1Schizophr. Res. 2006 Dec 88: 251-9
TitleAltered expression of hippocampal dentate granule neuron genes in a mouse model of human 22q11 deletion syndrome.
AbstractHemizygous deletion of a 3 Mb region of 22q11.2 is found in 1/4000 humans and produces 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS). Up to 35% of 22q11DS patients develop schizophrenia, making it the second highest risk factor for schizophrenia. A mouse model for 22q11DS, the Df1/+ mouse, carries a hemizygous deletion in a region syntenic with the human deletion. Df1/+ mice are mostly viable but display deficits in prepulse inhibition and learning and memory, two common traits of schizophrenia thought to result, at least in part, from defects in hippocampal neurons. We used oligonucleotide microarrays and QRT-PCR to evaluate gene expression changes in hippocampal dentate granule neurons of Df1/+ mice versus wild-type littermates (n=12/group). The expression of only 287 genes changed with p value significance below 0.05 by microarray, yet 12 of the 21 Df1 region genes represented on the array showed highly significantly reduced expression compared to wild-type controls (33% on average, p values from 10(-3) to 10(-7)). Variants in two of these genes, COMT and PRODH, have been linked with schizophrenia. Overlap of the 287 genes with the reportedly reduced expression of mitochondrial, ubiquitin/proteasome, and synaptic plasticity genes in schizophrenia dentate granule neurons, was not significant. However, modest increases in expression of mitochondrial electron transport genes were observed in the Df1/+ mice. This perhaps indicates a compensation for mitochondrial dysfunction caused by the strongly reduced expression of the Df1 region-encoded mitochondrial enzymes proline dehydrogenase (Prodh) and thioredoxin reductase 2 (TXNRD2).
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia
2J. Biol. Chem. 2015 Sep 290: 23240-53
TitleMitochondrial Citrate Transporter-dependent Metabolic Signature in the 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome.
AbstractThe congenital disorder 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22qDS), characterized by a hemizygous deletion of 1.5-3 Mb on chromosome 22 at locus 11.2, is the most common microdeletion disorder (estimated prevalence of 1 in 4000) and the second risk factor for schizophrenia. Nine of ?30 genes involved in 22qDS have the potential of disrupting mitochondrial metabolism (COMT, UFD1L, DGCR8, MRPL40, PRODH, SLC25A1, TXNRD2, T10, and ZDHHC8). Deficits in bioenergetics during early postnatal brain development could set the basis for a disrupted neuronal metabolism or synaptic signaling, partly explaining the higher incidence in developmental and behavioral deficits in these individuals. Here, we investigated whether mitochondrial outcomes and metabolites from 22qDS children segregated with the altered dosage of one or several of these mitochondrial genes contributing to 22qDS etiology and/or morbidity. Plasma metabolomics, lymphocytic mitochondrial outcomes, and epigenetics (histone H3 Lys-4 trimethylation and 5-methylcytosine) were evaluated in samples from 11 22qDS children and 13 age- and sex-matched neurotypically developing controls. Metabolite differences between 22qDS children and controls reflected a shift from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis (higher lactate/pyruvate ratios) accompanied by an increase in reductive carboxylation of ?-ketoglutarate (increased concentrations of 2-hydroxyglutaric acid, cholesterol, and fatty acids). Altered metabolism in 22qDS reflected a critical role for the haploinsufficiency of the mitochondrial citrate transporter SLC25A1, further enhanced by HIF-1?, MYC, and metabolite controls. This comprehensive profiling served to clarify the biochemistry of this disease underlying its broad, complex phenotype.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia