Drug ID Drug Name Drug Description Drug Group # genes in SZGR
DB00206ReserpineAn alkaloid found in the roots of Rauwolfia serpentina and R. vomitoria. Reserpine inhibits the uptake of norepinephrine into storage vesicles resulting in depletion of catecholamines and serotonin from central and peripheral axon terminals. It has been used as an antihypertensive and an antipsychotic as well as a research tool, but its adverse effects limit its clinical use. [PubChem]approved2
DB00246ZiprasidoneZiprasidone (marketed as Geodon, Zeldox) was the fifth atypical antipsychotic to gain FDA approval (February 2001). Ziprasidone is Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved for the treatment of schizophrenia, and the intramuscular injection form of ziprasidone is approved for acute agitation in schizophrenic patients. Ziprasidone has also received approval for acute treatment of mania associated with bipolar disorder. [Wikipedia]approved25
DB00298DapiprazoleDapiprazole (U.S. trade name Rev-Eyes) is an alpha blocker. It is used to reverse mydriasis after eye examination. [Wikipedia]approved3
DB00334OlanzapineOlanzapine is an atypical antipsychotic, approved by the FDA in 1996. Olanzapine is manufactured and marketed by the pharmaceutical company Eli Lilly and Company, whose patent for olanzapine proper ends in 2011.approved|investigational30
DB00363ClozapineA tricyclic dibenzodiazepine, classified as an atypical antipsychotic agent. It binds several types of central nervous system receptors, and displays a unique pharmacological profile. Clozapine is a serotonin antagonist, with strong binding to 5-HT 2A/2C receptor subtype. It also displays strong affinity to several dopaminergic receptors, but shows only weak antagonism at the dopamine D2 receptor, a receptor commonly thought to modulate neuroleptic activity. Agranulocytosis is a major adverse effect associated with administration of this agent. [PubChem]approved26
DB00391SulpirideA dopamine D2-receptor antagonist. It has been used therapeutically as an antidepressant, antipsychotic, and as a digestive aid. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)approved2
DB00408LoxapineAn antipsychotic agent used in schizophrenia. [PubChem]approved31
DB00409RemoxiprideAn antipsychotic agent that is specific for dopamine D2 receptors. It has been shown to be effective in the treatment of schizophrenia. [PubChem]approved|withdrawn5
DB00420PromazineA phenothiazine with actions similar to chlorpromazine but with less antipsychotic activity. It is primarily used in short-term treatment of disturbed behavior and as an antiemetic. Promazine is not approved for use in the United States. approved|vet_approved14
DB00433ProchlorperazineA phenothiazine antipsychotic used principally in the treatment of nausea; vomiting; and vertigo. It is more likely than chlorpromazine to cause extrapyramidal disorders. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p612)approved|vet_approved1
DB00450DroperidolA butyrophenone with general properties similar to those of haloperidol. It is used in conjunction with an opioid analgesic such as fentanyl to maintain the patient in a calm state of neuroleptanalgesia with indifference to surroundings but still able to cooperate with the surgeon. It is also used as a premedicant, as an antiemetic, and for the control of agitation in acute psychoses. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p593)approved|vet_approved2
DB00477ChlorpromazineThe prototypical phenothiazine antipsychotic drug. Like the other drugs in this class, chlorpromazine's antipsychotic actions are thought to be due to long-term adaptation by the brain to blocking dopamine receptors. Chlorpromazine has several other actions and therapeutic uses, including as an antiemetic and in the treatment of intractable hiccup. [PubChem]approved|vet_approved20
DB00502HaloperidolA phenyl-piperidinyl-butyrophenone that is used primarily to treat schizophrenia and other psychoses. It is also used in schizoaffective disorder, delusional disorders, ballism, and tourette syndrome (a drug of choice) and occasionally as adjunctive therapy in mental retardation and the chorea of huntington disease. It is a potent antiemetic and is used in the treatment of intractable hiccups. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p279)approved5
DB00508TriflupromazineA phenothiazine used as an antipsychotic agent and as an antiemetic. [PubChem]approved|vet_approved5
DB00623FluphenazineA phenothiazine used in the treatment of psychoses. Its properties and uses are generally similar to those of chlorpromazine. [PubChem]approved3
DB00679ThioridazineA phenothiazine antipsychotic used in the management of psychoses, including schizophrenia, and in the control of severely disturbed or agitated behavior. It has little antiemetic activity. Thioridazine has a higher incidence of antimuscarinic effects, but a lower incidence of extrapyramidal symptoms, than chlorpromazine. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p618)approved6
DB00734RisperidoneRisperidone, a benzisoxazole derivative, is an atypical antipsychotic drug with high affinity for 5-hydrotryptamine (5-HT) and dopamine D2 receptors. It is used primarily in the management of schizophrenia, inappropriate behavior in severe dementia and manic episodes associated with bipolar I disorder. Risperidone is effective for treating the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia owing to its affinity for its ?loose? binding affinity for dopamine D2 receptors and additional 5-HT antagonism compared to first generation antipsychotics, which are strong, non-specific dopamine D2 receptor antagonists.approved|investigational14
DB00767BenzquinamideBenzquinamide is a discontinued antiemetic compound with antihistaminic, mild anticholinergic, and sedative properties. The mechanism of action is not known, but presumably benzquinamide works via antagonism of muscarinic acetycholine receptors and histamine H1 receptors. withdrawn6
DB00831TrifluoperazineA phenothiazine with actions similar to chlorpromazine. It is used as an antipsychotic and an antiemetic. [PubChem]approved5
DB00850PerphenazineAn antipsychotic phenothiazine derivative with actions and uses similar to those of chlorpromazine. [PubChem]approved3
DB00875FlupentixolFlupentixol is an antipsychotic neuroleptic drug. It is a thioxanthene, and therefore closely related to the phenothiazines. Its primary use is as a long acting injection given two or three weekly to people with schizophrenia who have a poor compliance with medication and suffer frequent relapses of illness. It is a D1 and D2 receptor antagonist. It is not approved in the United States.approved|withdrawn5
DB00904OndansetronA competitive serotonin type 3 receptor antagonist. It is effective in the treatment of nausea and vomiting caused by cytotoxic chemotherapy drugs, including cisplatin, and has reported anxiolytic and neuroleptic properties. [PubChem]approved5
DB00933MesoridazineA phenothiazine antipsychotic with effects similar to chlorpromazine. [PubChem]approved2
DB01038CarphenazineCarphenazine is an antipsychotic drug, used in hospitalized patients in the management of chronic schizophrenic psychoses.withdrawn3
DB01063AcetophenazineAcetophenazine is an antipsychotic drug of moderate-potency. It is used in the treatment of disorganized and psychotic thinking. It is also used to help treat false perceptions (e.g. hallucinations or delusions). It primarily targets the dopamine D2 receptor.approved2
DB01100PimozideA diphenylbutylpiperidine that is effective as an antipsychotic agent and as an alternative to haloperidol for the suppression of vocal and motor tics in patients with Tourette syndrome. Although the precise mechanism of action is unknown, blockade of postsynaptic dopamine receptors has been postulated. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p403)approved4
DB01178ChlormezanoneA non-benzodiazepine that is used in the management of anxiety. It has been suggested for use in the treatment of muscle spasm. [PubChem]approved|withdrawn1
DB01224QuetiapineQuetiapine is indicated for the treatment of schizophrenia as well as for the treatment of acute manic episodes associated with bipolar I disorder. The antipsychotic effect of quetiapine is thought by some to be mediated through antagonist activity at dopamine and serotonin receptors. Specifically the D1 and D2 dopamine, the alpha 1 adrenoreceptor and alpha 2 adrenoreceptor, and 5-HT1A and 5-HT2 serotonin receptor subtypes are antagonized. Quetiapine also has an antagonistic effect on the histamine H1 receptor.approved26
DB01238AripiprazoleAripiprazole is an atypical antipsychotic medication used for the treatment of schizophrenia. It has also recently received FDA approval for the treatment of acute manic and mixed episodes associated with bipolar disorder. Aripiprazole appears to mediate its antipsychotic effects primarily by partial agonism at the D2 receptor. In addition to partial agonist activity at the D2 receptor, aripiprazole is also a partial agonist at the 5-HT1A receptor, and like the other atypical antipsychotics, aripiprazole displays an antagonist profile at the 5-HT2A receptor. Aripiprazole has moderate affinity for histamine and alpha adrenergic receptors, and no appreciable affinity for cholinergic muscarinic receptors.approved|investigational25
DB01239ChlorprothixeneChlorprothixene is a typical antipsychotic drug of the thioxanthene (tricyclic) class. Chlorprothixene exerts strong blocking effects by blocking the 5-HT2 D1, D2, D3, histamine H1, muscarinic and alpha1 adrenergic receptors.approved|withdrawn12
DB01267PaliperidonePaliperidone is the primary active metabolite of the older antipsychotic risperidone. While its specific mechanism of action is unknown, it is believed that paliperidone and risperidone act via similar if not the same pathways. It has been proposed that the drug's therapeutic activity in schizophrenia is mediated through a combination of central dopamine Type 2 (D2) and serotonin Type 2 (5HT2A) receptor antagonism. Paliperidone is also active as an antagonist at alpha 1 and alpha 2 adrenergic receptors and H1 histaminergic receptors, which may explain some of the other effects of the drug. Paliperidone was approved by the FDA for treatment of schizophrenia on December 20, 2006.approved17
DB01403MethotrimeprazineA phenothiazine with pharmacological activity similar to that of both chlorpromazine and promethazine. It has the histamine-antagonist properties of the antihistamines together with central nervous system effects resembling those of chlorpromazine. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p604)approved19
DB01463FencamfamineFencamfamine (Glucoenergan, Reactivan) is a stimulant which was developed in the 1960s as an appetite suppressant, but was later withdrawn for this application due to problems with dependence and abuse. It is around half the potency of dexamphetamine, and is prescribed at a dose of 10-60mg, although abusers of the drug tend to rapidly develop tolerance and escalate their dose. Reactivan is still rarely used for treating depressive day-time fatigue, lack of concentration and lethargy, particularly in individuals who have chronic medical conditions, as its favourable safety profile makes it the most suitable drug in some cases. [Wikipedia]approved|illicit|withdrawn1
DB01608PropericiazinePropericiazine is a phenothiazine of the piperidine group. It has been shown to reduce pathologic arousal and affective tension in some psychotic patients, while the symptoms of abnormal mental integration are relatively unaffected. It is a sedative phenothiazine with weak antipsychotic properties. It also has adrenolytic, anticholinergic, metabolic and endocrine effects and an action on the extrapyramidal system. It is used as an adjunctive medication in some psychotic patients, for the control of residual prevailing hostility, impulsiveness and aggressiveness. Pericyazine, like other phenothiazines, is presumed to act principally in the subcortical areas, by producing what has been described as a central adrenergic blockade. approved3
DB01614AcepromazineAcepromazine is one of the phenothiazine derivative psychotropic drugs, used little in humans, however frequently in animals as a sedative and antiemetic.approved|vet_approved6
DB01618MolindoneAn indole derivative effective in schizophrenia and other psychoses and possibly useful in the treatment of the aggressive type of undersocialized conduct disorder. Molindone has much lower affinity for D2 receptors than most antipsychotic agents and has a relatively low affinity for D1 receptors. It has only low to moderate affinity for cholinergic and alpha-adrenergic receptors. Some electrophysiologic data from animals indicate that molindone has certain characteristics that resemble those of clozapine. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p283)approved4
DB01621PipotiazinePipotiazine has actions similar to those of other phenothiazines. Among the different phenothiazine derivatives, it appears to be less sedating and to have a weak propensity for causing hypotension or potentiating the effects of CNS depressants and anesthetics. However, it produces a high incidence of extra pyramidal reactions. It is used for the maintenance treatment of chronic non-agitated schizophrenic patients. Symptoms of overdose include severe extrapyramidal manifestations, hypotension, lethargy and sedation.approved4
DB01622ThioproperazineThioproperazine is a potent neuroleptic with antipsychotic properties. Thioproperazine has a marked cataleptic and antiapomorphine activity associated with relatively slight sedative, hypothermic and spasmolytic effects. It is virtually without antiserotonin and hypotensive action and has no antihistaminic property. It is used for the treatment of all types of acute and chronic schizophrenia, including those which did not respond to the usual neuroleptics; manic syndromes. Overdosage may result in severe extrapyramidal symptoms with dysphagia, marked sialorrhea, persistent and rapidly increasing hyperthermia, pulmonary syndrome, state of shock with pallor and profuse sweating, which may be followed by collapse and coma. LD50 in mice is 70 mg/kg I.V., 120 mg/kg I.P., 500 mg/kg S.C. and 830 mg/kg P.O.approved6
DB01623ThiothixeneA thioxanthine used as an antipsychotic agent. Its effects are similar to the phenothiazine antipsychotics. [PubChem]approved3
DB01624ZuclopenthixolZuclopenthixol, also known as Zuclopentixol or Zuclopenthixolum, is an antipsychotic agent. Zuclopenthixol is a thioxanthene-based neuroleptic with therapeutic actions similar to the phenothiazine antipsychotics. It is an antagonist at D1 and D2 dopamine receptors. Major brands of zuclopenthixol are Cisordinol, Acuphase, and Clopixol. This drug is a liquid. This compound belongs to the thioxanthenes. These are organic polycyclic compounds containing a thioxanthene moiety, which is an aromatic tricycle derived from xanthene by replacing the oxygen atom with a sulfur atom. Known drug targets of zuclopenthixol include 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2A, D(1B) dopamine receptor, D(2) dopamine receptor, D(1A) dopamine receptor, and alpha-1A adrenergic receptor. It is known that zuclopenthixol is metabolized by Cytochrome P450 2D6. Zuclopenthixol was approved for use in Canada in 2011, but is not approved for use in the United States.approved|investigational7
DB04842FluspirileneA long-acting injectable antipsychotic agent used for chronic schizophrenia.approved2
DB06144SertindoleSertindole, a neuroleptic, is one of the newer antipsychotic medications available. Serdolect is developed by the Danish pharmaceutical company H. Lundbeck. Like the other atypical antipsychotics, it has activity at dopamine and serotonin receptors in the brain. It is used in the treatment of schizophrenia. It is classified chemically as a phenylindole derivative. It was first marketed in 1996 in several European countries before being withdrawn two years later because of numerous cardiac adverse effects. It has once again been approved and should soon be available on the French and Australian market.approved|withdrawn8
DB06288AmisulprideAmisulpride (trade name Solian) is an antipsychotic drug sold by Sanofi-Aventis. It is not approved for use in the United States, but is approved for use in Europe and Australia for the treatment of psychoses and schizophrenia. Additionally, it is approved in Italy for the treatment of dysthymia (under the brand name Deniban). Amisulpride is a selective dopamine antagonist.approved|investigational4