiment 2, we investigated the effect of a pair-feeding paradigm on sub-chronic (1 mg/kg, p.o.) olanzapine-induced weight gain.
In experiment 1, sub-chronic olanzapine increased body weight, food intake and meal size. Hypothalamic neuropeptide mRNA levels were unchanged after both acute and sub-chronic olanzapine treatment. In experiment 2, the restriction of food intake to the level of vehicle-treated controls abolished the sub-chronic olanzapine-induced increase in body weight.
Hyperphagia mediated by drug-induced impairments in satiety (as evidenced by increased meal size) is a key requirement for olanzapine-induced weight gain in this paradigm. However, olanzapine-induced hyperphagia and weight gain may not be mediated via alterations in the expression of the feeding-related hypothalamic neuropeptides examined in this study.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
31Schizophr. Res. 2009 Dec 115: 261-9
PMID19804960
TitleNPY mRNA expression in the prefrontal cortex: Selective reduction in the superficial white matter of subjects with schizoaffective disorder.
AbstractAlterations in the inhibitory circuitry of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in schizophrenia include reduced expression of the messenger RNA (mRNA) for somatostatin (SST), a neuropeptide present in a subpopulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurons. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is expressed in a subset of SST-containing interneurons and lower levels of NPY mRNA have also been reported in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. However, whether the alterations in these two transcripts identify the same, particularly vulnerable, subset of GABA neurons has not been examined.
We used in situ hybridization to quantify NPY mRNA levels in DLPFC gray and white matter from 23 pairs of subjects with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and matched normal control subjects; results were compared to those from a previous study of SST mRNA expression in the same subjects.
In contrast to SST mRNA, NPY mRNA levels were not significantly lower in the gray matter of subjects with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. However, NPY, but not SST, mRNA expression was significantly lower in the superficial white matter of subjects with schizoaffective disorder.
These findings suggest that the alterations in SST-containing interneurons in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder are selective for the subset that do not express NPY mRNA, and that lower NPY mRNA expression in the superficial white matter may distinguish subjects with schizoaffective disorder from those with schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
32Pain Med 2009 Nov 10: 1460-7
PMID19671088
TitleElectroconvulsive stimulation (ECS) increases the expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in rat brains in a model of neuropathic pain: a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) study.
AbstractElectroconvulsive shock therapy (ECT) has been widely used as an effective and established treatment for refractory depression and schizophrenia. Some reports have shown that ECT is also effective for treating refractory neuropathic pain.
In a rat model of neuropathic pain produced by chronic constrictive injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve, thermal hyperalgesia, and mechanical allodynia were observed from day 2 after surgery. An electroconvulsive shock (ECS) was administered to rodents once daily for 6 days on days 7-12 after CCI operation using a pulse generator. Thermal and mechanical stimulation tests were performed to assess pain thresholds. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to measure the gene expression levels for 5HT(1A)R, 5HT(2A)R, neuropeptide Y (NPY), and GABAA(alpha1)R in the brain.
After ECS, the latency to withdrawal from thermal stimulation was significantly increased; however, pain withdrawal thresholds in response to mechanical stimulation were not significantly changed. Expression ratios of NPY were significantly greater after ECS.
Symptoms of neuropathic pain improved and expression of NPY in the brain was increased in CCI model rats after ECS, suggesting that changes in the expression of NPY in the brain may be related to the mechanism of action of ECT in treating neuropathic pain.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
33Coll Antropol 2010 Mar 34 Suppl 1: 99-104
PMID20402304
TitleMorphometric characteristics of neuropeptide Y immunoreactive neurons in cortex of human inferior parietal lobule.
AbstractThe aim of this study was to demonstrate and precisely define the morphology of neurons immunoreactive to neuropeptide Y (NPY) in cortex of human inferior parietal lobule (IPL). Five human brains were used for immunohistochemical investigation of the shape and laminar distribution of NPY neurons in serial section in the supramarginal and angular gyrus. Immunoreactivity to NPY was detected in all six layers of the cortex of human IPL. However a great number of NPY immunoreactive neurons were found in the white matter under the IPL cortex. The following types of NPY immunoreactive neurons were found: Cajal-Retzius, pyramidal, inverted pyramidal, "double bouquet" (bitufted), rare type 6, multipolar nonspinous, bipolar, voluminous "basket", and chandelier cells. These informations about morphometric characteristics of NPY immunoreactive neurons in cortical layers, together with morphometric data taken from brains having schizophrenia or Alzheimer's-type dementia may contribute to better understanding patogenesis of these neurological diseases. The finding of Cajal-Retzius neurons immunoreactive to NPY points to the need for further investigations because of great importance of these cells in neurogenesis and involvement in mentioned diseases instead of their rarity.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
34Mol. Psychiatry 2010 Oct 15: 987-95
PMID20125089
TitleNovel animal models for studying complex brain disorders: BAC-driven miRNA-mediated in vivo silencing of gene expression.
AbstractIn schizophrenia, glutamic acid decarboxylase 1 (GAD1) disturbances are robust, consistently observed, cell-type specific and represent a core feature of the disease. In addition, neuropeptide Y (NPY), which is a phenotypic marker of a sub-population of GAD1-containing interneurons, has shown reduced expression in the prefrontal cortex in subjects with schizophrenia, suggesting that dysfunction of the NPY+ cortical interneuronal sub-population might be a core feature of this devastating disorder. However, modeling gene expression disturbances in schizophrenia in a cell type-specific manner has been extremely challenging. To more closely mimic these molecular and cellular human post-mortem findings, we generated a transgenic mouse in which we downregulated GAD1 mRNA expression specifically in NPY+ neurons. This novel, cell type-specific in vivo system for reducing gene expression uses a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) containing the NPY promoter-enhancer elements, the reporter molecule (eGFP) and a modified intron containing a synthetic microRNA (miRNA) targeted to GAD1. The animals of isogenic strains are generated rapidly, providing a new tool for better understanding the molecular disturbances in the GABAergic system observed in complex neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. In the future, because of the small size of the silencing miRNAs combined with our BAC strategy, this method may be modified to allow generation of mice with simultaneous silencing of multiple genes in the same cells with a single construct, and production of splice-variant-specific knockdown animals.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
35Neuropeptides 2010 Jun 44: 233-9
PMID20096928
TitleAcoustic startle response and sensorimotor gating in a genetic mouse model for the Y1 receptor.
AbstractRecent research has highlighted a potential role for neuropeptide Y (NPY) and its Y(1) receptor in the development of schizophrenia. Genetic as well as molecular biological studies have demonstrated reduced levels of NPY in schizophrenia patients. Importantly, Y(1) receptors may mediate some of the potential effects of NPY on schizophrenia, as decreased Y(1) receptor expression has been found in the lymphocytes of schizophrenia patients. To clarify NPY's role in schizophrenia, we investigated a genetic animal model for Y(1) deficiency in regard to (i) acoustic startle response (ASR), (ii) habituation to ASR and (iii) sensorimotor gating [i.e. prepulse inhibition (PPI)] using two different PPI protocols. Mutant and wild type-like mice were screened for baseline behaviours and after pharmacological challenge with the psychotropic drugs dexamphetamine (DEX) and MK-801. Y(1) knockout mice (Y(1)(-/-)) showed a moderate reduction of the ASR and an impaired ASR habituation at baseline and after DEX treatment. The baseline PPI performance of Y(1) mutant mice was unaltered their response to DEX and MK-801 challenge was moderately different compared to control mice, which was dependent on the PPI protocol used. MK-801 challenge had a protocol-dependent differential effect in Y(1)(-/-) mice and DEX a more pronounced impact at the highest prepulse intensities. In conclusion, it appears that the Y(1) receptor influences the acoustic startle response and its habituation but does not play a major role in sensorimotor gating. Further explorations into the effects of Y(1) deficiency seem valid.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
36Behav. Brain Res. 2010 Mar 207: 434-40
PMID19879900
TitleSchizophrenia-relevant behaviours in a genetic mouse model for Y2 deficiency.
AbstractExpression levels of neuropeptide Y (NPY) are changed in schizophrenia patients. However, the direction of changes to NPY expression and the mechanisms behind NPY's impact on the development of the illness is not understood in detail. Here we investigated whether alterations in Y2 activity may be involved in the development of schizophrenia-related behaviours. We examined NPY Y2 receptor deficient male mice in behavioural domains relevant for the illness: locomotion, learning and memory, social interaction and sensorimotor gating (baseline and after acute challenge with psychotropic drugs) and the most relevant tasks were also completed in female Y2 mutants. Our investigations confirmed a hyper-locomotive phenotype for Y2 deficient male mice and no alterations in working and reference memory performance. Mutant males exhibited an increase in social interaction and moderately improved sensorimotor gating. The psychotropic drugs dexamphetamine and MK-801 affected prepulse inhibition similarly, whereas MK-801 appeared to be a slightly more potent stimulant for the acoustic startle response (ASR). Female Y2 deficient mice showed wild type-like performances in social interaction, working memory and prepulse inhibition. However, Y2 mutant females exhibited a moderately increased ASR compared to control mice. Taken together, lack of Y2 signalling in mice not only leads to altered locomotion but also changes social behaviours and affects sensorimotor gating. Thus, Y2 depletion influences a range of behaviours, which are potentially relevant for schizophrenia-related research.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
37Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2010 Nov 260 Suppl 2: S81-9
PMID20945070
TitleDifferential expression of presynaptic genes in a rat model of postnatal hypoxia: relevance to schizophrenia.
AbstractObstetric complications play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. However, the biological consequences during neurodevelopment until adulthood are unknown. Microarrays have been used for expression profiling in four brain regions of a rat model of neonatal hypoxia as a common factor of obstetric complications. Animals were repeatedly exposed to chronic hypoxia from postnatal (PD) day 4 through day 8 and killed at the age of 150 days. Additional groups of rats were treated with clozapine from PD 120-150. Self-spotted chips containing 340 cDNAs related to the glutamate system ("glutamate chips") were used. The data show differential (up and down) regulations of numerous genes in frontal (FR), temporal (TE) and parietal cortex (PAR), and in caudate putamen (CPU), but evidently many more genes are upregulated in frontal and temporal cortex, whereas in parietal cortex the majority of genes are downregulated. Because of their primary presynaptic occurrence, five differentially expressed genes (CPX1, NPY, NRXN1, SNAP-25, and STX1A) have been selected for comparisons with clozapine-treated animals by qRT-PCR. Complexin 1 is upregulated in FR and TE cortex but unchanged in PAR by hypoxic treatment. Clozapine downregulates it in FR but upregulates it in PAR cortex. Similarly, syntaxin 1A was upregulated in FR, but downregulated in TE and unchanged in PAR cortex, whereas clozapine downregulated it in FR but upregulated it in PAR cortex. Hence, hypoxia alters gene expression regionally specific, which is in agreement with reports on differentially expressed presynaptic genes in schizophrenia. Chronic clozapine treatment may contribute to normalize synaptic connectivity.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
38PLoS ONE 2011 -1 6: e20571
PMID21695181
TitleOlanzapine-induced hyperphagia and weight gain associate with orexigenic hypothalamic neuropeptide signaling without concomitant AMPK phosphorylation.
AbstractThe success of antipsychotic drug treatment in patients with schizophrenia is limited by the propensity of these drugs to induce hyperphagia, weight gain and other metabolic disturbances, particularly evident for olanzapine and clozapine. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in antipsychotic-induced hyperphagia remain unclear. Here, we investigate the effect of olanzapine administration on the regulation of hypothalamic mechanisms controlling food intake, namely neuropeptide expression and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation in rats. Our results show that subchronic exposure to olanzapine upregulates neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti related protein (AgRP) and downregulates proopiomelanocortin (POMC) in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARC). This effect was evident both in rats fed ad libitum and in pair-fed rats. Of note, despite weight gain and increased expression of orexigenic neuropeptides, subchronic administration of olanzapine decreased AMPK phosphorylation levels. This reduction in AMPK was not observed after acute administration of either olanzapine or clozapine. Overall, our data suggest that olanzapine-induced hyperphagia is mediated through appropriate changes in hypothalamic neuropeptides, and that this effect does not require concomitant AMPK activation. Our data shed new light on the hypothalamic mechanism underlying antipsychotic-induced hyperphagia and weight gain, and provide the basis for alternative targets to control energy balance.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
39Int. J. Dev. Neurosci. 2011 May 29: 325-34
PMID20691252
TitleWhite matter neuron alterations in schizophrenia and related disorders.
AbstractIncreased density and altered spatial distribution of subcortical white matter neurons (WMNs) represents one of the more well replicated cellular alterations found in schizophrenia and related disease. In many of the affected cases, the underlying genetic risk architecture for these WMN abnormalities remains unknown. Increased density of neurons immunoreactive for Microtubule-Associated Protein 2 (MAP2) and Neuronal Nuclear Antigen (NeuN) have been reported by independent studies, though there are negative reports as well; additionally, group differences in some of the studies appear to be driven by a small subset of cases. Alterations in markers for inhibitory (GABAergic) neurons have also been described. For example, downregulation of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS1) in inhibitory WMN positioned at the gray/white matter border, as well as altered spatial distribution, have been reported. While increased density of WMN has been suggested to reflect disturbance of neurodevelopmental processes, including neuronal migration, neurogenesis, and cell death, alternative hypotheses--such as an adaptive response to microglial activation in mature CNS, as has been described in multiple sclerosis--should also be considered. We argue that larger scale studies involving hundreds of postmortem specimens will be necessary in order to clearly establish the subset of subjects affected. Additionally, these larger cohorts could make it feasible to connect the cellular pathology to environmental and genetic factors implicated in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and autism. These could include the 22q11 deletion (Velocardiofacial/DiGeorge) syndrome, which in some cases is associated with neuronal ectopias in white matter.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
40Acta Neuropsychiatr 2012 Apr 24: 81-90
PMID26952950
TitleAssociation of the leucine-7 to proline-7 variation in the signal sequence of neuropeptide Y with major depression.
AbstractThere is clear evidence of a genetic component in major depression, and several studies indicate that neuropeptide Y (NPY) could play an important role in the pathophysiology of the disease. A well-known polymorphism encoding the substitution of leucine to proline in the signal peptide sequence of NPY (Leu7Pro variation) was previously found to protect against depression. Our study aimed at replicating this association in a large Danish population with major depression.
Leu7Pro was studied in a sample of depressed patients and ethnically matched controls, as well as psychiatric disease controls with schizophrenia. Possible functional consequences of Leu7Pro were explored in vitro.
In contrast to previous studies, Pro7 appeared to be a risk allele for depression, being significantly more frequent in the depression sample (5.5%, n = 593; p = 0.009; odds ratio, OR: 1.46) as compared to ethnically matched controls (3.8%, n = 2912), while schizophrenia patients (4.1%, n = 503) did not differ. In vitro, the Pro7 substitution appeared to be associated with reduced levels of NPY without affecting its mRNA level.
The Leu7Pro variation may increase the risk of major depression, possibly by affecting the biosynthesis of NPY.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
41Int. J. Neuropsychopharmacol. 2012 Sep 15: 1051-61
PMID22008251
TitleQuetiapine affects neuropeptide Y and corticotropin-releasing hormone in cerebrospinal fluid from schizophrenia patients: relationship to depression and anxiety symptoms and to treatment response.
AbstractCumulative evidence indicates that neuropeptides play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Early data showed increased neuropeptide Y (NPY) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from schizophrenia patients and data from rodents show that antipsychotic drugs modulate NPY levels in and release from selected rat brain regions. In view of these findings we investigated whether the atypical antipsychotic quetiapine, originally used as an antipsychotic but subsequently shown to be efficient also in major depressive disorder and in both poles of bipolar disorder, would affect NPY-like immunoreactivity (-LI), and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)-LI levels in CSF of schizophrenia patients. NPY-LI and CRH-LI in CSF were determined in 22 patients with schizophrenia. Lumbar puncture was performed at baseline and again after 4 wk of quetiapine treatment (600 mg/d). Patients were assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) at baseline and at weekly intervals. Quetiapine treatment was associated with a significant increase in NPY-LI (p<0.001) and decrease in CRH-LI (p<0.01). Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that ?NPY-LI and ?CRH-LI levels predicted 63% (p<0.001) of the variability of the ?PANSS total score, ?NPY-LI 42% (p<0.05) of the ?PANSS anxiety items (G2) and ?CRH-LI 40% (p=0.05) of the ?PANSS depression items (G6). These results suggest that while quetiapine's effects on monoamines are probably related to its antipsychotic properties, the modulation of NPY and CRH accounts for its antidepressant and anxiolytic effects and can be markers of response.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
42Chem. Biodivers. 2012 Nov 9: 2367-87
PMID23161624
TitleNeuropeptides and neuropeptide receptors: drug targets, and peptide and non-peptide ligands: a tribute to Prof. Dieter Seebach.
AbstractThe number of neuropeptides and their corresponding receptors has increased steadily over the last fourty years: initially, peptides were isolated from gut or brain (e.g., Substance P, somatostatin), then by targeted mining in specific regions (e.g., cortistatin, orexin in the brain), or by deorphanization of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs; orexin, ghrelin receptors) and through the completion the Human Genome Project. Neuropeptides (and their receptors) have regionally restricted distributions in the central and peripheral nervous system. The neuropeptide signaling is somewhat more distinct spatially than signaling with classical, low-molecular-weight neurotransmitters that are more widely expressed, and, therefore, one assumes that drugs acting at neuropeptide receptors may have more selective pharmacological actions with possibly fewer side effects than drugs acting on glutamatergic, GABAergic, monoaminergic, or cholinergic systems. Neuropeptide receptors, which may have a few or multiple subtypes and splice variants, belong almost exclusively to the GPCR family also known as seven-transmembrane receptors (7TM), a favorite class of drug targets in the pharmaceutical industry. Most neuropeptides are co-stored and co-released with classic neurotransmitters, albeit often only at higher frequencies of stimulation or at bursting activity, thus restricting the neuropeptide signaling to specific circumstances, another reason to assume that neuropeptide drug mimics may have less side effects. Neuropeptides possess a wide spectrum of functions from neurohormone, neurotransmitter to growth factor, but also as key inflammatory mediators. Neuropeptides become 'active' when the nervous system is challenged, e.g., by stress, injury, drug abuse, or neuropsychiatric disorders with genetic, epigenetic, and/or environmental components. The unsuspected number of true neuropeptides and their cognate receptors provides opportunities to identify novel targets for the treatment of both central and peripheral nervous system disorders. Both, receptor subtype-selective antagonists and agonists are being developed, as illustrated by the success of somatostatin agonists, angiotensin, and endothelin antagonists, and the expected clinical applications of NK-1/2/3 (substance P) receptor antagonists, CRF, vasopressin, NPY, neurotensin, orexin antagonists, or neuropeptide receptor modulators; such ligands have efficacy in preclinical or clinical models of pain and neuropsychiatric diseases, such as migraine, chronic/neuropathic pain, anxiety, sleep disorders, depression, and schizophrenia. In addition, both positive and negative allosteric modulators have been described with interesting in vivo activities (e.g., at galanin receptors). The field has become more complex now that an increasing number of heteromeric neuropeptide receptors are described, e.g., ghrelin receptors with 5-HT(2C) or dopamine D(1), D(2) receptors. At long last, structure-based drug discovery can now be envisaged with confidence, since crystal or solution structure of GPCRs and GPCR-ligand complexes, including peptide receptors, are published almost on a monthly basis. Finally, although most compounds acting at peptide receptors are still peptidomimetics, the last decade has seen the emergence of low-molecular-weight nonpeptide ligands (e.g., for orexin, ghrelin, or neurokinin receptors), and surprising progress has been made with ?- and ?-peptides as very stable and potent mimetics of, e.g., somatostatin (SRIF), where the native SRIF has a half-life limited to 2-3 min. This last point will be illustrated more specifically, as we have had a long-standing collaboration with Prof. D. Seebach to whom this review is dedicated at the occasion of his 75th birthday.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
43PLoS ONE 2012 -1 7: e33548
PMID22438946
TitleAlterations to melanocortinergic, GABAergic and cannabinoid neurotransmission associated with olanzapine-induced weight gain.
AbstractSecond generation antipsychotics (SGAs) are used to treat schizophrenia but can cause serious metabolic side-effects, such as obesity and diabetes. This study examined the effects of low to high doses of olanzapine on appetite/metabolic regulatory signals in the hypothalamus and brainstem to elucidate the mechanisms underlying olanzapine-induced obesity.
Levels of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD(65), enzyme for GABA synthesis) mRNA expression, and cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R) binding density (using [(3)H]SR-141716A) were examined in the arcuate nucleus (Arc) and dorsal vagal complex (DVC) of female Sprague Dawley rats following 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 mg/kg olanzapine or vehicle (3/day, 14-days). Consistent with its weight gain liability, olanzapine significantly decreased anorexigenic POMC and increased orexigenic NPY mRNA expression in a dose-sensitive manner in the Arc. GAD(65) mRNA expression increased and CB1R binding density decreased in the Arc and DVC. Alterations to neurotransmission signals in the brain significantly correlated with body weight and adiposity. The minimum dosage threshold required to induce weight gain in the rat was 0.5 mg/kg olanzapine.
Olanzapine-induced weight gain is associated with reduced appetite-inhibiting POMC and increased NPY. This study also supports a role for the CB1R and GABA in the mechanisms underlying weight gain side-effects, possibly by altering POMC transmission. Metabolic dysfunction can be modelled in the female rat using low, clinically-comparable olanzapine doses when administered in-line with the half-life of the drug.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
44In Silico Pharmacol 2013 -1 1: 15
PMID25505659
TitleComparison of gene expression profiles in the blood, hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of rats.
AbstractThe comparability of gene expression between blood and brain tissues is a central issue in neuropsychiatric research where the analysis of molecular mechanisms in the brain is of high importance for the understanding of the diseases and the discovery of biomarkers. However, the accessibility of brain tissue is limited. Therefore, knowledge about how easily accessible peripheral tissue, e. g. blood, is comparable to and reflects gene expression of brain regions will help to advance neuropsychiatric research.
Gene expression in the blood, hippocampus (HC) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) of genetically identical rats was compared using a genome-wide Affymetrix gene expression microarray covering 29,215 expressed genes. A total of 56.8% of 15,717 expressed genes were co-expressed in blood and at least one brain tissue, while 55.3% of all genes were co-expressed in all three tissues simultaneously. The overlapping genes included a set of genes of relevance to neuropsychiatric diseases, in particular bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and alcohol addiction. These genes included CLOCK, COMT, FAAH, NPY, NR3C1, NRGN, PBRM1, TCF4, and SYNE.
This study provides baseline data on absolute gene expression and differences between gene expression in the blood, HC and PFC brain tissue of genetically identical rats. The present data represents a valuable resource for future studies as it might be used for first information on gene expression levels of genes of interest in blood and brain under baseline conditions. Limitations of our study comprise possible contamination of brain tissue with blood and the non-detection of genes with very low expression levels. Genes that are more highly expressed in the brain than in the blood are of particular interest since changes in their expression, e.g. due to disease status, or treatment, are likely to be detected in an experiment. In contrast, genes with higher expression in the blood than in the brain are less informative since their higher baseline levels could superimpose variation in brain.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
45Neuropsychopharmacology 2013 Nov 38: 2446-55
PMID23748226
TitleAdministration of the Y2 receptor agonist PYY3-36 in mice induces multiple behavioral changes relevant to schizophrenia.
AbstractFunctional changes in neuropeptide Y (NPY) signaling at the Y2 receptor subtype have been widely implicated in stress-related neuropsychiatric illnesses such as depression and anxiety disorders. Altered Y2 receptor signaling may also play a role in the precipitation of behavioral and cognitive symptoms associated with schizophrenia. To seek preclinical evidence for this possibility, we explored the functional consequences of treatment with the selective Y2 receptor agonist PYY(3-36) using translational tests for the assessment of schizophrenia-relevant behavioral and cognitive deficits in mice. We found that acute systemic administration of PYY(3-36) at a low dose (1??g/100?g body weight) or high dose (20??g/100?g body weight) profoundly impaired social interaction without affecting innate anxiety. PYY(3-36) treatment at the high dose further led to a disruption of sensorimotor gating in the form of prepulse inhibition deficiency. This effect was fully antagonized by acute treatment with the preferential dopamine D2 receptor antagonist haloperidol, but not with clozapine. In addition, both doses of PYY(3-36) impaired selective associative learning in the latent inhibition paradigm and spatial working memory in a matching-to-position water maze test. The wide range of abnormalities induced by PYY(3-36) suggests that signaling at the Y2 subtype of NPY receptors is critical for a number of behavioral and cognitive functions, some of which are highly relevant to schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders. At least some of the behavioral deficits induced by augmentation of Y2 receptor signaling may involve increased dopaminergic activity.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
46J Clin Psychopharmacol 2013 Feb 33: 11-7
PMID23277265
TitleAssociation of a functional polymorphism in neuropeptide Y with antipsychotic-induced weight gain in schizophrenia patients.
AbstractSignificant body weight gain (BWG) is a serious adverse effect of a number of antipsychotic drugs. Previous studies have demonstrated an influence of clozapine, but not haloperidol, on neuropeptide Y (NPY) expression in the hypothalamus. Because NPY is a potent orexigenic peptide stimulating food intake, and genetic variation of the gene has been shown to influence development of obesity, we investigated the impact of NPY polymorphisms on antipsychotic-induced BWG.We analyzed 5 polymorphisms in the NPY gene (rs10551063, rs16147, rs5573, rs5574, and rs16475) in schizophrenia subjects (n = 226), treated mostly with clozapine and olanzapine for up to 14 weeks. Association was tested using analysis of covariance with change (%) from baseline weight as the dependent variable and duration of treatment and baseline body weight as covariates.In patients of European ancestry who received either clozapine or olanzapine, significant genotypic and allelic association of rs16147 with weight change was observed (P(corrected) = 0.012 and 0.018, respectively). Carriers of the C allele gained significantly more weight compared with individuals with TT genotype (CC + CT vs TT; 5.82% 5.6% vs 2.25% 4.8%; P= 0.001). Similarly, 2 other polymorphisms (rs5573 and rs5574) were also significantly associated with weight change (P(corrected) = 0.018 and 0.03). In addition, we observed a significant gene-gene interaction between the rs16147 in NPY and rs806378 in cannabinoid receptor 1 (P(corrected) = 0.011).Our observation of association of NPY polymorphisms gives further evidence for a genetic influence on antipsychotic-induced BWG and suggests a role of NPY gene in influencing this complex adverse effect.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
47Am. J. Primatol. 2013 May 75: 415-24
PMID23042407
TitleNeuropeptide Y-immunoreactive neurons in the cerebral cortex of humans and other haplorrhine primates.
AbstractWe examined the distribution of neurons immunoreactive for neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the posterior part of the superior temporal cortex (Brodmann's area 22 or area Tpt) of humans and nonhuman haplorrhine primates. NPY has been implicated in learning and memory and the density of NPY-expressing cortical neurons and axons is reduced in depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and Alzheimer's disease. Due to the role that NPY plays in both cognition and neurodegenerative diseases, we tested the hypothesis that the density of cortical and interstitial neurons expressing NPY was increased in humans relative to other primate species. The study sample included great apes (chimpanzee and gorilla), Old World monkeys (pigtailed macaque, moor macaque, and baboon) and New World monkeys (squirrel monkey and capuchin). Stereologic methods were used to estimate the density of NPY-immunoreactive (-ir) neurons in layers I-VI of area Tpt and the subjacent white matter. Adjacent Nissl-stained sections were used to calculate local densities of all neurons. The ratio of NPY-ir neurons to total neurons within area Tpt and the total density of NPY-ir neurons within the white matter were compared among species. Overall, NPY-ir neurons represented only an average of 0.006% of the total neuron population. While there were significant differences among species, phylogenetic trends in NPY-ir neuron distributions were not observed and humans did not differ from other primates. However, variation among species warrants further investigation into the distribution of this neuromodulator system.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
48Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry 2014 Jan 48: 287-94
PMID23085507
TitleImmune system and glucose metabolism interaction in schizophrenia: a chicken-egg dilemma.
AbstractImpaired glucose metabolism and the development of metabolic syndrome contribute to a reduction in the average life expectancy of individuals with schizophrenia. It is unclear whether this association simply reflects an unhealthy lifestyle or whether weight gain and impaired glucose tolerance in patients with schizophrenia are directly attributable to the side effects of atypical antipsychotic medications or disease-inherent derangements. In addition, numerous previous studies have highlighted alterations in the immune system of patients with schizophrenia. Increased concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-?) appear to be state markers, whereas IL-12, interferon-gamma (IFN-?), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), and soluble IL-2 receptor (sIL-2R) appear to be trait markers of schizophrenia. Moreover, the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) and microglial activation are involved in the early course of the disease. This review illustrates a "chicken-egg dilemma", as it is currently unclear whether impaired cerebral glucose utilization leads to secondary disturbances in peripheral glucose metabolism, an increased risk of cardiovascular complications, and accompanying pro-inflammatory changes in patients with schizophrenia or whether immune mechanisms may be involved in the initial pathogenesis of schizophrenia, which leads to disturbances in glucose metabolism such as metabolic syndrome. Alternatively, shared underlying factors may be responsible for the co-occurrence of immune system and glucose metabolism disturbances in schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
49Neuropharmacology 2014 Aug 83: 1-8
PMID24704148
TitleChronic LSD alters gene expression profiles in the mPFC relevant to schizophrenia.
AbstractChronic administration of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) every other day to rats results in a variety of abnormal behaviors. These build over the 90 day course of treatment and can persist at full strength for at least several months after cessation of treatment. The behaviors are consistent with those observed in animal models of schizophrenia and include hyperactivity, reduced sucrose-preference, and decreased social interaction. In order to elucidate molecular changes that underlie these aberrant behaviors, we chronically treated rats with LSD and performed RNA-sequencing on the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), an area highly associated with both the actions of LSD and the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and other psychiatric illnesses. We observed widespread changes in the neurogenetic state of treated animals four weeks after cessation of LSD treatment. QPCR was used to validate a subset of gene expression changes observed with RNA-Seq, and confirmed a significant correlation between the two methods. Functional clustering analysis indicates differentially expressed genes are enriched in pathways involving neurotransmission (Drd2, Gabrb1), synaptic plasticity (Nr2a, Krox20), energy metabolism (Atp5d, Ndufa1) and neuropeptide signaling (NPY, Bdnf), among others. Many processes identified as altered by chronic LSD are also implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, and genes affected by LSD are enriched with putative schizophrenia genes. Our results provide a relatively comprehensive analysis of mPFC transcriptional regulation in response to chronic LSD, and indicate that the long-term effects of LSD may bear relevance to psychiatric illnesses, including schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
50Mol. Psychiatry 2014 May 19: 580-7
PMID24322205
TitleModulation of behavioral networks by selective interneuronal inactivation.
AbstractGamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic disturbances are hallmark features of schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders and encompass multiple interneuronal cell types. Using bacterial artificial chromosome-driven, miRNA silencing technology we generated transgenic mouse lines that suppress glutamic acid decarboxylase 1 (GAD1) in either cholecystokinin (CCK)- or neuropeptide Y (NPY)-expressing interneurons. In situ lipidomic and proteomic analyses on brain tissue sections revealed distinct, brain region-specific profiles in each transgenic line. Behavioral analyses revealed that suppression of GAD1 in CCK+ interneurons resulted in locomotor and olfactory sensory changes, whereas suppression in NPY+ interneurons affected anxiety-related behaviors and social interaction. Both transgenic mouse lines had altered sensitivity to amphetamine albeit in opposite directions. Together, these data argue that reduced GAD1 expression leads to altered molecular and behavioral profiles in a cell type-dependent manner, and that these subpopulations of interneurons are strong and opposing modulators of dopamine system function. Furthermore, our findings also support the hypothesis that neuronal networks are differentially controlled by diverse inhibitory subnetworks.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
51Front Hum Neurosci 2014 -1 8: 101
PMID24616688
TitleHumans and great apes share increased neocortical neuropeptide Y innervation compared to other haplorhine primates.
AbstractNeuropeptide Y (NPY) plays a role in a variety of basic physiological functions and has also been implicated in regulating cognition, including learning and memory. A decrease in neocortical NPY has been reported for Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depression, potentially contributing to associated cognitive deficits. The goal of the present analysis was to examine variation in neocortical NPY-immunoreactive axon and varicosity density among haplorhine primates (monkeys, apes, and humans). Stereologic methods were used to measure the ratios of NPY-expressing axon length density to total neuron density (ALv/Nv) and NPY-immunoreactive varicosity density to neuron density (Vv/Nv), as well as the mean varicosity spacing in neocortical areas 10, 24, 44, and 22 (Tpt) of humans, African great apes, New World monkeys, and Old World monkeys. Humans and great apes showed increased cortical NPY innervation relative to monkey species for ALv/Nv and Vv/Nv. Furthermore, humans and great apes displayed a conserved pattern of varicosity spacing across cortical areas and layers, with no differences between cortical layers or among cortical areas. These phylogenetic differences may be related to shared life history variables and may reflect specific cognitive abilities.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
52PLoS ONE 2014 -1 9: e104160
PMID25084453
TitlePreventing olanzapine-induced weight gain using betahistine: a study in a rat model with chronic olanzapine treatment.
AbstractOlanzapine is the one of first line antipsychotic drug for schizophrenia and other serious mental illness. However, it is associated with troublesome metabolic side-effects, particularly body weight gain and obesity. The antagonistic affinity to histamine H1 receptors (H1R) of antipsychotic drugs has been identified as one of the main contributors to weight gain/obesity side-effects. Our previous study showed that a short term (2 weeks) combination treatment of betahistine (an H1R agonist and H3R antagonist) and olanzapine (O+B) reduced (-45%) body weight gain induced by olanzapine in drug-nave rats. A key issue is that clinical patients suffering with schizophrenia, bipolar disease and other mental disorders often face chronic, even life-time, antipsychotic treatment, in which they have often had previous antipsychotic exposure. Therefore, we investigated the effects of chronic O+B co-treatment in controlling body weight in female rats with chronic and repeated exposure of olanzapine. The results showed that co-administration of olanzapine (3 mg/kg, t.i.d.) and betahistine (9.6 mg/kg, t.i.d.) significantly reduced (-51.4%) weight gain induced by olanzapine. Co-treatment of O+B also led to a decrease in feeding efficiency, liver and fat mass. Consistently, the olanzapine-only treatment increased hypothalamic H1R protein levels, as well as hypothalamic pAMPK?, AMPK? and NPY protein levels, while reducing the hypothalamic POMC, and UCP1 and PGC-1? protein levels in brown adipose tissue (BAT). The olanzapine induced changes in hypothalamic H1R, pAMPK?, BAT UCP1 and PGC-1? could be reversed by co-treatment of O+B. These results supported further clinical trials to test the effectiveness of co-treatment of O+B for controlling weight gain/obesity side-effects in schizophrenia with chronic antipsychotic treatment.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
53Psychoneuroendocrinology 2014 Oct 48: 77-86
PMID24992721
TitleBetahistine ameliorates olanzapine-induced weight gain through modulation of histaminergic, NPY and AMPK pathways.
AbstractOlanzapine is widely used to treat schizophrenia and other disorders, but causes adverse obesity and other metabolic side-effects. Both animal and clinical studies have shown that co-treatment with betahistine (a histaminergic H1 receptor agonist and H3 receptor antagonist) is effective for ameliorating olanzapine-induced weight gain/obesity. To reveal the mechanisms underlying these effects, this study investigated the effects of co-treatment of olanzapine and betahistine (O+B) on expressions of histaminergic H1 receptor (H1R), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) in the hypothalamus associated with reducing olanzapine-induced weight gain. Olanzapine significantly upregulated the mRNA and protein expressions of H1R, while O+B co-treatment significantly downregulated the H1R levels, compared to the olanzapine-only treatment group. The NPY mRNA expression was significantly enhanced by olanzapine, but it was significantly reversed by O+B co-treatment. The hypothalamic H1R expression was positively correlated with total food intake, and NPY expression. Olanzapine also increased AMPK? activation measured by the AMPK? phosphorylation (pAMPK?)/AMPK? ratio compared with controls, whereas O+B co-treatment decreased the pAMPK?/AMPK? ratio, compared with olanzapine only treatment. The pAMPK?/AMPK? ratio was positively correlated with total food intake and H1R expression. Although olanzapine administration decreased the POMC mRNA level, this level was not affected by O+B co-treatment. Therefore, these results suggested that co-treatment with betahistine may reverse olanzapine-induced body weight gain via the H1R-NPY and H1R-pAMPK? pathways.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
54Schizophr. Res. 2014 Jul 156: 223-7
PMID24799298
TitleNeuropeptide Y, social function and long-term outcome in schizophrenia.
AbstractThere is a lack of biomarkers in schizophrenia and the mechanisms underlying the observed deficits in social functioning are poorly understood. This cohort study aimed to explore whether neurotransmitter neuropeptide Y (NPY) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with schizophrenia is correlated to social function and clinical variables. A further aim was to determine whether baseline levels of NPY were associated with subsequent 3-year outcome. Fifty-six consecutively admitted patients with schizophrenia were included and underwent lumbar puncture and symptom ratings before antipsychotic treatment. NPY levels in CSF were determined by radioimmunoassay. Social function (Social Competence and Social Interest) was assessed by Nurses' Observation Scale for Inpatient Evaluation while psychiatric symptoms were rated using the Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale. Three-year outcome was assessed with the Strauss-Carpenter Outcome Scale. Cross-sectional analysis showed a correlation between level of NPY and Social Competence at index admission (r(s)=0.37, p<0.05). The longitudinal analysis (i.e., at the 3-year follow-up) indicated that, for each standard deviation increase in baseline NPY, there was an increased risk of being unemployed (odds ratio [OR] 2.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07-3.82), having moderate or severe symptoms (OR 3.09, CI 1.30-7.32) or being hospitalized at least 6 months the previous year (OR 3.24, CI 1.09-9.64). However, NPY was not correlated to Social Interest or clinical variables at index admission. In conclusion, NPY levels in CSF are correlated to Social Competence and seem to predict some aspects of longitudinal outcome in schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
55Brain Res. 2015 Jan 1596: 146-55
PMID25449893
TitleEffects of risperidone treatment on the expression of hypothalamic neuropeptide in appetite regulation in Wistar rats.
AbstractAlthough the use of atypical antipsychotic drugs has been successful in the treatment of schizophrenia, they can cause some complications in the long-term use, including weight gain. Patients using these drugs tend to disrupt treatment primarily due to side effects. The atypical antipsychotic mechanism of action regulates a number of highly disrupted neurotransmitter pathways in the brains of psychotic patients but may also cause impairment of neurohormonal pathways in different brain areas. In this study, we investigated the circulating levels of hypothalamic neurohormones, which are related to appetite regulation; neuropeptide Y (NPY); alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone (?-MSH); cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART); agouti-related peptide (AgRP); and leptin in male Wistar rats, which were treated with risperidone, a serotonin antagonist, for four weeks. Alterations in the mRNA expression levels of these candidate genes in the hypothalamus were also analyzed. We hypothesized that risperidone treatment might alter both hypothalamic and circulating levels of neuropeptides through serotonergic antagonism, resulting in weight gain. Gene expression studies revealed that the mRNA expression levels of proopiomelanocortin (POMC), AgRP, and NPY decreased as well as their plasma levels, except for NPY. Unexpectedly, CART mRNA levels increased when their plasma levels decreased. Because POMC neurons express the serotonin receptor (5HT2C), the serotonergic antagonism of risperidone on POMC neurons may cause an increase in appetite and thus increase food consumption even in a short-term trial in rats.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
56Neuropharmacology 2015 May 92: 56-62
PMID25576370
TitleSocial feeding in Caenorhabditis elegans is modulated by antipsychotic drugs and calmodulin and may serve as a protophenotype for asociality.
AbstractHere, we define a protophenotype as an endophenotype that has been conserved during evolution. Social feeding in Caenorhabditis elegans may be an example of a protophenotype related to asociality in schizophrenia. It is regulated by the highly conserved neuropeptide Y receptor, NPR-1, and we speculated that social feeding should be affected by antipsychotic drugs. The social feeding strain, npr-1(g320), was exposed to antipsychotic drugs, dopamine or calmodulin antagonists on plates with bacterial lawns, and the number of aggregates on the plates was counted as a measure of social feeding. First-generation antipsychotics, chlorpromazine, trifluoperazine, fluphenazine, and haloperidol, and the second-generation drug, olanzapine, inhibited social feeding. Dopamine accelerated aggregation, whereas selective D2 dopamine receptor antagonists, sulpiride and raclopride, were inhibitory. Calmodulin antagonists effectively inhibited social feeding, as did RNAi knockdown of calmodulin (cmd-1) expression. In addition, gap junction inhibitors prevented aggregation, which is consistent with the hub-and-spoke arrangement of neurons that regulate social feeding via functional gap junctions. The studies described here revealed novel connections between dopaminergic signaling, the NPY receptor, calmodulin, and gap junctions in the regulation of social behavior in C. elegans. These pathways are evolutionarily-conserved, and have also been implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
57Neuropeptides 2016 Jun 57: 21-34
PMID26988064
TitleIdentifying neuropeptide Y (NPY) as the main stress-related substrate of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) in blood circulation.
AbstractDipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4; EC 3.4.14.5; CD26) is a membrane-bound or shedded serine protease that hydrolyzes dipeptides from the N-terminus of peptides with either proline or alanine at the penultimate position. Substrates of DPP4 include several stress-related neuropeptides implicated in anxiety, depression and schizophrenia. A decline of DPP4-like activity has been reported in sera from depressed patient, but not fully characterized regarding DPP4-like enzymes, therapeutic interventions and protein.
Sera from 16 melancholic- and 16 non-melancholic-depressed patients were evaluated for DPP4-like activities and the concentration of soluble DPP4 protein before and after treatment by anti-depressive therapies. Post-translational modification of DPP4-isoforms and degradation of NPY, Peptide YY (PYY), Galanin-like peptide (GALP), Orexin B (OrxB), OrxA, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and substance P (SP) were studied in serum and in ex vivo human blood. N-terminal truncation of biotinylated NPY by endothelial membrane-bound DPP4 versus soluble DPP4 was determined in rat brain perfusates and spiked sera.
Lower DPP4 activities in depressed patients were reversed by anti-depressive treatment. In sera, DPP4 contributed to more than 90% of the overall DPP4-like activity and correlated with its protein concentration. NPY displayed equal degradation in serum and blood, and was equally truncated by serum and endothelial DPP4. In addition, GALP and rat OrxB were identified as novel substrates of DPP4.
NPY is the best DPP4-substrate in blood, being truncated by soluble and membrane DPP4, respectively. The decline of soluble DPP4 in acute depression could be reversed upon anti-depressive treatment. Peptidases from three functional compartments regulate the bioactivity of NPY in blood.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
58Pharmacol. Res. 2016 Apr 106: 51-63
PMID26892184
TitleAmeliorating antipsychotic-induced weight gain by betahistine: Mechanisms and clinical implications.
AbstractSecond generation antipsychotic drugs (SGAs) cause substantial body weight gain/obesity and other metabolic side-effects such as dyslipidaemia. Their antagonistic affinity to the histaminergic H1 receptor (H1R) has been identified as one of the main contributors to weight gain/obesity side-effects. The effects and mechanisms of betahistine (a histaminergic H1R agonist and H3 receptor antagonist) have been investigated for ameliorating SGA-induced weight gain/obesity in both animal models and clinical trials. It has been demonstrated that co-treatment with betahistine is effective in reducing weight gain, associated with olanzapine in drug-nave patients with schizophrenia, as well as in the animal models of both drug-nave rats and rats with chronic, repeated exposure to olanzapine. Betahistine co-treatment can reduce food intake and increase the effect of thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue by modulating hypothalamic H1R-NPY-AMPK? (NPY: neuropeptide Y; AMPK?: AMP-activated protein kinase ?) pathways, and ameliorate olanzapine-induced dyslipidaemia through modulation of AMPK?-SREBP-1-PPAR?-dependent pathways (SREBP-1: Sterol regulatory element binding protein 1; PPAR?: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-?) in the liver. Although reduced locomotor activity was observed from antipsychotic treatment in rats, betahistine did not affect locomotor activity. Importantly, betahistine co-treatment did not influence the effects of antipsychotics on serotonergic receptors in the key brain regions for antipsychotic therapeutic efficacy. However, betahistine co-treatment reverses the upregulated dopamine D2 binding caused by chronic olanzapine administration, which may be beneficial in reducing D2 supersensitivity often observed in chronic antipsychotic treatment. Therefore, these results provide solid evidence supporting further clinical trials in treating antipsychotics-induced weight gain using betahistine in patients with schizophrenia and other mental disorders.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics