1Mol. Psychiatry 2011 Aug 16: 867-80
TitleSystematic resequencing of X-chromosome synaptic genes in autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia.
AbstractAutism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia (SCZ) are two common neurodevelopmental syndromes that result from the combined effects of environmental and genetic factors. We set out to test the hypothesis that rare variants in many different genes, including de novo variants, could predispose to these conditions in a fraction of cases. In addition, for both disorders, males are either more significantly or more severely affected than females, which may be explained in part by X-linked genetic factors. Therefore, we directly sequenced 111 X-linked synaptic genes in individuals with ASD (n = 142; 122 males and 20 females) or SCZ (n = 143; 95 males and 48 females). We identified >200 non-synonymous variants, with an excess of rare damaging variants, which suggest the presence of disease-causing mutations. Truncating mutations in genes encoding the calcium-related protein IL1RAPL1 (already described in Piton et al. Hum Mol Genet 2008) and the monoamine degradation enzyme monoamine oxidase B were found in ASD and SCZ, respectively. Moreover, several promising non-synonymous rare variants were identified in genes encoding proteins involved in regulation of neurite outgrowth and other various synaptic functions (MECP2, TM4SF2/TSPAN7, PPP1R3F, PSMD10, MCF2, SLITRK2, GPRASP2, and OPHN1).
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia
2Biol. Psychiatry 2011 Dec 70: 1115-21
TitleCopy number variants for schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders in Oceanic Palau: risk and transmission in extended pedigrees.
AbstractWe report on copy number variants (CNVs) found in Palauan subjects ascertained for schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders in extended pedigrees in Palau. We compare CNVs found in this Oceanic population with those seen in other samples, typically of European ancestry. Assessing CNVs in Palauan extended pedigrees yields insight into the evolution of risk CNVs, such as how they arise, are transmitted, and are lost from populations by stochastic or selective processes, none of which are easily measured from case-control samples.
DNA samples from 197 subjects affected with schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders, 185 of their relatives, and 159 control subjects were successfully characterized for CNVs using Affymetrix Genomewide Human SNP Array 5.0.
Copy number variants thought to be associated with risk for schizophrenia and related disorders also occur in affected individuals in Palau, specifically 15q11.2 and 1q21.1 deletions, partial duplication of IL1RAPL1 (Xp21.3), and chromosome X duplications (Klinefelter's syndrome). Partial duplication within A2BP1 appears to convey an eightfold increased risk in male subjects (95% confidence interval, .8-84.4) but not female subjects (odds ratio = .4, 95% confidence interval, .03-4.9). Affected-only linkage analysis using this variant yields a logarithm of the odds score of 3.5.
This study reveals CNVs that confer risk to schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders in Palau, most of which have been previously observed in samples of European ancestry. Only a few of these CNVs show evidence that they have existed for many generations, consistent with risk variants diminishing reproductive success.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia