|1||Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet. 2016 Mar 171: 181-202|
|Title||Currently recognized genes for schizophrenia: High-resolution chromosome ideogram representation.|
|Abstract||A large body of genetic data from schizophrenia-related research has identified an assortment of genes and disturbed pathways supporting involvement of complex genetic components for schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders. Advances in genetic technology and expanding studies with searchable genomic databases have led to multiple published reports, allowing us to compile a master list of known, clinically relevant, or susceptibility genes contributing to schizophrenia. We searched key words related to schizophrenia and genetics from peer-reviewed medical literature sources, authoritative public access psychiatric websites and genomic databases dedicated to gene discovery and characterization of schizophrenia. Our list of 560 genes were arranged in alphabetical order in tabular form with gene symbols placed on high-resolution human chromosome ideograms. Genome wide pathway analysis using GeneAnalytics was carried out on the resulting list of genes to assess the underlying genetic architecture for schizophrenia. Recognized genes of clinical relevance, susceptibility or causation impact a broad range of biological pathways and mechanisms including ion channels (e.g., CACNA1B, CACNA1C, CACNA1H), metabolism (e.g., CYP1A2, CYP2C19, CYP2D6), multiple targets of neurotransmitter pathways impacting dopamine, GABA, glutamate, and serotonin function, brain development (e.g., NRG1, RELN), signaling peptides (e.g., PIK3CA, PIK4CA) and immune function (e.g., HLA-DRB1, HLA-DQA1) and interleukins (e.g., IL1A, IL10, IL6). This summary will enable clinical and laboratory geneticists, genetic counselors, and other clinicians to access convenient pictorial images of the distribution and location of contributing genes to inform diagnosis and gene-based treatment as well as provide risk estimates for genetic counseling of families with affected relatives. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.|
|2||Nord J Psychiatry 2016 May 70: 272-5|
|Title||Relationship between phosphoinositide-3-kinase genetic polymorphism and schizophrenia.|
|Abstract||schizophrenia, with incidence of 1% worldwide, is a common mental disorder. Phosphoinositide-3-kinases (PI3Ks) are a family of enzymes involved in cellular functions such as cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, motility, intracellular trafficking, and survival. These enzymes play an important role in the PI3K/AKT signalling pathway. The PIK3CA gene encodes the alpha catalytic subunit of the PI3K enzyme. The present study analysed the role of three SNPs of the PIK3CA gene (rs6443624 (A/C), rs7640662(C/G) and rs7621329(C/T)) in the development of schizophrenia.|
In this case-controlled study, DNA was extracted from blood samples from 108 patients with schizophrenia and 108 healthy patients as controls. Genotypic analyses of PIK3CA SNPs rs6443624 (A/C), rs7640662(C/G) and rs7621329(C/T) were made using the tetra primer ARMS-PCR technique.
The outcome shows significant difference between CT and the combined genotype (CT?+?TT) of rs7621329 and the risk of schizophrenia (OR?=?6.4, 95% CI?=?3.023-14.23, p?0.0001). Outcome showed no significant difference for were for analyses of the rs6443624 and rs7640662 genotypes.
These results indicate an association between PIK3CA gene polymorphism on the rs7621329(C/T) site and the risk of schizophrenia. Further study of the genetic population using a larger sample size is necessary in order to validate these present findings.