1Psychiatr. Genet. 2000 Dec 10: 179-83
PMID11324943
TitleA rare short allele of the serotonin transporter promoter region (5-HTTLPR) found in an aggressive schizophrenic patient of Jewish Libyan origin.
AbstractThe serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4), which plays a key role in the serotonergic pathway in the brain, is a candidate for mediating genetic susceptibility to various psychiatric disorders. There are two predominant alleles in the polymorphic promotor region [5-HT transporter gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR)] of this gene: a long and a short allele with 16 and 14 repeat units, respectively. The short allele has lower activity and is associated with several psychiatric disorders and personality traits. We identified and sequenced a novel allele with 13 repeat units, 23 base pairs shorter than the common short allele. This unique allele was detected in a schizophrenic patient of Jewish Libyan origin. The patient exhibited extreme aggressive behavior and committed suicide after several attempts. The novel short allele was not detected in 172 healthy control subjects and 361 patients with various mental disorders. The presence of a very short unique allele in a severely aggressive schizophrenic patient may reflect a specific effect on the particular phenotype, although it is unlikely that this allele has a major contribution to susceptibility to schizophrenia. The role of the allele in serotonin transport and possible association with disease phenotype should be further investigated.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
2Psychiatr. Genet. 2000 Dec 10: 179-83
PMID11324943
TitleA rare short allele of the serotonin transporter promoter region (5-HTTLPR) found in an aggressive schizophrenic patient of Jewish Libyan origin.
AbstractThe serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4), which plays a key role in the serotonergic pathway in the brain, is a candidate for mediating genetic susceptibility to various psychiatric disorders. There are two predominant alleles in the polymorphic promotor region [5-HT transporter gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR)] of this gene: a long and a short allele with 16 and 14 repeat units, respectively. The short allele has lower activity and is associated with several psychiatric disorders and personality traits. We identified and sequenced a novel allele with 13 repeat units, 23 base pairs shorter than the common short allele. This unique allele was detected in a schizophrenic patient of Jewish Libyan origin. The patient exhibited extreme aggressive behavior and committed suicide after several attempts. The novel short allele was not detected in 172 healthy control subjects and 361 patients with various mental disorders. The presence of a very short unique allele in a severely aggressive schizophrenic patient may reflect a specific effect on the particular phenotype, although it is unlikely that this allele has a major contribution to susceptibility to schizophrenia. The role of the allele in serotonin transport and possible association with disease phenotype should be further investigated.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
3Psychiatr. Genet. 2002 Sep 12: 137-41
PMID12218657
TitleMajor psychiatric disorders and the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4): family-based association studies.
AbstractThe serotonin transporter (5-HTT) is a suitable candidate gene to test for involvement in the pathogenesis of major psychiatric disorders. We used the method of family-based controls to test for association between disease and a variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) in intron 2 of the gene, which has received support for involvement in the pathogenesis of several psychiatric disorders. We analysed 413 proband-parent trios of Bulgarian origin: 266 had a schizophrenic proband, 103 had a bipolar proband and 44 had a schizoaffective proband. The results were analysed using the extended transmission disequilibrium test. Possible effects of different alleles on certain clinical variables were examined by correlation analysis. Three alleles were detected: STin2.9, STin2.10 and STin2.12. None of the three diagnostic samples showed preferential transmission of alleles that reached conventional levels of statistical significance. We could not confirm previous results that STin2.12 allele increases susceptibility to bipolar disorder type I. The rare STin2.9 showed a non-significant trend for preferential transmission in the sample as a whole: 18 transmitted versus 11 non-transmitted (P = 0.2). The VNTR polymorphism in the 5-HTT gene does not appear to be a major risk factor for increasing susceptibility to major psychiatric disorders.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
4Mol. Psychiatry 2002 -1 7: 95-9
PMID11803453
TitleSerotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) and major psychoses.
AbstractSerotoninergic neurotransmitter systems have been implicated in the pathogenesis of major psychoses. A functional polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) in the upstream regulatory region of the gene (SLC6A4) has been associated with a number of psychiatric disturbances, but conflicting replication followed. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility that the 5-HTTLPR might be associated with major psychoses. One thousand, eight hundred and twenty inpatients (789 bipolars, 667 major depressives, 66 delusionals, 261 schizophrenics, 37 psychotics not otherwise specified-NOS) and 457 control subjects were included in this study. A subsample of 1235 patients (523 bipolars, 359 major depressives, 259 schizophrenics, 66 delusionals, 28 psychotic NOS) were evaluated for lifetime psychotic symptomatology using the Operational Criteria for Psychotic illness (OPCRIT) checklist. The subjects were also typed for 5-HTTLPR variants using PCR techniques. 5-HTTLPR allele frequencies were not significantly different between controls and bipolars, major depressives, schizophrenics, delusionals and psychotic NOS; genotype analysis also did not show any association. The analysis of symptomatology did not show significant differences. Consideration of possible stratification factors such as sex and age of onset did not significantly influence results. 5-HTTLPR variants are not therefore a liability factor for major psychoses or for major psychoses symptomatology.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
5Curr Psychiatry Rep 2005 Apr 7: 143-51
PMID15802092
TitleMeta-analysis in psychiatric genetics.
AbstractThe article reviews literature on methods for meta-analysis of genetic linkage and association studies, and summarizes and comments on specific meta-analysis findings for psychiatric disorders. The Genome Scan Meta-Analysis and Multiple Scan Probability methods assess the evidence for linkage across studies. Multiple Scan Probability analysis suggested linkage of two chromosomal regions (13q and 22q) to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, whereas Genome Scan Meta-Analysis on a larger sample identified at least 10 schizophrenia linkage regions, but none for bipolar disorder. Meta-analyses of pooled ORs support association of schizophrenia to the Ser311Cys polymorphism in DRD2 and the T102C polymorphism in HTR2A, and of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder to the 48-bp repeat in DRD4. The 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) may contribute to the risk of bipolar disorder, suicidal behavior, and neuroticism, but association to the lifetime risk of major depression has not been shown. Meta-analyses support linkage of schizophrenia to regions where replicable associations to candidate genes have been identified through positional cloning methods. There are additional supported regions where susceptibility genes are likely to be identified. Linkage meta-analysis has had less clear success for bipolar disorder based on a smaller dataset. Meta-analysis can guide the prioritization of regions for study, but proof of association requires biological confirmation of hypotheses about gene actions. Elucidation of causal mechanisms will require more comprehensive study of sequence variation in candidate genes, better statistical and meta-analytic methods to take all variation into account, and biological strategies for testing etiologic hypotheses.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
6Mol. Psychiatry 2005 Oct 10: 928-38, 891
PMID15940296
TitleMeta-analysis reveals association between serotonin transporter gene STin2 VNTR polymorphism and schizophrenia.
AbstractThe serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) is a candidate gene for schizophrenia based on serotonin transporter's crucial role in serotonergic neurotransmission. However, association studies have produced conflicting results regarding the association between two common SLC6A4 gene polymorphisms, the promoter insertion/deletion (5-HTTLPR) and the intron 2 VNTR (STin2 VNTR) polymorphisms, and schizophrenia susceptibility. To further elucidate the putative association between the two SLC6A4 gene polymorphisms and schizophrenia susceptibility, we performed a meta-analysis based on all original published association studies between schizophrenia and the 5-HTTLPR and STin2 VNTR polymorphisms published before April 2004. Our analyses showed no statistically significant evidence for the association between the Short allele of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and schizophrenia (random-effects pooled odds ratio (OR)=0.99, 95% Confidence Interval (CI)=0.92-1.07, Z=-0.23, P=0.82) from 19 population-based association studies consisting of 2990 case and 3875 control subjects. However, highly significant evidence for association between the STin2.12 allele of the STin2 VNTR polymorphism (random-effects pooled OR=1.24, 95% CI=1.11-1.38, Z=3.82, P=0.00014) and schizophrenia was found from 12 population-based association studies consisting of 2177 cases and 2369 control subjects. Our meta-analysis suggests that the STin2.12 allele of the STin2 VNTR polymorphism is likely a risk factor for schizophrenia susceptibility. Our data imply that following completion of the International HapMap Project, a comprehensive evaluation of a set of markers that fully characterize the linkage disequilibrium relationships at the SLC6A4 gene should be tested in large well-characterized clinical samples in order to understand the role of this gene in schizophrenia susceptibility.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
7J Neural Transm (Vienna) 2006 Jul 113: 899-905
PMID16082508
TitleNo association of serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder in Japanese patients: association analysis based on linkage disequilibrium.
AbstractSerotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) is one of the most promising candidate genes for psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorder (BP). Two functional polymorphisms, 5HTTLPR and 5HTTVNTR, have been a focus for genetic association analyses; however, no conclusive results have been obtained. We conducted, 1) a mutation search of SLC6A4, 2) LD mapping to select 'tagging' markers (10 SNPs and 5HTTVNTR, while 5HTTLPR was treated as an independent marker because of its allelic form), and 3) association analysis of these 'tagging' markers and independent markers (5HTTLPR and Asn605Lys) with SCZ and BP in Japanese patients. In this mutation search, a nonsynonymous SNP, Asn605Lys, was detected. No associations of 'tagging' markers and independent markers with such conditions were found. These results indicate that SLC6A4 might not play a major role in SCZ and BP in Japanese patients, a finding that agrees with both the common disease-common variant hypothesis and common disease-rare variant hypothesis.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
8J Neural Transm (Vienna) 2006 Jul 113: 887-97
PMID16252073
TitleInteraction analysis between 5-HTTLPR and TNFA -238/-308 polymorphisms in schizophrenia.
AbstractThis study investigated the potential interaction between the polymorphisms of serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4, a 44 base pair insertion/deletion in the promoter region, 5-HTTLPR) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene (TNFA; -238G/A and -308G/A polymorphisms) on the development of schizophrenia, as well as the interaction of the three polymorphisms in relation to symptomatology, family history, onset age and antipsychotic treatment response. Genomic DNA analyses with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for the genotyping. One hundred and fifty-two (152) patients with schizophrenia and 152 normal controls participated in the study. Any associations between the individual polymorphism and schizophrenia were not found. However, marginal association between subjects with both TNFA -238 A allele (genotype AA plus AG) and 5-HTTLPR s allele (ss plus sl) and presence of family history was found (p = 0.023; p = 0.026). The subjects with TNFA -308 AG genotype showed higher change in PANSS total score (p = 0.028). No significant interaction effect between 5-HTTLPR and TNFA -238/-308 polymorphisms either on the development of schizophrenia or on antipsychotics treatment response and psychopathology was found, although a significant interaction effect for subjects carrying TNFA -238 AG and -308 AA genotypes on a positive family history was observed (p = 0.017). These results suggest that the interaction effects between 5-HTTLPR and TNFA -238/-308 polymorphisms gives no significant contribution to the susceptibility to schizophrenia, and is not associated with clinical variables, antipsychotic treatment response and psychopathological features, except for family history of disease, at least in the Korean population.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
9Nat. Genet. 2008 Jul 40: 827-34
PMID18583979
TitleSystematic meta-analyses and field synopsis of genetic association studies in schizophrenia: the SzGene database.
AbstractIn an effort to pinpoint potential genetic risk factors for schizophrenia, research groups worldwide have published over 1,000 genetic association studies with largely inconsistent results. To facilitate the interpretation of these findings, we have created a regularly updated online database of all published genetic association studies for schizophrenia ('SzGene'). For all polymorphisms having genotype data available in at least four independent case-control samples, we systematically carried out random-effects meta-analyses using allelic contrasts. Across 118 meta-analyses, a total of 24 genetic variants in 16 different genes (APOE, COMT, DAO, DRD1, DRD2, DRD4, DTNBP1, GABRB2, GRIN2B, HP, IL1B, MTHFR, PLXNA2, SLC6A4, TP53 and TPH1) showed nominally significant effects with average summary odds ratios of approximately 1.23. Seven of these variants had not been previously meta-analyzed. According to recently proposed criteria for the assessment of cumulative evidence in genetic association studies, four of the significant results can be characterized as showing 'strong' epidemiological credibility. Our project represents the first comprehensive online resource for systematically synthesized and graded evidence of genetic association studies in schizophrenia. As such, it could serve as a model for field synopses of genetic associations in other common and genetically complex disorders.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
10Schizophr. Res. 2008 Sep 104: 96-107
PMID18715757
TitleGenetic associations with schizophrenia: meta-analyses of 12 candidate genes.
AbstractGenetic association studies on schizophrenia (SZ) have been repeatedly performed over the last two decades, resulting in a consensus that results are generally inconsistent. This consensus has begun to change as a result of meta-analyses (e.g., [Glatt, S.J. and Jonsson, E.G., 2006. The Cys allele of the DRD2 Ser311Cys polymorphism has a dominant effect on risk for schizophrenia: evidence from fixed- and random-effects meta-analyses. Am. J. Med. Genet. B. Neuropsychiatr. Genet. 141, 149-154.]). The schizophreniaGene database (http://www.schizophreniaforum.org/res/sczgene/default.asp) has been a leader in meta-analyses of SZ association data, by dynamically and comprehensively cataloging all public genetic association studies, and preparing meta-analyses of case-control data. There are 19 "top" candidate genes from these analyses (access on December 20, 2007), showing the highest effect sizes and nominally significant associations of at least one variant in the meta-analyses of all ethnic samples or of samples of Caucasian ancestry. We selected 40 polymorphisms in 12 selected "top" genes for additional meta-analyses, which had at least one familial association data. We found gene-wide (correction for the number of meta-analyses for each gene) significant allelic association evidence for seven genes in the combined samples. The odds ratios (ORs) of the associated minor risk alleles range from 1.072 to 1.121, for DRD4, MTHFR, PPP3CC and TP53. For protective allele associations, the ORs are between 0.842 and 0.886, for DAO, IL1B, and SLC6A4. In population-based sub-analyses, we found significant results in four genes in Asians (ORs between 1.084 and 1.309 for DRD4, GABRB2, PPP3CC, and TP53), and one gene in European (OR of 0.888 for SLC6A4). The association of rs1816072 of GABRB2 with SZ in Asians was significant (adjusted P=0.048 after correction for 80 tests). No significant heterogeneity between case-control and family-based study designs was detected in 35 out of 40 polymorphisms. Our results further support eight potential SZ candidate genes and suggest that family data can reasonably be included in the meta-analysis of genetic associations.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
11Neuroscience 2009 Nov 164: 331-43
PMID19358880
TitleThe genetics of bipolar disorder.
AbstractBipolar disorder is a mood disorder characterized by impairing episodes of mania and depression. Twin studies have established that bipolar disorder is among the most heritable of medical disorders and efforts to identify specific susceptibility genes have intensified over the past two decades. The search for genes influencing bipolar disorder has been complicated by a paucity of animal models, limited understanding of pathogenesis, and the genetic and phenotypic complexity of the syndrome. Linkage studies have implicated several chromosomal regions as harboring relevant genes, but results have been inconsistent. It is now widely accepted that the genetic liability to bipolar disorder reflects the action of many genes of individually small effect, a scenario for which linkage studies are poorly suited. Thus, association studies, which are more powerful for the detection of modest effect loci, have become the focus of gene-finding research. A large number of candidate genes, including biological candidates derived from hypotheses about the pathogenesis of the disorder and positional candidates derived from linkage and cytogenetic studies, have been evaluated. Several of these genes have been associated with the disorder in independent studies (including BDNF, DAOA, DISC1, GRIK4, SLC6A4, and TPH2), but none has been established. The clinical heterogeneity of bipolar disorder and its phenotypic and genetic overlap with other disorders (especially schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and major depressive disorder) have raised questions about the optimal phenotype definition for genetic studies. Nevertheless, genomewide association analysis, which has successfully identified susceptibility genes for a variety of complex disorders, has begun to implicate specific genes for bipolar disorder (DGKH, CACNA1C, ANK3). The polygenicity of the disorder means that very large samples will be needed to detect the modest effect loci that likely contribute to bipolar disorder. Detailed genetic dissection of the disorder may provide novel targets (both pharmacologic and psychosocial) for intervention.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
12Schizophr. Res. 2009 Apr 109: 94-7
PMID19268543
TitlePolymorphisms in SLC6A4, PAH, GABRB3, and MAOB and modification of psychotic disorder features.
AbstractWe tested four genes [phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH), the serotonin transporter (SLC6A4), monoamine oxidase B (MAOB), and the gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptor beta-3 subunit (GABRB3)] for their impact on five schizophrenia symptom factors: delusions, hallucinations, mania, depression, and negative symptoms. In a 90 family subset of the Irish Study of High Density schizophrenia Families, the PAH 232 bp microsatellite allele demonstrated significant association with the delusions factor using both QTDT (F=8.0, p=.031) and QPDTPHASE (chi-square=12.54, p=.028). Also, a significant association between the GABRB3 191 bp allele and the hallucinations factor was detected using QPDTPHASE (chi-square=15.51, p=.030), but not QTDT (chi-square=2.07, p=.560).
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
13Croat. Med. J. 2009 Aug 50: 361-9
PMID19673036
TitleAssociation of tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms on 8 candidate genes in dopaminergic pathway with schizophrenia in Croatian population.
AbstractTo perform a comprehensive evaluation of association of common genetic variants in candidate genes in the dopaminergic pathway with schizophrenia in a sample from Croatian population.
A case-control association study was performed on 104 unrelated patients with schizophrenia recruited from a psychiatric hospital in Zagreb and 131 phenotypically normal Croatian subjects. Forty-nine tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNPs) in 8 candidate genes in the dopaminergic pathway were identified from the HapMap database and tested for association. Genotyping was performed using the SNPlex platform. Statistical analysis was conducted to assess allelic and genotypic associations between cases and controls using a goodness of fit chi(2) test and trend test, respectively; adjustment for multiple testing was done by permutation based analysis.
Significant allele frequency differences between schizophrenia cases and controls were observed at 4 tagSNPs located in the genes DRD5, HTR1B1, DBH, and TH1 (P<0.005). A trend test also confirmed the genotypic association (P<0.001) of these 4 tagSNPs. Additionally, moderate association (P<0.05) was observed with 8 tagSNPs on SLC6A3, DBH, DRD4, SLC6A4, and COMT.
Common genetic variants in genes involved in the dopaminergic pathway are associated with schizophrenia in the populations of Caucasian descent.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
14Schizophr. Res. 2009 Jun 111: 103-8
PMID19361959
TitleThe serotonin transporter gene and disease modification in psychosis: evidence for systematic differences in allelic directionality at the 5-HTTLPR locus.
AbstractA 44 base pair insertion ("l")/deletion ("s") polymorphism (called 5-HTTLPR) in the 5' promoter region of the human serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) modulates expression and has been associated to anxiety and depressive traits in otherwise healthy individuals. In individuals with psychiatric diagnoses, including schizophrenia, it seems to modulate symptom severity. Thus, it may be a disease modifying gene. In this study, 92 patients with psychosis (including schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, bipolar psychosis, and major depression) were assessed at their first hospital admission. Symptom ratings, including SANS negative symptoms, SAPS positive symptoms, and SCID depressive symptoms, were obtained. Stress was also assessed. Bi-allelic genotyping at the 5-HTTLPR locus was done. Using multiple regression models, we found that 5-HTTLPR genotype (especially in dominant models) accounted for a significant portion of the variance in SCID Depression and SANS (about 5%). In particular we found that the l allele was associated with greater psychopathology. This is consistent with our review of the literature and is at variance with findings in healthy controls that the s allele is associated with greater anxiety and depression levels. We believe that this set of findings argues for principled reversal of directionality in associations at the 5-HTTLPR locus and raises the possibility that allelic variation may have very different consequences for personality traits or psychiatric symptoms depending on epistasis or epigenetic context. Furthermore, these results also imply that categorical diagnostic distinctions may still be relevant in understanding some genetic effects.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
15J. Hum. Genet. 2009 Sep 54: 538-42
PMID19713975
TitleEvidence of association of serotonin transporter gene polymorphisms with schizophrenia in a South Indian population.
AbstractSerotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)) transporter (SLC6A4) is known to influence mood, emotion, cognition and efficacy of antidepressants, particularly that of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Atypical antipsychotics exert their effects partially through serotinergic systems, and hence, variation in 5-HT uptake may affect antipsychotic action mediated through the serotinergic system. Therefore, investigating the role of SLC6A4 as a risk factor for developing schizophrenia and treatment response had been a point of concern for many investigators, but with variable outcome. In this study, we examined the genetic roles of five polymorphisms of SLC6A4, including those of the widely studied 44 base pair variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) in the promoter region of SLC6A4 (the serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphic region: 5HTTLPR) and a VNTR polymorphism (STin2) in the second intron, in schizophrenia and its influence on the severity of symptoms in a South Indian population from Kerala, comprising 586 individuals. We detected significant allelic and genotypic associations with rs2066713 (both allelic and genotypic P-value <0.001), 5HTTLPR (allelic P-value=0.008 and genotypic P-value=0.03) and STin2 polymorphisms (allelic P-value=0.001 and genotypic P-value=0.002). A haplotype linking these three risk alleles, 5HTTLPR/S-rs2066713/C-STin2/12-repeat (P-value=0.0059), was also significantly associated with disease in our population. Patients with STin2 12-repeat homozygotes showed a greater severity of blunted effect symptom. These results suggest a strong role of SLC6A4 in schizophrenia, possibly with a specific behavioral endophenotype in a South Indian population.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
16Biol. Psychiatry 2010 Oct 68: 657-66
PMID20691427
TitleGenetic associations of brain structural networks in schizophrenia: a preliminary study.
Abstractschizophrenia is a complex genetic disorder, with multiple putative risk genes and many reports of reduced cortical gray matter. Identifying the genetic loci contributing to these structural alterations in schizophrenia (and likely also to normal structural gray matter patterns) could aid understanding of schizophrenia's pathophysiology. We used structural parameters as potential intermediate illness markers to investigate genomic factors derived from single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays.
We used research quality structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) scans from European American subjects including 33 healthy control subjects and 18 schizophrenia patients. All subjects were genotyped for 367 SNPs. Linked sMRI and genetic (SNP) components were extracted to reveal relationships between brain structure and SNPs, using parallel independent component analysis, a novel multivariate approach that operates effectively in small sample sizes.
We identified an sMRI component that significantly correlated with a genetic component (r = -.536, p < .00005); components also distinguished groups. In the sMRI component, schizophrenia gray matter deficits were in brain regions consistently implicated in previous reports, including frontal and temporal lobes and thalamus (p < .01). These deficits were related to SNPs from 16 genes, several previously associated with schizophrenia risk and/or involved in normal central nervous system development, including AKT, PI3K, SLC6A4, DRD2, CHRM2, and ADORA2A.
Despite the small sample size, this novel analysis method identified an sMRI component including brain areas previously reported to be abnormal in schizophrenia and an associated genetic component containing several putative schizophrenia risk genes. Thus, we identified multiple genes potentially underlying specific structural brain abnormalities in schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
17Neuroimage 2010 Nov 53: 1007-15
PMID19944766
TitleA pilot multivariate parallel ICA study to investigate differential linkage between neural networks and genetic profiles in schizophrenia.
AbstractUnderstanding genetic influences on both healthy and disordered brain function is a major focus in psychiatric neuroimaging. We utilized task-related imaging findings from an fMRI auditory oddball task known to be robustly associated with abnormal activation in schizophrenia, to investigate genomic factors derived from multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from genes previously shown to be associated with schizophrenia. Our major aim was to investigate the relationship of these genomic factors to normal/abnormal brain functionality between controls and schizophrenia patients. We studied a Caucasian-only sample of 35 healthy controls and 31 schizophrenia patients. All subjects performed an auditory oddball task, which consists of detecting an infrequent sound within a series of frequent sounds. Each subject was characterized on 24 different SNP markers spanning multiple risk genes previously associated with schizophrenia. We used a recently developed technique named parallel independent component analysis (para-ICA) to analyze this multimodal data set (Liu et al., 2008). The method aims to identify simultaneously independent components of each modality (functional imaging, genetics) and the relationships between them. We detected three fMRI components significantly correlated with two distinct gene components. The fMRI components, along with their significant genetic profile (dominant SNP) correlations were as follows: (1) Inferior frontal-anterior/posterior cingulate-thalamus-caudate with SNPs from Brain derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) and dopamine transporter (DAT) [r=-0.51; p<0.0001], (2) superior/middle temporal gyrus-cingulate-premotor with SLC6A4_PR and SLC6A4_PR_AG (serotonin transporter promoter; 5HTTLPR) [r=0.27; p=0.03], and (3) default mode-fronto-temporal gyrus with Brain derived neurotropic factor and dopamine transporter (BDNF, DAT) [r=-0.25; p=0.04]. Functional components comprised task-relevant regions (including PFC, ACC, STG and MTG) frequently identified as abnormal in schizophrenia. Further, gene-fMRI combinations 1 (Z=1.75; p=0.03), 2 (Z=1.84; p=0.03) and 3 (Z=1.67; p=0.04) listed above showed significant differences between controls and patients, based on their correlated loading coefficients. We demonstrate a framework to identify interactions between "clusters" of brain function and of genetic information. Our results reveal the effect/influence of specific interactions, (perhaps epistastatic in nature), between schizophrenia risk genes on imaging endophenotypes representing attention/working memory and goal directed related brain function, thus establishing a useful methodology to probe multivariate genotype-phenotype relationships.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
18J. Neurogenet. 2010 Jul 24: 83-9
PMID20397838
TitleAssociation of serotonin transporter promoter gene polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) with depression in Costa Rican schizophrenic patients.
AbstractDepression and suicidal behavior are frequently observed in patients with schizophrenia. The serotonin transporter protein regulates serotonergic signaling at synapses and is encoded by a single gene (SLC6A4; Locus Link ID: 6532), located at 17q11.1-q12 with two polymorphic variants (the short and the long allele). The short allele of serotonin transporter gene has been associated with depression and suicidality in individuals who suffered negative life events and with depression in individuals with chronic psychosis.. Subjects were recruited from a genetic study of schizophrenia conducted in Costa Rica. The authors replicated their previous research, using a more narrow phenotype (only schizophrenic subjects) and a more ethnically homogenous sample (only Costa Rican schizophrenic individuals who were not included in the previous study). The authors hypothesized that subjects with at least one copy of the serotonin transporter promoter gene polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) "s" allele would have a greater history of lifetime depression and suicidability rate than those who had an "l/l" genotype. The authors analyzed 155 subjects with a DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition) diagnosis of schizophrenia (73% male, age at interview 38.3, SD = 11.23). The genotype distribution was "ss" 58 (37%), "sl" 69 (45%), and "ll" 28 (18%). In the secondary analysis, the authors explored association of the "s" allele with lifetime history of suicide behavior in 173 subjects (18 more subjects than primary analysis because schizophrenic individuals were included regardless of history of depression). The authors found that subjects carrying at least one short allele had a significant increased lifetime risk for depressive syndromes (chi(2) = 5.4, df = 1, P = 0.02; odds ratio [OR] = 2.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.15-6.3). No association was found for suicidal behavior in the same sample (chi(2) = 0.928, P = 0.629). In conclusion, the genotype at the 5-HTTLPR promoter polymorphic locus increases the risk of developing major depression but not suicidal behavior during the course of the schizophrenia in these patients. Due to the small sample size, these results should be followed by definitive replication.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
19J. Neurogenet. 2010 Jul 24: 83-9
PMID20397838
TitleAssociation of serotonin transporter promoter gene polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) with depression in Costa Rican schizophrenic patients.
AbstractDepression and suicidal behavior are frequently observed in patients with schizophrenia. The serotonin transporter protein regulates serotonergic signaling at synapses and is encoded by a single gene (SLC6A4; Locus Link ID: 6532), located at 17q11.1-q12 with two polymorphic variants (the short and the long allele). The short allele of serotonin transporter gene has been associated with depression and suicidality in individuals who suffered negative life events and with depression in individuals with chronic psychosis.. Subjects were recruited from a genetic study of schizophrenia conducted in Costa Rica. The authors replicated their previous research, using a more narrow phenotype (only schizophrenic subjects) and a more ethnically homogenous sample (only Costa Rican schizophrenic individuals who were not included in the previous study). The authors hypothesized that subjects with at least one copy of the serotonin transporter promoter gene polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) "s" allele would have a greater history of lifetime depression and suicidability rate than those who had an "l/l" genotype. The authors analyzed 155 subjects with a DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition) diagnosis of schizophrenia (73% male, age at interview 38.3, SD = 11.23). The genotype distribution was "ss" 58 (37%), "sl" 69 (45%), and "ll" 28 (18%). In the secondary analysis, the authors explored association of the "s" allele with lifetime history of suicide behavior in 173 subjects (18 more subjects than primary analysis because schizophrenic individuals were included regardless of history of depression). The authors found that subjects carrying at least one short allele had a significant increased lifetime risk for depressive syndromes (chi(2) = 5.4, df = 1, P = 0.02; odds ratio [OR] = 2.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.15-6.3). No association was found for suicidal behavior in the same sample (chi(2) = 0.928, P = 0.629). In conclusion, the genotype at the 5-HTTLPR promoter polymorphic locus increases the risk of developing major depression but not suicidal behavior during the course of the schizophrenia in these patients. Due to the small sample size, these results should be followed by definitive replication.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
20Psychiatry Res 2010 Jan 175: 38-42
PMID19995670
TitlePreliminary effects of bupropion and the promoter region (HTTLPR) serotonin transporter (SLC6A4) polymorphism on smoking behavior in schizophrenia.
AbstractIn the current study, we investigated how individual variants in the serotonin promoter gene, previously associated with smoking cessation and linked to anxiety-related personality traits, were associated with individual differences in responsiveness to bupropion and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in a clinical population. We hypothesize that subjects with the long allele may be less responsive to treatment. Altogether 61 schizophrenic patients (46 M, 15 F) on stable neuroleptic medication were initially enrolled in a smoking reduction program (prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled) including cognitive behavioral therapy plus placebo or CBT plus bupropion. Additionally, subjects were genotyped for a polymorphism in the serotonin transporter (SLC6A4). Thirty-two subjects (23 M, 9 F) completed a 14-week course of treatment. While both groups of subjects demonstrated significant reductions in smoking behavior due to CBT, subjects receiving bupropion did not show significant differences in smoking behavior when compared to placebo. In addition, analysis by SPSS repeated measures multivariate showed a significant sex by SLC6A4 genotype interaction on the number of cigarettes smoked. Only male subjects with at least one short promoter region allele (short/short and short/long combined) showed a reduction in cigarette consumption as a result of treatment. This study provides preliminary evidence of how polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter can be informative in predicting individual responses to smoking reduction therapy.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
21Psychiatry Res 2010 Jan 175: 38-42
PMID19995670
TitlePreliminary effects of bupropion and the promoter region (HTTLPR) serotonin transporter (SLC6A4) polymorphism on smoking behavior in schizophrenia.
AbstractIn the current study, we investigated how individual variants in the serotonin promoter gene, previously associated with smoking cessation and linked to anxiety-related personality traits, were associated with individual differences in responsiveness to bupropion and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in a clinical population. We hypothesize that subjects with the long allele may be less responsive to treatment. Altogether 61 schizophrenic patients (46 M, 15 F) on stable neuroleptic medication were initially enrolled in a smoking reduction program (prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled) including cognitive behavioral therapy plus placebo or CBT plus bupropion. Additionally, subjects were genotyped for a polymorphism in the serotonin transporter (SLC6A4). Thirty-two subjects (23 M, 9 F) completed a 14-week course of treatment. While both groups of subjects demonstrated significant reductions in smoking behavior due to CBT, subjects receiving bupropion did not show significant differences in smoking behavior when compared to placebo. In addition, analysis by SPSS repeated measures multivariate showed a significant sex by SLC6A4 genotype interaction on the number of cigarettes smoked. Only male subjects with at least one short promoter region allele (short/short and short/long combined) showed a reduction in cigarette consumption as a result of treatment. This study provides preliminary evidence of how polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter can be informative in predicting individual responses to smoking reduction therapy.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
22Mol. Psychiatry 2010 Feb 15: 166-76
PMID18663369
TitlePanic disorder is associated with the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) but not the promoter region (5-HTTLPR).
AbstractPanic disorder (PD) and social anxiety disorder (SAD) are moderately heritable anxiety disorders. We analyzed five genes, derived from pharmacological or translational mouse models, in a new case-control study of PD and SAD in European Americans: (1) the serotonin transporter (SLC6A4), (2) the serotonin receptor 1A, (3) catechol-O-methyltransferase, (4) a regulator of g-protein signaling and (5) the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor. Cases were interviewed using the schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia and were required to have a probable or definite lifetime diagnosis of PD (N=179), SAD (161) or both (140), with first onset by age 31 and a family history of anxiety. Final diagnoses were determined using the best estimate procedure, blind to genotyping data. Controls were obtained from the National Institute of Mental Health Human Genetics Initiative; only subjects above 25 years of age who screened negative for all psychiatric symptoms were included (N=470). A total of 45 single nucleotide polymorphisms were successfully genotyped over the five selected genes using Applied Biosystems SNPlex protocol. SLC6A4 provided strong and consistent evidence of association with the PD and PD+SAD groups, with the most significant association in both groups being at rs140701 (chi(2)=10.72, P=0.001 with PD and chi(2)=8.59, P=0.003 in the PD+SAD group). This association remained significant after multiple test correction. Those carrying at least one copy of the haplotype A-A-G constructed from rs3794808, rs140701 and rs4583306 have 1.7 times the odds of PD than those without the haplotype (95% confidence interval: 1.2-2.3). The SAD only group did not provide evidence of association, suggesting a PD-driven association. The findings remained after adjustment for age and sex, and there was no evidence that the association was due to population stratification. The promoter region of the gene, 5-HTTLPR, did not provide any evidence of association, regardless of whether analyzed as a triallelic or biallelic locus, nor did any of the other four candidate genes tested. Our findings suggest that the serotonin transporter gene may play a role in PD; however, the findings require replication. Future studies should attend to the entire genetic region rather than the promoter.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
23Rev Neurol 2010 Mar 50: 325-32
PMID20309830
TitleSerotonin transporter gene polymorphisms and auditory hallucinations in psychosis.
AbstractTo study the role of the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) in the emotional processing of auditory hallucinations can be particularly important to better understand the pathophysiology of auditory hallucinations. Moreover, a poly-morphism located in this gene (5-HTTLPR) has been previously associated with different disorders related to altered emotional responses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between different polymorphisms of the SLC6A4 gene and different aspects of auditory hallucinations in schizophrenic patients, with a special consideration toward the emotional response to auditory hallucinations.
Two samples of 224 patients with auditory hallucinations and 346 healthy subjects were studied. AH were assessed in patients through the PSYRATS scale for auditory hallucinations. Several polymorphisms located within the SLC6A4 gene were analysed through case-control comparisons as well as association analyses with different parameters of auditory hallucinations.
No differences were found between patients and controls for any of the analysed polymorphisms (p > 0.05). However, the evaluation of auditory hallucinations parameters showed that the low expressing alleles of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism were associated with higher levels of intensity of the distress caused by auditory hallucinations (p = 0.049 corrected for the item 'intensity of distress'). There was also a trend with the parameter disruption (p = 0.06 corrected). These two items of the PSYRATS scale are directly related to the emotional dimension of auditory hallucinations. In contrast, we did not observe any association with items related to other dimensions of auditory hallucinations.
Our results support a possible role of the serotonin transporter in the emotional response to auditory hallucinations.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
24Transl Psychiatry 2012 -1 2: e173
PMID23092977
TitleDevelopmental regulation of expression of schizophrenia susceptibility genes in the primate hippocampal formation.
AbstractThe hippocampal formation is essential for normal memory function and is implicated in many neurodevelopmental, neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders. In particular, abnormalities in hippocampal structure and function have been identified in schizophrenic subjects. schizophrenia has a strong polygenic component, but the role of numerous susceptibility genes in normal brain development and function has yet to be investigated. Here we described the expression of schizophrenia susceptibility genes in distinct regions of the monkey hippocampal formation during early postnatal development. We found that, as compared with other genes, schizophrenia susceptibility genes exhibit a differential regulation of expression in the dentate gyrus, CA3 and CA1, over the course of postnatal development. A number of these genes involved in synaptic transmission and dendritic morphology exhibit a developmental decrease of expression in CA3. Abnormal CA3 synaptic organization observed in schizophrenics might be related to some specific symptoms, such as loosening of association. Interestingly, changes in gene expression in CA3 might occur at a time possibly corresponding to the late appearance of the first clinical symptoms. We also found earlier changes in expression of schizophrenia susceptibility genes in CA1, which might be linked to prodromal psychotic symptoms. A number of schizophrenia susceptibility genes including APOE, BDNF, MTHFR and SLC6A4 are involved in other disorders, and thus likely contribute to nonspecific changes in hippocampal structure and function that must be combined with the dysregulation of other genes in order to lead to schizophrenia pathogenesis.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
25Transl Psychiatry 2012 -1 2: e173
PMID23092977
TitleDevelopmental regulation of expression of schizophrenia susceptibility genes in the primate hippocampal formation.
AbstractThe hippocampal formation is essential for normal memory function and is implicated in many neurodevelopmental, neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders. In particular, abnormalities in hippocampal structure and function have been identified in schizophrenic subjects. schizophrenia has a strong polygenic component, but the role of numerous susceptibility genes in normal brain development and function has yet to be investigated. Here we described the expression of schizophrenia susceptibility genes in distinct regions of the monkey hippocampal formation during early postnatal development. We found that, as compared with other genes, schizophrenia susceptibility genes exhibit a differential regulation of expression in the dentate gyrus, CA3 and CA1, over the course of postnatal development. A number of these genes involved in synaptic transmission and dendritic morphology exhibit a developmental decrease of expression in CA3. Abnormal CA3 synaptic organization observed in schizophrenics might be related to some specific symptoms, such as loosening of association. Interestingly, changes in gene expression in CA3 might occur at a time possibly corresponding to the late appearance of the first clinical symptoms. We also found earlier changes in expression of schizophrenia susceptibility genes in CA1, which might be linked to prodromal psychotic symptoms. A number of schizophrenia susceptibility genes including APOE, BDNF, MTHFR and SLC6A4 are involved in other disorders, and thus likely contribute to nonspecific changes in hippocampal structure and function that must be combined with the dysregulation of other genes in order to lead to schizophrenia pathogenesis.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
26Transl Psychiatry 2012 -1 2: e173
PMID23092977
TitleDevelopmental regulation of expression of schizophrenia susceptibility genes in the primate hippocampal formation.
AbstractThe hippocampal formation is essential for normal memory function and is implicated in many neurodevelopmental, neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders. In particular, abnormalities in hippocampal structure and function have been identified in schizophrenic subjects. schizophrenia has a strong polygenic component, but the role of numerous susceptibility genes in normal brain development and function has yet to be investigated. Here we described the expression of schizophrenia susceptibility genes in distinct regions of the monkey hippocampal formation during early postnatal development. We found that, as compared with other genes, schizophrenia susceptibility genes exhibit a differential regulation of expression in the dentate gyrus, CA3 and CA1, over the course of postnatal development. A number of these genes involved in synaptic transmission and dendritic morphology exhibit a developmental decrease of expression in CA3. Abnormal CA3 synaptic organization observed in schizophrenics might be related to some specific symptoms, such as loosening of association. Interestingly, changes in gene expression in CA3 might occur at a time possibly corresponding to the late appearance of the first clinical symptoms. We also found earlier changes in expression of schizophrenia susceptibility genes in CA1, which might be linked to prodromal psychotic symptoms. A number of schizophrenia susceptibility genes including APOE, BDNF, MTHFR and SLC6A4 are involved in other disorders, and thus likely contribute to nonspecific changes in hippocampal structure and function that must be combined with the dysregulation of other genes in order to lead to schizophrenia pathogenesis.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
27Front Psychiatry 2012 -1 3: 32
PMID22529823
TitleConnectomic intermediate phenotypes for psychiatric disorders.
AbstractPsychiatric disorders are phenotypically heterogeneous entities with a complex genetic basis. To mitigate this complexity, many investigators study so-called intermediate phenotypes (IPs) that putatively provide a more direct index of the physiological effects of candidate genetic risk variants than overt psychiatric syndromes. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a particularly popular technique for measuring such phenotypes because it allows interrogation of diverse aspects of brain structure and function in vivo. Much of this work however, has focused on relatively simple measures that quantify variations in the physiology or tissue integrity of specific brain regions in isolation, contradicting an emerging consensus that most major psychiatric disorders do not arise from isolated dysfunction in one or a few brain regions, but rather from disturbed interactions within and between distributed neural circuits; i.e., they are disorders of brain connectivity. The recent proliferation of new MRI techniques for comprehensively mapping the entire connectivity architecture of the brain, termed the human connectome, has provided a rich repertoire of tools for understanding how genetic variants implicated in mental disorder impact distinct neural circuits. In this article, we review research using these connectomic techniques to understand how genetic variation influences the connectivity and topology of human brain networks. We highlight recent evidence from twin and imaging genetics studies suggesting that the penetrance of candidate risk variants for mental illness, such as those in SLC6A4, MAOA, ZNF804A, and APOE, may be higher for IPs characterized at the level of distributed neural systems than at the level of spatially localized brain regions. The findings indicate that imaging connectomics provides a powerful framework for understanding how genetic risk for psychiatric disease is expressed through altered structure and function of the human connectome.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
28Psychiatr. Genet. 2012 Aug 22: 182-8
PMID22504458
TitlePrediction of serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism genotypes from single nucleotide polymorphism arrays using machine learning methods.
AbstractThe serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) and its promoter (5-HTTLPR) polymorphism have been the focus of a large number of association studies of behavioral traits and psychiatric disorders. However, large-scale genotyping of the polymorphism has been very difficult. We report the development and validation of a 5-HTTLPR genotype prediction model.
The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the 2000 kb region surrounding 5-HTTLPR were used to construct a prediction model through a newly developed machine learning method, multicategory vertex discriminant analysis with 2147 individuals from the Northern Finnish Birth Cohort genotyped with the Illumina 370K SNP array and manually genotyped for 5-HTTLPR polymorphism. The prediction model was applied to SNP genotypes in a Dutch/German schizophrenia case-control sample of 3318 individuals to test the association of the polymorphism with schizophrenia.
The prediction model of eight SNPs achieved a 92.4% accuracy rate and a 0.980.01 area under the receiving operating characteristic. Evidence for an association of the polymorphism with schizophrenia was observed (P=0.05, odds ratio=1.105).
This prediction model provides an effective substitute of manually genotyped 5-HTTLPR alleles, providing a new approach for large scale association studies of this polymorphism.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
29Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova 2012 -1 112: 39-44
PMID23250597
Title[An association study of polymorphisms in HTR2A, BDNF and SLC6A4 genes with paranoid schizophrenia and suicidal behavior].
AbstractWe have developed a biochip for the analysis of candidate genes for schizophrenia. Using this biochip, allele and genotype frequencies for the polymorphisms of HTR2A, BDNF and SLC6A4 genes in 198 patients with schizophrenia and 192 healthy individuals have been obtained. The allele T of the HTR2A polymorphism rs6314 was identified as protective against the development of paranoid schizophrenia (p=0,014). An analysis of gene-gene interactions using the Multifactor-Dimensionality Reduction (MDR) algorithm has shown a statistically significant association of combined genotypes rs6311 G/-, rs6313 C/-, rs6314 C/C, rs7997012 G/- with the disease (p=0.019). Also it has been shown that the G/G genotype of the polymorphism rs6311 (p=0.013) and the C/C genotype of the polymorphism rs6313 (p=0.008) in the HTR2A gene are associated with the suicide attempt in schizophrenic patients. Correspondingly, an A allele, ?/- genotypes of the polymorphism rs6311 G>A and a T allele, T/- genotypes of the polymorphism rs6313 C>T were found to be less frequent in schizophrenic patients with a history of suicide attempt than in schizophrenic patients without a history of suicide attempt, thus suggesting their protective role in the development of suicidal behavior. The results confirm the hypothesis that the HTR2A plays an important role in the etiology of schizophrenia and suicidal behavior.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
30Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova 2012 -1 112: 39-44
PMID23250597
Title[An association study of polymorphisms in HTR2A, BDNF and SLC6A4 genes with paranoid schizophrenia and suicidal behavior].
AbstractWe have developed a biochip for the analysis of candidate genes for schizophrenia. Using this biochip, allele and genotype frequencies for the polymorphisms of HTR2A, BDNF and SLC6A4 genes in 198 patients with schizophrenia and 192 healthy individuals have been obtained. The allele T of the HTR2A polymorphism rs6314 was identified as protective against the development of paranoid schizophrenia (p=0,014). An analysis of gene-gene interactions using the Multifactor-Dimensionality Reduction (MDR) algorithm has shown a statistically significant association of combined genotypes rs6311 G/-, rs6313 C/-, rs6314 C/C, rs7997012 G/- with the disease (p=0.019). Also it has been shown that the G/G genotype of the polymorphism rs6311 (p=0.013) and the C/C genotype of the polymorphism rs6313 (p=0.008) in the HTR2A gene are associated with the suicide attempt in schizophrenic patients. Correspondingly, an A allele, ?/- genotypes of the polymorphism rs6311 G>A and a T allele, T/- genotypes of the polymorphism rs6313 C>T were found to be less frequent in schizophrenic patients with a history of suicide attempt than in schizophrenic patients without a history of suicide attempt, thus suggesting their protective role in the development of suicidal behavior. The results confirm the hypothesis that the HTR2A plays an important role in the etiology of schizophrenia and suicidal behavior.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
31Psychol Med 2012 Mar 42: 607-16
PMID21854684
TitleHypothesis-driven candidate genes for schizophrenia compared to genome-wide association results.
AbstractCandidate gene studies have been a key approach to the genetics of schizophrenia (SCZ). However, the results of these studies are confusing and no genes have been unequivocally implicated. The hypothesis-driven candidate gene literature can be appraised by comparison with the results of genome-wide association studies (GWAS).
We describe the characteristics of hypothesis-driven candidate gene studies from the SZGene database, and use pathway analysis to compare hypothesis-driven candidate genes with GWAS results from the International schizophrenia Consortium (ISC).
SZGene contained 732 autosomal genes evaluated in 1374 studies. These genes had poor statistical power to detect genetic effects typical for human diseases, assessed only 3.7% of genes in the genome, and had low marker densities per gene. Most genes were assessed once or twice (76.9%), providing minimal ability to evaluate consensus across studies. The ISC studies had 89% power to detect a genetic effect typical for common human diseases and assessed 79% of known autosomal common genetic variation. Pathway analyses did not reveal enrichment of smaller ISC p values in hypothesis-driven candidate genes, nor did a comprehensive evaluation of meta-hypotheses driving candidate gene selection (SCZ as a disease of the synapse or neurodevelopment). The most studied hypothesis-driven candidate genes (COMT, DRD3, DRD2, HTR2A, NRG1, BDNF, DTNBP1 and SLC6A4) had no notable ISC results.
We did not find support for the idea that the hypothesis-driven candidate genes studied in the literature are enriched for the common genetic variation involved in the etiology of SCZ. Larger samples are required to evaluate this conclusion definitively.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
32Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2012 Dec 262: 667-76
PMID22454241
TitleGenetic polymorphisms of 5-HTT and DAT but not COMT differentially affect verbal and visuospatial working memory functioning.
AbstractWorking memory deficits are found in different psychiatric populations and are most pronounced in schizophrenia. There is preliminary evidence from pharmacological studies that the verbal and visuospatial subcomponents of working memory are subject to differential neurotransmitter modulation. Here, we investigated the impact of well-known polymorphisms of the dopamine transporter gene (SLC6A3, DAT) and the catechol-O-methyl-transferase gene (COMT) as well as the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4, 5-HTT) on these specific working memory subcomponents in a mixed sample of patients and healthy individuals. Twenty healthy subjects and 80 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, bipolar I disorder, or obsessive-compulsive disorder underwent genotyping for the DAT variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR), the COMT val/met-, and the 5-HTT promoter length polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) and neuropsychological testing using a battery of well-characterized, brain circuit-specific working memory tasks. DAT genotype revealed a significant and selective effect on visuospatial working memory, while there was no effect on verbal working memory functioning. 5-HTT genotype, by contrast, exerted a significant and selective effect on verbal working memory task performance. COMT genotype did not show any influence on either working memory domain. The results of the present study provide evidence for a differential impact of genetic polymorphisms of the dopaminergic and serotonergic systems on verbal and visuospatial working memory functioning. Together with prior evidence suggesting the existence of subgroups of schizophrenia patients exhibiting isolated deficits in only one working memory domain, this finding further supports the idea of endophenotypically and pathophysiologically distinct subgroups of schizophrenia with implications for personalized therapeutic approaches.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
33Psychiatry Res 2012 Jul 198: 202-6
PMID22414661
TitleInvestigating association of four gene regions (GABRB3, MAOB, PAH, and SLC6A4) with five symptoms in schizophrenia.
AbstractRecently, microsatellite polymorphisms have been reported to be associated with four genes, GABRB3, MAOB, PAH, and SLC6A4, and their relationships have been tested to five symptom factors: hallucinations, delusions, negative symptoms, mania, and depression. These factors were frequently present in schizophrenia spectrum disorders in the Irish Study of High Density schizophrenia Families (ISHDSF) with a proband with the diagnosis of schizophrenia (Bergen et al., 2009). Of these, GABRB3 and PAH were reported to be significantly associated with hallucinations and delusions in a 90-family subset of the ISHDSF, respectively. In this study, we tested the association of genetic markers from these four gene regions with the approximate five clinical symptoms, based upon 256 schizophrenia patients, with genotypic data obtained by higher resolution single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping. We found one GABRB3 SNP (rs1426891, 70.8kb downstream of this gene) and haplotype constructed by three SNPs (rs1426891, rs2912602, and rs2912600) were significantly associated with hallucinations in Caucasians after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing (Bonferroni corrected P: 0.032 and 0.016, respectively). Additionally, we found one haplotype constructed by two SNPs, rs5905587-rs37615860, in MAOB/NDP gene region was significantly associated with delusions in all samples tested (Bonferroni corrected P: 0.048). These results provide additional evidence that GABRB3 and MAOB/NDP gene regions might constitute risk factors for hallucinations and delusions in schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
34Behav Brain Funct 2012 -1 8: 24
PMID22594806
TitleAssociation between a genetic variant in the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) and suicidal behavior in patients with schizophrenia.
AbstractThe serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamin; 5-HT) system has a central role in the circuitry of cognition and emotions. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that genetic variation in the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4; 5-HTT) is associated with schizophrenia and suicidal behavior. In this study, we wanted to elucidate whether SLC6A4 variations is involved in attempted suicide among patients with schizophrenia in a Scandinavian case-control sample.
Patients diagnosed with schizophrenia from three Scandinavian samples were assessed for presence or absence of suicide attempts, based on record reviews and interview data. Seven SLC6A4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in 837 schizophrenia patients and 1,473 control individuals. Association analyses and statistical evaluations were performed with the program UNPHASED (version 3.0.9).
We observed an allele association between the SNP rs16965628, located in intron one of SLC6A4, and attempted suicide (adjusted p-value 0.01), among patients with schizophrenia. No association was found to a diagnosis of schizophrenia, when patients were compared to healthy control individuals.
The gene SLC6A4 appears to be involved in suicidal ideation among patients with schizophrenia. Independent replication is needed before more firm conclusions can be drawn.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
35Schizophr Bull 2012 Jan 38: 15-22
PMID21908796
TitleSerotonin transporter gene polymorphism, childhood trauma, and cognition in patients with psychotic disorders.
AbstractThe functional polymorphism in the promoter region of the SLC6A4/5-HTT serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) has been linked to altered stress response. Carriers of the short (s-) allele have increased negative psychological reactions and stress hormone release compared with carriers of the long (l-) allele, interacting with severe life events including childhood trauma. High stress levels are associated with cognitive impairments in a variety of clinical and experimental studies. Patients with psychotic disorders are characterized both by more childhood traumatic events and abnormal stress responses and by significant but highly variable cognitive dysfunction. We hypothesize that 5-HTTLPR variations and long-term effects of childhood trauma interact and contribute to some of the variation in cognitive dysfunction seen in patients with psychotic disorders.
Patients with psychotic disorders (schizophrenia and affective spectrums) were recruited from a catchment area-based treatment organization. History of childhood abuse was obtained by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Cognitive function was assessed through a comprehensive, standardized neuropsychological test battery. 5-HTTLPR genotypes were analyzed using standard polymerase chain reaction.
We observed a significant interaction between 5-HTTLPR variants and childhood trauma across cognitive domains; here, homozygotic s-carriers exposed to high levels of childhood trauma (physical neglect and abuse) had significantly poorer cognitive functioning than all other groups.
Our results need replication but underline the importance of investigating childhood trauma and its interaction with genetic markers when studying cognitive dysfunction in patients with psychotic disorders.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
36Pharmacogenomics J. 2013 Apr 13: 197-204
PMID22212732
TitleAssociation of common genetic variants with risperidone adverse events in a Spanish schizophrenic population.
AbstractRisperidone non-compliance is often high due to undesirable side effects, whose development is in part genetically determined. Studies with genetic variants involved in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of risperidone have yielded inconsistent results. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the putative association of genetic markers with the occurrence of four frequently observed adverse events secondary to risperidone treatment: sleepiness, weight gain, extrapyramidal symptoms and sexual adverse events. A series of 111 schizophrenia inpatients were genotyped for genetic variants previously associated with or potentially involved in risperidone response. Presence of adverse events was the main variable and potential confounding factors were considered. Allele 16Gly of ADRB2 was significantly associated with a higher risk of sexual adverse events. There were other non-significant trends for DRD3 9Gly and SLC6A4 S alleles. Our results, although preliminary, provide new candidate variants of potential use in risperidone safety prediction.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
37Pharmacogenomics J. 2013 Apr 13: 197-204
PMID22212732
TitleAssociation of common genetic variants with risperidone adverse events in a Spanish schizophrenic population.
AbstractRisperidone non-compliance is often high due to undesirable side effects, whose development is in part genetically determined. Studies with genetic variants involved in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of risperidone have yielded inconsistent results. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the putative association of genetic markers with the occurrence of four frequently observed adverse events secondary to risperidone treatment: sleepiness, weight gain, extrapyramidal symptoms and sexual adverse events. A series of 111 schizophrenia inpatients were genotyped for genetic variants previously associated with or potentially involved in risperidone response. Presence of adverse events was the main variable and potential confounding factors were considered. Allele 16Gly of ADRB2 was significantly associated with a higher risk of sexual adverse events. There were other non-significant trends for DRD3 9Gly and SLC6A4 S alleles. Our results, although preliminary, provide new candidate variants of potential use in risperidone safety prediction.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
38Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2013 -1 9: 1573-82
PMID24143106
TitleEvidence for single nucleotide polymorphisms and their association with bipolar disorder.
AbstractBipolar disorder (BD) is a complex disorder with a number of susceptibility genes and environmental risk factors involved in its pathogenesis. In recent years, huge progress has been made in molecular techniques for genetic studies, which have enabled identification of numerous genomic regions and genetic variants implicated in BD across populations. Despite the abundance of genetic findings, the results have often been inconsistent and not replicated for many candidate genes/single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Therefore, the aim of the review presented here is to summarize the most important data reported so far in candidate gene and genome-wide association studies. Taking into account the abundance of association data, this review focuses on the most extensively studied genes and polymorphisms reported so far for BD to present the most promising genomic regions/SNPs involved in BD. The review of association data reveals evidence for several genes (SLC6A4/5-HTT [serotonin transporter gene], BDNF [brain-derived neurotrophic factor], DAOA [D-amino acid oxidase activator], DTNBP1 [dysbindin], NRG1 [neuregulin 1], DISC1 [disrupted in schizophrenia 1]) to be crucial candidates in BD, whereas numerous genome-wide association studies conducted in BD indicate polymorphisms in two genes (CACNA1C [calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1C subunit], ANK3 [ankyrin 3]) replicated for association with BD in most of these studies. Nevertheless, further studies focusing on interactions between multiple candidate genes/SNPs, as well as systems biology and pathway analyses are necessary to integrate and improve the way we analyze the currently available association data.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
39Int Rev Psychiatry 2013 Oct 25: 509-33
PMID24151799
TitleClinical validity of cytochrome P450 metabolism and serotonin gene variants in psychiatric pharmacotherapy.
AbstractAdverse events, response failures and medication non-compliance are common in patients receiving medications for the treatment of mental illnesses. A systematic literature review assessed whether pharmacokinetic (PK) or pharmacodynamic (PD) responses to 26 commonly prescribed antipsychotic and antidepressant medications, including efficacy or side effects, are associated with nucleotide polymorphisms in eight commonly studied genes in psychiatric pharmacotherapy: CYP2D6, CYP2C19, CYP2C9, CYP1A2, CYP3A4, HTR2C, HTR2A, and SLC6A4. Of the 294 publications included in this review, 168 (57%) showed significant associations between gene variants and PK or PD outcomes. Other studies that showed no association often had insufficient control for confounding variables, such as co-medication use, or analysis of medications not substrates of the target gene. The strongest gene-outcome associations were for the PK profiles of CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 (93% and 90%, respectively), for the PD associations between HTR2C and weight gain (57%), and for SLC6A4 and clinical response (54%), with stronger SLC6A4 response associations for specific drug classes (60-83%). The preponderance of evidence supports the validity of analyzing nucleotide polymorphisms in CYP and pharmacodynamic genes to predict the metabolism, safety, or therapeutic efficacy of psychotropic medications commonly used for the treatment of depression, schizophrenia, and bipolar illness.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
40Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry 2013 Jul 44: 290-5
PMID23583772
TitleAssociation of serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) polymorphisms with schizophrenia susceptibility and symptoms in a Chinese-Han population.
Abstractschizophrenia (SZ) is a complex psychiatric disorder with a strong genetic component. The serotonin transporter (SERT), encoded by solute carrier family 6 member 4 (SLC6A4), regulates synaptic concentrations of serotonin and thereby strongly influences perception, mood, emotion, behavior, and cognition, all of which are severely disturbed in SZ. Two variable numbers of tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphisms and several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spread throughout SLC6A4 are involved in both neuropsychiatric diseases (including SZ) and personality traits. In this study, case-control association analysis was performed in the Chinese-Han population to identify additional allelic variants of the SLC6A4 gene that may confer susceptibility to SZ. Ten relatively common SNPs (minor allele frequency >5%) were genotyped in 528 paranoid SZ patients and 528 control subjects. Significant associations were found between SZ and the allele and genotypic frequencies of rs140700G/A (p=2.4510(-12), 2.3410(-11), respectively). The frequency of the A allele was lower in SZ patients (17.7%) than in controls (30.9%; OR=1.93, 95%CI=1.58-2.36). In five factor analysis of the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) scores of first episode SZ patients, mean negative factor score (F2,249=3.986, p=0.02) and depression/anxiety factor score (F2, 249=8.766, p=2.1110(-4)) were significantly different among the rs140700G/A genotypes, with both scores higher for genotype AA than AG+GG. The rs140700G/A allele of SLC6A4 is strongly associated with SZ susceptibility and symptom expression in the Chinese-Han population.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
41Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova 2014 -1 114: 42-8
PMID24637816
Title[The effect of the serotonin transporter 5-HTTLPR polymorphism on the recognition of facial emotions in schizophrenia].
AbstractThe 5-HTTLPR SLC6A4 and catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphisms are reported to be associated with processing of facial expressions in general population. Impaired recognition of facial expressions that is characteristic of schizophrenia negatively impacts on the social adaptation of the patients. To search for molecular mechanisms of this deficit, we studied main and epistatic effects of 5-HTTLPR and Val158Met polymorphisms on the facial emotion recognition in patients with schizophrenia (n=299) and healthy controls (n=232). The 5-HTTLPR polymorphism was associated with the emotion recognition in patients. The ll-homozygotes recognized facial emotions significantly better compared to those with an s-allele (F=8.00; p=0.005). Although the recognition of facial emotions was correlated with negative symptoms, verbal learning and trait anxiety, these variables did not significantly modified the association. In both groups, no effect of the COMT on the recognition of facial emotions was found.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
42Neurosci. Lett. 2014 Sep 579: 114-8
PMID25019689
TitleNo association of SLC6A3 and SLC6A4 gene polymorphisms with schizophrenia in the Han Chinese population.
AbstractThe SLC6A3 and SLC6A4 genes are members of a class of neurotransmitter transporters for the release, re-uptake and recycling of neurotransmitters in synapses. SLC6A3 and SLC6A4 encode a dopamine transporter and serotonin transporter, respectively. Abnormal expression and genetic polymorphism of SLC6A3 and SLC6A4 genes may increase the risk of developing mental illness, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, ADHD, and aggressive behavior in Alzheimer disease, etc. Nevertheless, association between SLC6A3, SLC6A4 genes polymorphism and schizophrenia patients have not been well studied in Han Chinese people. In this study, we examined whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in SLC6A3, SLC6A4 were associated with schizophrenia in Han Chinese people (893 schizophrenia patients and 611 healthy controls). No significant difference in allelic or genotypic frequency was found between schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. No positive linkage disequilibrium (LD) was detected either. No haplotypic distributions were positive. Accordingly, our study suggests that the 10 SNPs within both genes we examined do not play a major role in schizophrenia in the Han Chinese population.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
43PLoS ONE 2014 -1 9: e115135
PMID25517604
TitleA genetic variant in 12q13, a possible risk factor for bipolar disorder, is associated with depressive state, accounting for stressful life events.
AbstractGenome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified a number of susceptibility genes for schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorder (BD). However, the identification of risk genes for major depressive disorder (MDD) has been unsuccessful because the etiology of MDD is more influenced by environmental factors; thus, gene-environment (G E) interactions are important, such as interplay with stressful life events (SLEs). We assessed the GE interactions and main effects of genes targeting depressive symptoms. Using a case-control design, 922 hospital staff members were evaluated for depressive symptoms according to Beck Depressive Inventory (BDI; "depression" and "control" groups were classified by scores of 10 in the BDI test), SLEs, and personality. A total of sixty-three genetic variants were selected on the basis of previous GWASs of MDD, SCZ, and BD as well as candidate-gene (SLC6A4, BDNF, DBH, and FKBP5) studies. Logistic regression analysis revealed a marginally significant interaction (genetic variant SLE) at rs4523957 (P uncorrected = 0.0034) with depression and a significant association of single nucleotide polymorphism identified from evidence of BD GWAS (rs7296288, downstream of DHH at 12q13.1) with depression as the main effect (P uncorrected = 9.4 10(-4), P corrected = 0.0424). We also found that SLEs had a larger impact on depression (odds ratio ? 3), as reported previously. These results suggest that DHH plays a possible role in depression etiology; however, variants from MDD or SCZ GWAS evidence or candidate genes showed no significant associations or minimal effects of interactions with SLEs on depression.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
44Neuropharmacology 2014 May 80: 133-9
PMID24389572
TitleComprehensive DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation analysis in the human brain and its implication in mental disorders.
AbstractCovalent modifications of nucleotides, such as methylation or hydroxymethylation of cytosine, regulate gene expression. Early environmental risk factors play a role in mental disorders in adulthood. This may be in part mediated by epigenetic DNA modifications. Methods for comprehensive analysis of DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation include DNA modification methods such as bisulfite sequencing, or collection of methylated, hydroxymethylated, or unmethylated DNA by specific binding proteins, antibodies, or restriction enzymes, followed by sequencing or microarray analysis. Results from these experiments should be interpreted with caution because each method gives different result. Cytosine hydroxymethylation has different effects on gene expression than cytosine methylation; methylation of CpG islands is associated with lower gene expression, whereas hydroxymethylation in intragenic regions is associated with higher gene expression. The role of hydroxymethylcytosine is of particular interest in mental disorders because the modification is enriched in the brain and synapse related genes, and it exhibits dynamic regulation during development. Many DNA methylation patterns are conserved across species, but there are also human specific signatures. Comprehensive analysis of DNA methylation shows characteristic changes associated with tissues, brain regions, cell types, and developmental states. Thus, differences in DNA methylation status between tissues, brain regions, cell types, and developmental stages should be considered when the role of DNA methylation in mental disorders is studied. Several disease-associated changes in methylation have been reported: hypermethylation of SOX10 in schizophrenia, hypomethylation of HCG9 (HLA complex group 9) in bipolar disorder, hypermethylation of PRIMA1, hypermethylation of SLC6A4 (serotonin transporter) in bipolar disorder, and hypomethylation of ST6GALNAC1 in bipolar disorder. These findings need to be replicated in different patient populations to be generalized. Further studies including animal experiments are necessary to understand the roles of DNA methylation in mental disorders.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
45Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry 2015 Jan 56: 117-21
PMID25194461
TitleEffects of quetiapine on DNA methylation in neuroblastoma cells.
AbstractEpigenetic regulation may be involved in the pathophysiology of mental disorders, such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, and in the pharmacological action of drugs. Characterizing the epigenetic effects of drugs is an important step to optimal treatment. We performed comprehensive and gene-specific DNA methylation analyses of quetiapine using human neuroblastoma cells. Human neuroblastoma cells were cultured with quetiapine for 8 days, and DNA methylation analysis was performed using Infinium HumanMethylation27 BeadChip. A total of 1173 genes showed altered DNA methylation. Altered DNA methylation predominantly occurred as hypomethylation within the CpG island compared to DNA isolated from non-treated cells. Gene ontology analysis revealed that these genes were related to the cellular process of intracellular protein binding. There was no common effect of quetiapine with three mood stabilizers (lithium, valproate, and carbamazepine). However, common DNA methylation changes in eight genes, including ADRA1A, which encodes adrenoceptor alpha 1A, were found with quetiapine and lithium treatments. Finally, bisulfite-sequencing analysis revealed that quetiapine decreased the DNA methylation level of the promoter region of SLC6A4, where hypermethylation with bipolar disorder and hypomethylation with mood stabilizers have been reported.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
46J Psychiatr Res 2015 Jan 60: 1-13
PMID25287955
TitleSpecific and common genes implicated across major mental disorders: a review of meta-analysis studies.
AbstractMajor efforts have been directed at family-based association and case-control studies to identify the involvement of candidate genes in the major disorders of mental health. What remains unknown is whether candidate genes are associated with multiple disorders via pleiotropic mechanisms, and/or if other genes are specific to susceptibility for individual disorders. Here we undertook a review of genes that have been identified in prior meta-analyses examining specific genes and specific mental disorders that have core disruptions to emotional and cognitive function and contribute most to burden of illness- major depressive disorder (MDD), anxiety disorders (AD, including panic disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder), schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A literature review was conducted up to end-March 2013 which included a total of 1519 meta-analyses across 157 studies reporting multiple genes implicated in one or more of the five disorders studied. A total of 134 genes (206 variants) were identified as significantly associated risk variants for MDD, AD, ADHD, SZ or BD. Null genetic effects were also reported for 195 genes (426 variants). 13 genetic variants were shared in common between two or more disorders (APOE e4, ACE Ins/Del, BDNF Val66Met, COMT Val158Met, DAOA G72/G30 rs3918342, DAT1 40-bp, DRD4 48-bp, SLC6A4 5-HTTLPR, HTR1A C1019G, MTHR C677T, MTHR A1298C, SLC6A4 VNTR and TPH1 218A/C) demonstrating evidence for pleiotrophy. Another 12 meta-analyses of GWAS studies of the same disorders were identified, with no overlap in genetic variants reported. This review highlights the progress that is being made in identifying shared and unique genetic mechanisms that contribute to the risk of developing several major psychiatric disorders, and identifies further steps for progress.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
47CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets 2015 -1 14: 820-7
PMID26166439
TitleGenetic Polymorphisms Might Predict Suicide Attempts in Mental Disorder Patients: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis.
AbstractThe aim of the present study was to analyze if the genetic polymorphisms might predict suicide attempts in mental disorder patients. The literature review and meta-analysis were conducted using the PubMed/Medline, Web of science and Scopus database using the terms: "5-HTT or SLC6A4 or 5-SERT and suicide, suicidal ideation or suicidal behavior or suicidal attempt". Thirty articles were analyzed. We found 17 articles that showed association and 13 articles that showed no association between LPR serotonin transporter polymorphism and suicide. A higher study of suicide identified the serotonin transporter polymorphism in patients with schizophrenia, mental disorder, major depression and bipolar disorder. There is an association between the serotonin-transporter-linked polymorphic region and suicidal behavior. The mental disorders with greater relationship with the suicide were the bipolar disorder, major depression and schizophrenia. The L allele had higher risk for suicide.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
48Pharmacogenomics 2015 Nov 16: 1943-9
PMID26556226
TitleA pharmacogenomic study revealed an association between SLC6A4 and risperidone-induced weight gain in Chinese Han population.
AbstractWe carried out a pharmacogenomic study in order to identify susceptible genes for antipsychotics induced weight gain within the Chinese Han population.
We enrolled 216 patients with schizophrenia in our study. All of them underwent risperidone monotherapy, and fulfilled 4-week follow-up. Weight gain was measured before treatment and 4 weeks later. Seven hundred and sixty-eight SNPs from 85 genes were calculated for association with weight gain percentage.
Fifty-seven SNPs located at 16 genes with a p-value less than 0.05.4 SNPs located on serotonin transporter gene (solute carrier family 6, member 4, SLC6A4) remained significant after multitest correction (rs3813034, p = 0.000357, q = 0.08, rs1042173, rs4325622, rs9303628, p = 0.000451, q = 0.08).
SLC6A4 might be susceptible gene for risperidone-induced weight gain within the Chinese Han population.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
49Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet. 2015 Dec 168: 749-55
PMID26408209
TitleCommon variants of HTR1A and SLC6A4 confer the increasing risk of Schizophrenia susceptibility: A population-based association and epistasis analysis.
Abstractschizophrenia (SZ) is a complex psychiatric disorder strongly influenced by genetic variants, some of which are associated with mood disorders. The neurotransmitter 5-hydoxytryptamine (5-HT) and its related biochemical factors have been shown to play a significant role in maintaining mood balance. Recent studies evaluating the association between SZ and genetic polymorphisms in a serotonin transporter (encoded by SLC6A4) and serotonin receptor 1A (encoded by HTR1A) show conflicting results. In this study, we performed a case-control association analysis using 4,000 individuals with Chinese-Han ancestry. Of these participants, 1,000 were SZ cases and 3,000 were healthy controls. Thirty-six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in SLC6A4 and HTR1A were genotyped in our 4,000 study samples. Of those, 33 polymorphic SNPs with a minor allele frequency >0.05 were used for further analysis. We found that rs878567 in HTR1A (asymptotic P-value?=?3.8910(-4) , corrected P-value?=?0.0106) was significantly associated with SZ. Further haplotype-based analyses revealed that a two-SNP haplotype, rs2054847-rs140701 (TG) in gene SLC6A4, was significantly associated with SZ (P-value?=?1.6310(-4) and corrected P-value?=?0.002799). We did not identify any significant epistatic interactions between the two genes. Our findings provide supportive evidence that genetic polymorphisms in SLC6A4 and HTR1A may influence the risk of SZ in Han Chinese individuals. 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
50Transl Psychiatry 2015 -1 5: e671
PMID26529424
TitleA requirement of serotonergic p38? mitogen-activated protein kinase for peripheral immune system activation of CNS serotonin uptake and serotonin-linked behaviors.
AbstractAlterations in central serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) neurotransmission and peripheral immune activation have been linked to multiple neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression, schizophrenia and autism. The antidepressant-sensitive 5-HT transporter (SERT, SLC6A4), a critical determinant of synaptic 5-HT inactivation, can be regulated by pro-inflammatory cytokine signaling. Systemic innate immune system activation via intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection rapidly elevates brain SERT activity and 5-HT clearance. Moreover, the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1? rapidly stimulates SERT activity in raphe nerve terminal preparations ex vivo, effects that are attenuated by pharmacological p38 MAPK inhibition. To establish a role of serotonergic p38? MAPK signaling in LPS/IL-1?-induced SERT regulation and attendant behavioral responses, we pursued studies in mice that afford conditional elimination of p38? MAPK in 5-HT neurons (p38?(5HT-)). We found p38?(5HT-) and control (p38?(5HT+)) littermates to be indistinguishable in viability and growth and to express equivalent levels of SERT protein and synaptosomal 5-HT transport activity. Consistent with pharmacological studies, however, IL-1? fails to increase SERT activity in midbrain synaptosomes prepared from p38?(5HT-) animals. Moreover, although LPS elevated plasma corticosterone and central/peripheral pro-inflammatory cytokines in p38?(5HT-) animals, elevations in midbrain SERT activity were absent nor were changes in depressive and anxiety-like behaviors observed. Our studies support an obligate role of p38? MAPK signaling in 5-HT neurons for the translation of immune activation to SERT regulation and 5-HT-modulated behaviors.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
51Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2015 -1 11: 453-9
PMID25759587
TitleInfluence of 5-HT1A and 5-HTTLPR genetic variants on the schizophrenia symptoms and occurrence of treatment-resistant schizophrenia.
AbstractThis study aimed to explore the influence of two genetic polymorphisms of the 5-hydroxytryptamine 1A receptor (5-HT1A) and solute carrier family 6, member 4 (SLC6A4) genes on the clinical symptoms and treatment resistance in Slovenian patients with schizophrenia. A total of 138 patients with schizophrenia were evaluated using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, Clinical Global Impression, and Global Assessment of Functioning. Based on the selected criteria, 94 patients were included in the treatment-responsive and 44 in the treatment-resistant group. All subjects and 94 controls were genotyped for the 5-HT1A rs6295 and 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms. There were no statistically significant differences in the frequencies of these polymorphisms between the patients with schizophrenia and the control group and between the treatment-resistant and treatment-responsive group of schizophrenia patients. Polymorphisms rs6295 and 5-HTTLPR had an influence on the Global Assessment of Functioning scale score, while 5-HTTLPR also had an influence on the total score of the negative subscale within the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Although we found no effect on progression toward the treatment-resistant schizophrenia, our data suggest that the rs6295 and 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms can influence some clinical symptoms in schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics