|1||Am. J. Hum. Genet. 2004 Oct 75: 624-38|
|Title||Polymorphisms in the trace amine receptor 4 (TRAR4) gene on chromosome 6q23.2 are associated with susceptibility to schizophrenia.|
|Abstract||Several linkage studies across multiple population groups provide convergent support for a susceptibility locus for schizophrenia--and, more recently, for bipolar disorder--on chromosome 6q13-q26. We genotyped 192 European-ancestry and African American (AA) pedigrees with schizophrenia from samples that previously showed linkage evidence to 6q13-q26, focusing on the MOXD1-STX7-TRARs gene cluster at 6q23.2, which contains a number of prime candidate genes for schizophrenia. Thirty-one screening single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected, providing a minimum coverage of at least 1 SNP/20 kb. The association observed with rs4305745 (P=.0014) within the TRAR4 (trace amine receptor 4) gene remained significant after correction for multiple testing. Evidence for association was proportionally stronger in the smaller AA sample. We performed database searches and sequenced genomic DNA in a 30-proband subsample to obtain a high-density map of 23 SNPs spanning 21.6 kb of this gene. Single-SNP analyses and also haplotype analyses revealed that rs4305745 and/or two other polymorphisms in perfect linkage disequilibrium (LD) with rs4305745 appear to be the most likely variants underlying the association of the TRAR4 region with schizophrenia. Comparative genomic analyses further revealed that rs4305745 and/or the associated polymorphisms in complete LD with rs4305745 could potentially affect gene expression. Moreover, RT-PCR studies of various human tissues, including brain, confirm that TRAR4 is preferentially expressed in those brain regions that have been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. These data provide strong preliminary evidence that TRAR4 is a candidate gene for schizophrenia; replication is currently being attempted in additional clinical samples.|
|2||Am J Psychiatry 2008 Apr 165: 497-506|
|Title||No significant association of 14 candidate genes with schizophrenia in a large European ancestry sample: implications for psychiatric genetics.|
|Abstract||The authors carried out a genetic association study of 14 schizophrenia candidate genes (RGS4, DISC1, DTNBP1, STX7, TAAR6, PPP3CC, NRG1, DRD2, HTR2A, DAOA, AKT1, CHRNA7, COMT, and ARVCF). This study tested the hypothesis of association of schizophrenia with common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in these genes using the largest sample to date that has been collected with uniform clinical methods and the most comprehensive set of SNPs in each gene.|
The sample included 1,870 cases (schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder) and 2,002 screened comparison subjects (i.e. controls), all of European ancestry, with ancestral outliers excluded based on analysis of ancestry-informative markers. The authors genotyped 789 SNPs, including tags for most common SNPs in each gene, SNPs previously reported as associated, and SNPs located in functional domains of genes such as promoters, coding exons (including nonsynonymous SNPs), 3' untranslated regions, and conserved noncoding sequences. After extensive data cleaning, 648 SNPs were analyzed for association of single SNPs and of haplotypes.
Neither experiment-wide nor gene-wide statistical significance was observed in the primary single-SNP analyses or in secondary analyses of haplotypes or of imputed genotypes for additional common HapMap SNPs. Results in SNPs previously reported as associated with schizophrenia were consistent with chance expectation, and four functional polymorphisms in COMT, DRD2, and HTR2A did not produce nominally significant evidence to support previous evidence for association.
It is unlikely that common SNPs in these genes account for a substantial proportion of the genetic risk for schizophrenia, although small effects cannot be ruled out.