1Am. J. Med. Genet. 2001 Dec 105: 779-82
PMID11803530
TitleAssociation studies of the CT repeat polymorphism in the 5' upstream region of the cholecystokinin B receptor gene with panic disorder and schizophrenia in Japanese subjects.
AbstractThe tetrapeptide of cholecystokinin (CCK), CCK-4, is known to induce panic attacks in human subjects, while CCK-8 is reported to have a therapeutic effect on schizophrenia symptoms. Recently, we have identified a novel microsatellite polymorphism in the 5' upstream region of the CCK gene and shown a significant association between this polymorphism and panic disorder. In this study, we have investigated the CCK-B receptor (CCKBR) gene, which is the main constituent of the CCK receptor in the CNS. Recently, a dinucleotide repeat, (CT)(n), in the 5' regulatory region of the CCKBR gene was reported to be associated with panic disorder in Canadian samples. To evaluate an association of the CT repeat with panic disorder and schizophrenia, we genotyped 71 subjects with panic disorder, 154 schizophrenics and 199 controls. However, no evidence of allelic association was found between the polymorphic repeat of the CCKBR gene and either panic disorder or schizophrenia (P = 0.186 and 0.987, respectively). Together with the negative reports on association analyses using other polymorphisms of the CCKBR gene and Japanese samples, the present results exclude a major genetic contribution of the CCKBR gene to susceptibilities to panic disorder and schizophrenia in Japanese cohorts.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenics
2Am. J. Med. Genet. 2001 Dec 105: 779-82
PMID11803530
TitleAssociation studies of the CT repeat polymorphism in the 5' upstream region of the cholecystokinin B receptor gene with panic disorder and schizophrenia in Japanese subjects.
AbstractThe tetrapeptide of cholecystokinin (CCK), CCK-4, is known to induce panic attacks in human subjects, while CCK-8 is reported to have a therapeutic effect on schizophrenia symptoms. Recently, we have identified a novel microsatellite polymorphism in the 5' upstream region of the CCK gene and shown a significant association between this polymorphism and panic disorder. In this study, we have investigated the CCK-B receptor (CCKBR) gene, which is the main constituent of the CCK receptor in the CNS. Recently, a dinucleotide repeat, (CT)(n), in the 5' regulatory region of the CCKBR gene was reported to be associated with panic disorder in Canadian samples. To evaluate an association of the CT repeat with panic disorder and schizophrenia, we genotyped 71 subjects with panic disorder, 154 schizophrenics and 199 controls. However, no evidence of allelic association was found between the polymorphic repeat of the CCKBR gene and either panic disorder or schizophrenia (P = 0.186 and 0.987, respectively). Together with the negative reports on association analyses using other polymorphisms of the CCKBR gene and Japanese samples, the present results exclude a major genetic contribution of the CCKBR gene to susceptibilities to panic disorder and schizophrenia in Japanese cohorts.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenics
3Am. J. Med. Genet. 2001 Aug 105: 548-57
PMID11496373
TitleLinkage genome scan for loci predisposing to panic disorder or agoraphobia.
AbstractWe conducted a 10 cM linkage genome scan in a set of 20 American pedigrees (153 subjects), ascertained through probands with panic disorder (PD). Several anxiety disorders segregate in these families; they were diagnosed on the basis of Schedule for Affective Disorders and schizophrenia interview. In this article, we describe results for panic disorder and agoraphobia, which are closely related, common, heritable anxiety disorders. This is the first complete linkage genome scan for agoraphobia and the third for PD. A total of 407 markers (389 autosomal, 18 X chromosome) were genotyped. Multipoint LOD score and NPL analysis were completed using GENEHUNTER2. For PD, two genomic regions meet criteria for suggestive linkage. One of these regions is on chromosome 1 (LOD score = 2.04). This region coincides with a region that generated a LOD score of 1.1 in a previous genome scan by Crowe et al. [2001: Am J Med Genet (Neuropsychiatr Genet) 105:105-109]. The other (LOD score = 2.01) is located on chromosome 11p and occurs at marker CCKBR, one of eight candidate genes examined. For agoraphobia, the most promising potential linkage was on chromosome 3 (NPL score = 2.75; P = 0.005). This was accounted for primarily by a single family that by itself generated an NPL score of 10.01 (P = 0.0039) and a LOD score of 2.10. These results provide initial evidence for a genetic locus on chromosome 3 that contributes to risk for agoraphobia. They also support suggestive linkage to two risk loci for panic disorder. Additional potential loci were identified with lesser statistical support; several of these were consistent with previously reported panic disorder linkage results. Overall, the results presented here suggest that PD and agoraphobia are complex traits that share some, but not all, of their susceptibility loci. Published 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenics
4Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry 2010 Dec 34: 1484-90
PMID20732371
TitleAssociation study of polymorphisms in cholecystokinin gene and its receptors with antipsychotic induced weight gain in schizophrenia patients.
AbstractCholecystokinin (CCK) gene and its receptors play an important role in several biological processes including satiety signaling. Administration of exogenous or endogenously secreted CCK leads to decreased food intake in both rats and humans. Similarly, in rats pretreated with intraperitoneal CCK, antagonists of the CCKA receptor prevent decrease in food intake. The CCKB receptor plays an important role in anxiety and gastric acid secretion. We investigated the role of polymorphisms in the CCK gene (2 SNPs) and its receptors CCKA (4 SNPs) and CCKB (4SNPs, 1 microsatellite, CTn) in antipsychotic induced weight gain (n=215). Weight change (%) from baseline was compared across genotypic groups using analysis of covariance. In the European ancestry patients treated with clozapine or olanzapine a trend of association was observed with the SNP rs2929183 (p=0.10) in CCKBR gene. Carriers of the genotype AA (3.23%4.8) gained less weight than the AG and GG genotypes (6.50%6.5; p=0.035). A similar trend was observed for the CTn repeat, where carriers of the LL genotype gained less weight (3.73%5.41) than the S allele carrying genotypes (6.29%6.2, p=0.05). In the subjects of African ancestry we observed similar marginal association although with the opposite allele. However, none of these observations would survive corrections for multiple testing. None of the other polymorphisms in either CCK or CCKA receptor genes was associated with weight change (%). In conclusion, CCKB receptor gene may play a role in antipsychotic induced weight gain. However, these observations need to be replicated in a larger and independent sample set.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenics
5Transl Psychiatry 2011 -1 1: e9
PMID22832404
TitleConvergent functional genomics of anxiety disorders: translational identification of genes, biomarkers, pathways and mechanisms.
AbstractAnxiety disorders are prevalent and disabling yet understudied from a genetic standpoint, compared with other major psychiatric disorders such as bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. The fact that they are more common, diverse and perceived as embedded in normal life may explain this relative oversight. In addition, as for other psychiatric disorders, there are technical challenges related to the identification and validation of candidate genes and peripheral biomarkers. Human studies, particularly genetic ones, are susceptible to the issue of being underpowered, because of genetic heterogeneity, the effect of variable environmental exposure on gene expression, and difficulty of accrual of large, well phenotyped cohorts. Animal model gene expression studies, in a genetically homogeneous and experimentally tractable setting, can avoid artifacts and provide sensitivity of detection. Subsequent translational integration of the animal model datasets with human genetic and gene expression datasets can ensure cross-validatory power and specificity for illness. We have used a pharmacogenomic mouse model (involving treatments with an anxiogenic drug--yohimbine, and an anti-anxiety drug--diazepam) as a discovery engine for identification of anxiety candidate genes as well as potential blood biomarkers. Gene expression changes in key brain regions for anxiety (prefrontal cortex, amygdala and hippocampus) and blood were analyzed using a convergent functional genomics (CFG) approach, which integrates our new data with published human and animal model data, as a translational strategy of cross-matching and prioritizing findings. Our work identifies top candidate genes (such as FOS, GABBR1, NR4A2, DRD1, ADORA2A, QKI, RGS2, PTGDS, HSPA1B, DYNLL2, CCKBR and DBP), brain-blood biomarkers (such as FOS, QKI and HSPA1B), pathways (such as cAMP signaling) and mechanisms for anxiety disorders--notably signal transduction and reactivity to environment, with a prominent role for the hippocampus. Overall, this work complements our previous similar work (on bipolar mood disorders and schizophrenia) conducted over the last decade. It concludes our programmatic first pass mapping of the genomic landscape of the triad of major psychiatric disorder domains using CFG, and permitted us to uncover the significant genetic overlap between anxiety and these other major psychiatric disorders, notably the under-appreciated overlap with schizophrenia. PDE10A, TAC1 and other genes uncovered by our work provide a molecular basis for the frequently observed clinical co-morbidity and interdependence between anxiety and other major psychiatric disorders, and suggest schizo-anxiety as a possible new nosological domain.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenics