1J. Neuroimmunol. 2003 Aug 141: 155-64
PMID12965267
TitleAutoantibodies against four kinds of neurotransmitter receptors in psychiatric disorders.
AbstractThere is a hypothesis that autoimmune abnormalities in neurotransmitter receptors might cause some psychiatric disorders. Using a sensitive radioligand assay, we detected serum autoantibodies to recombinant human muscarinic cholinergic receptor 1 (CHRM1, 34.4%), mu-opioid receptor (OPRM1, 13.1%), 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1A (HTR1A, 7.4%), and dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2, 4.9%) in 122 psychiatric patients. Positive antibodies to CHRM1 were found in 34.1%, 34.9%, 33.3%, and 9.1% of patients with schizophrenic disorders (n=44), mood disorders (n=63), other psychiatric disorders (n=15) and autoimmune diseases (n=33), respectively. All three patients with neuroleptic maliganant syndrome had high activities of autoantibodies to CHRM1, OPRM1, and/or HTR1A. Our data suggest that autoimmunity to neurotransmitter receptors might be associated with the induction of psychiatric symptoms and have some relation to neuroleptic malignant syndrome.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
2Neuropsychobiology 2003 -1 48: 72-6
PMID14504414
TitleAssociation of muscarinic m1 receptor genetic polymorphisms with psychiatric symptoms and cognitive function in schizophrenic patients.
AbstractThe cholinergic system is important in the search for the pathophysiology of schizophrenia due to its role in cognitive function, interaction with the dopamine system in brain regions relevant to schizophrenia, side effects of antipsychotic medication and potential antipsychotic effect of muscarinic receptor antagonists. This study investigated the association of type I muscarinic receptor (CHRM1) genetic polymorphisms with the clinical characteristics of chronic schizophrenic inpatients.
We determined the genotype of CHRM1 genetic polymorphisms in 243 schizophrenic patients hospitalized in chronic care wards. Psychotic symptoms were assessed using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), and cognitive function was assessed using the Folstein Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) test. Sixty of the 243 subjects also completed the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST).
There was a significant difference in the number of correct responses and the percentage of perseverative errors in the WCST in the CHRM1 C267A genotype group of schizophrenia patients. There was no significant association between age at onset, chlorpromazine equivalents, BPRS scores, MMSE or schizophrenia per se in patients with the CHRM1 C267A genotype. The full exon of the CHRM1 gene was screened out with single-strand conformation polymorphism, and 2 single nucleotide polymorphisms (C267A and C1353T) were identified in our patients and control subjects. These 2 single nucleotide polymorphisms were linked together without exception.
This study demonstrated that in schizophrenic patients, the heterozygote group of CHRM1 C267A polymorphism (267C/A) had more correct responses and less perseverative errors on the WCST performance than the 267C/C homozygote group, implicating that this polymorphism may be related to prefrontal cortical function. Our results also suggested that the C267A polymorphism plays no major role in the susceptibility to and clinical manifestations of schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
3Neuropsychobiology 2003 -1 48: 72-6
PMID14504414
TitleAssociation of muscarinic m1 receptor genetic polymorphisms with psychiatric symptoms and cognitive function in schizophrenic patients.
AbstractThe cholinergic system is important in the search for the pathophysiology of schizophrenia due to its role in cognitive function, interaction with the dopamine system in brain regions relevant to schizophrenia, side effects of antipsychotic medication and potential antipsychotic effect of muscarinic receptor antagonists. This study investigated the association of type I muscarinic receptor (CHRM1) genetic polymorphisms with the clinical characteristics of chronic schizophrenic inpatients.
We determined the genotype of CHRM1 genetic polymorphisms in 243 schizophrenic patients hospitalized in chronic care wards. Psychotic symptoms were assessed using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), and cognitive function was assessed using the Folstein Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) test. Sixty of the 243 subjects also completed the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST).
There was a significant difference in the number of correct responses and the percentage of perseverative errors in the WCST in the CHRM1 C267A genotype group of schizophrenia patients. There was no significant association between age at onset, chlorpromazine equivalents, BPRS scores, MMSE or schizophrenia per se in patients with the CHRM1 C267A genotype. The full exon of the CHRM1 gene was screened out with single-strand conformation polymorphism, and 2 single nucleotide polymorphisms (C267A and C1353T) were identified in our patients and control subjects. These 2 single nucleotide polymorphisms were linked together without exception.
This study demonstrated that in schizophrenic patients, the heterozygote group of CHRM1 C267A polymorphism (267C/A) had more correct responses and less perseverative errors on the WCST performance than the 267C/C homozygote group, implicating that this polymorphism may be related to prefrontal cortical function. Our results also suggested that the C267A polymorphism plays no major role in the susceptibility to and clinical manifestations of schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
4Schizophr. Res. 2008 Dec 106: 229-36
PMID18790604
TitleLevels of [(3)H]pirenzepine binding in Brodmann's area 6 from subjects with schizophrenia is not associated with changes in the transcription factor SP1 or BACE1.
AbstractDecreased muscarinic M1 receptor (CHRM1) mRNA has been reported in Brodmann's area (BA) 6 from subjects with schizophrenia. We have extended this study by measuring levels of CHRM1 ([(3)H]pirenzepine binding), CHRM3 ([(3)H]4-DAMP binding), the transcription factor SP1 and the CHRM1 downstream target beta-site APP-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) in BA 6 from 19 subjects with schizophrenia and 19 control subjects. Radioligand binding was quantified using either in situ radioligand binding with autoradiography or, in cohorts of 10 control subjects and 10 subjects with schizophrenia, membrane enriched fraction (MEF) CNS ([(3)H]pirenzepine binding only). Levels of SP1 and BACE1 were measured by Western blotting. [(3)H]pirenzepine binding to tissue sections was in two layers, binding to tissue sections (Binding layer 1: p<0.01; Binding layer 2: p<0.001) and MEF (p<0.05) were decreased in schizophrenia. Levels of [(3)H]4-DAMP binding, SP1 and BACE1 were not altered in subjects with the disorder. This study shows a decrease in levels of CHRM1 in BA 6 from subjects with schizophrenia; as CHRM1 and BA 6 are important in maintaining normal cognitive function, these data support the hypothesis that decreased levels of cortical CHRM1 may contribute to the cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia. Our findings on BACE1 suggest that the schizophrenia phenotype reported in BACE(-/-) mice is not simply due to lack of that protein in the cortex.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
5Neuropsychopharmacology 2009 Aug 34: 2156-66
PMID19404243
TitleAltered M(1) muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (CHRM1)-Galpha(q/11) coupling in a schizophrenia endophenotype.
AbstractAlterations in muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (CHRM) populations have been implicated in the pathology of schizophrenia. Here we have assessed whether the receptor function of the M(1) subtype (CHRM1) is altered in a sub-population of patients with schizophrenia, defined by marked (60-80%) reductions in cortical [3H]-pirenzepine (PZP) binding, and termed 'muscarinic receptor-deficit schizophrenia' (MRDS). Using a [35S]-GTPgammaS-Galpha(q/11) immunocapture method we have assessed whether CHRM1 signalling in human cortex (Brodmann area 9 (BA9)) is altered in post mortem tissue from a MRDS group compared with a subgroup of patients with schizophrenia displaying normal PZP binding, and controls with no known history of psychiatric or neurological disorders. The CHRM agonist (oxotremorine-M) and a CHRM1-selective agonist (AC-42) increased Galpha(q/11)-[35S]-GTPgammaS binding, with AC-42 producing responses that were approximately 50% of those maximally evoked by the full agonist, oxotremorine-M, in control and subgroups of patients with schizophrenia. However, the potency of oxotremorine-M to stimulate Galpha(q/11)-[35S]-GTPgammaS binding was significantly decreased in the MRDS group (pEC(50) (M)=5.69+/-0.16) compared with the control group (6.17+/-0.10) and the non-MRDS group (6.05+/-0.07). The levels of Galpha(q/11) protein present in BA9 did not vary with diagnosis. Maximal oxotremorine-M-stimulated Galpha(q/11)-[35S]-GTPgammaS binding in BA9 membranes was significantly increased in the MRDS group compared with the control group. Similar, though non-statistically significant, trends were observed for AC-42. These data provide evidence that both orthosterically and allosterically acting CHRM agonists can stimulate a receptor-driven functional response ([35S]-GTPgammaS binding to Galpha(q/11)) in membranes prepared from post mortem human dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of patients with schizophrenia and controls . Furthermore, in a subgroup of patients with schizophrenia displaying markedly decreased PZP binding (MRDS) we have shown that although agonist potency may decrease, the efficacy of CHRM1-Galpha(q/11) coupling increases, suggesting an adaptative change in receptor-G protein coupling efficiency in this endophenotype of patients with schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
6Mol. Psychiatry 2009 Nov 14: 1017-23
PMID18317461
TitleDecreased cortical muscarinic receptors define a subgroup of subjects with schizophrenia.
Abstractschizophrenia is widely acknowledged as being a syndrome, consisting of an undefined number of diseases probably with differing pathologies. Although studying a syndrome makes the identification of an underlying pathology more difficult; neuroimaging, neuropsychopharmacological and post-mortem brain studies all implicate muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (CHRM) in the pathology of the disorder. We have established that the CHRM1 is selectively decreased in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of subjects with schizophrenia. To expand this finding, we wanted to ascertain whether decreased cortical CHRMs might (1) define a subgroup of schizophrenia and/or (2) be related to CHRM1 genotype. We assessed cortical [(3)H]pirenzepine binding and sequenced the CHRM1 in 80 subjects with schizophrenia and 74 age sex-matched control subjects. Kernel density estimation showed that [(3)H]pirenzepine binding in BA9 divided the schizophrenia, but not control, cohort into two distinct populations. One of the schizophrenia cohorts, comprising 26% of all subjects with the disorder, had a 74% reduction in mean cortical [(3)H]pirenzepine binding compared to controls. We suggest that these individuals make up 'muscarinic receptor-deficit schizophrenia' (MRDS). The MRDS could not be separated from other subjects with schizophrenia by CHRM1 sequence, gender, age, suicide, duration of illness or any particular drug treatment. Being able to define a subgroup within schizophrenia using a central biological parameter is a pivotal step towards understanding the biochemistry underlying at least one form of the disorder and may represent a biomarker that can be used in neuroimaging.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
7Schizophr. Res. 2010 Dec 124: 200-7
PMID20926259
TitleDecreased Neuregulin 1 C-terminal fragment in Brodmann's area 6 of patients with schizophrenia.
AbstractNeuregulin 1 (NRG1) is a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia. A decrease in NRG1-ErbB4 signalling has also been associated with the disease. ?-amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme (BACE1) processes type III NRG1 precursor, a major neuregulin variant expressed in the brain, to release NRG1 fragments that trigger signalling events and activation of neurotransmitter receptors. Experimental evidence suggests that muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (CHRM) regulate BACE1 expression. Having recently shown that CHRM1 levels are decreased selectively in frontal cortex regions of a subpopulation of schizophrenic patients (muscarinic receptor deficit schizophrenia, MRDS) we aimed to compare the protein expression of BACE1 and NRG1 in the agranular frontal cortex Brodmann's area 6 of SCZ subjects with normal levels of CHRM1 (N = 19), MRDS (N = 20), and age/gender-matched non-psychiatric (healthy) controls (HC; N = 20). Western blot analysis of post-mortem samples showed that the levels of BACE1 and full-length NRG1 precursor (130 kDa) did not differ significantly between the three groups. In contrast, the levels of the NRG1 C-terminal fragment (NRG1-CTF) were decreased by approximately 50% in both schizophrenic groups compared to the HC group (p<0.0027). The ratio of NRG1-CTF versus NRG1 precursor was significantly reduced in the SCZ groups compared to the HC group (p = 0.051). There was no correlation between the levels of either full-length NRG1, NRG1-CTF, or BACE1 and the final recorded doses of antipsychotic drugs for the subjects with schizophrenia. A positive correlation was found between BACE1 and full-length NRG1 precursor in the HC group (r(2) = 0.671, p<0.001) but not in the schizophrenic groups. These data suggest that the proteolytic processing of NRG1 is impaired in schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
8Schizophr. Res. 2010 Dec 124: 200-7
PMID20926259
TitleDecreased Neuregulin 1 C-terminal fragment in Brodmann's area 6 of patients with schizophrenia.
AbstractNeuregulin 1 (NRG1) is a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia. A decrease in NRG1-ErbB4 signalling has also been associated with the disease. ?-amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme (BACE1) processes type III NRG1 precursor, a major neuregulin variant expressed in the brain, to release NRG1 fragments that trigger signalling events and activation of neurotransmitter receptors. Experimental evidence suggests that muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (CHRM) regulate BACE1 expression. Having recently shown that CHRM1 levels are decreased selectively in frontal cortex regions of a subpopulation of schizophrenic patients (muscarinic receptor deficit schizophrenia, MRDS) we aimed to compare the protein expression of BACE1 and NRG1 in the agranular frontal cortex Brodmann's area 6 of SCZ subjects with normal levels of CHRM1 (N = 19), MRDS (N = 20), and age/gender-matched non-psychiatric (healthy) controls (HC; N = 20). Western blot analysis of post-mortem samples showed that the levels of BACE1 and full-length NRG1 precursor (130 kDa) did not differ significantly between the three groups. In contrast, the levels of the NRG1 C-terminal fragment (NRG1-CTF) were decreased by approximately 50% in both schizophrenic groups compared to the HC group (p<0.0027). The ratio of NRG1-CTF versus NRG1 precursor was significantly reduced in the SCZ groups compared to the HC group (p = 0.051). There was no correlation between the levels of either full-length NRG1, NRG1-CTF, or BACE1 and the final recorded doses of antipsychotic drugs for the subjects with schizophrenia. A positive correlation was found between BACE1 and full-length NRG1 precursor in the HC group (r(2) = 0.671, p<0.001) but not in the schizophrenic groups. These data suggest that the proteolytic processing of NRG1 is impaired in schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
9Neuropharmacology 2012 Mar 62: 1204-20
PMID21557953
TitleMouse models of genetic effects on cognition: relevance to schizophrenia.
AbstractCognitive dysfunction is a core feature of schizophrenia. Growing evidence indicates that a wide variety of genetic mutations and polymorphisms impact cognition and may thus be implicated in various aspects of this mental disorder. Despite differences between human and rodent brain structure and function, genetic mouse models have contributed critical information about brain mechanisms involved in cognitive processes. Here, we summarize discoveries of genetic modifications in mice that impact cognition. Based on functional hypotheses, gene modifications within five model systems are described: 1) dopamine (D1, D2, D3, D4, D5, DAT, COMT, MAO); 2) glutamate (GluR-A, NR1, NR2A, NR2B, GRM2, GRM3, GLAST); 3) GABA (?(5), ?(2), ?(4), ?GABA(A), GABA(B(1)), GAT1); 4) acetylcholine (nAChR?2, ?7, CHRM1); and 5) calcium (CaMKII-?, neurogranin, CaMKK?, CaMKIV). We also consider other risk-associated genes for schizophrenia such as dysbindin (DTNBP1), neuregulin (NRG1), disrupted-in-schizophrenia1 (DISC1), reelin and proline dehydrogenase (PRODH). Because of the presumed importance of environmental factors, we further consider genetic modifications within the stress-sensitive systems of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the endocannabinoid systems. We highlight the missing information and limitations of cognitive assays in genetically modified mice models relevant to schizophrenia pathology.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
10Schizophr. Res. 2012 Jun 138: 94-8
PMID22391213
TitleMuscarinic M1 receptor sequence: preliminary studies on its effects on cognition and expression.
AbstractIt has been reported that people with schizophrenia who are homozygous at the c.267C>A single nucleotide polymorphism of the cholinergic muscarinic M1 receptor (CHRM1) perform less well on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test than those who are heterozygous. We investigated whether CHRM1 sequence is associated with impaired executive function, a common problem in schizophrenia. We sequenced the CHRM1 using peripheral DNA from 97 people with schizophrenia who completed the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, a verbal fluency test and the National Adult Reading Test. Clinical severity was assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. To determine whether CHRM1 sequence affected receptor expression, we used post-mortem data, from another cohort, to investigate associations between CHRM1 sequence and mRNA levels. On the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, 267C/C participants with schizophrenia made more perseverative errors (p<0.05) and perseverative responses (p<0.05) than 267C/A participants. Genotype had no effect on verbal fluency (p=0.8) or National Adult Reading test (p=0.62). Cortical CHRM1 mRNA levels did not vary with gene sequence (p=0.409). The clinical study supports the proposal that CHRM1 sequence is associated with alterations in some aspects of executive function. However, the post-mortem study indicates this is not simply due to altered expression at the level of mRNA, suggesting this sequence alteration may affect the functionality of the CHRM1.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
11Transl Psychiatry 2013 -1 3: e230
PMID23423139
TitleDecreased cortical muscarinic M1 receptors in schizophrenia are associated with changes in gene promoter methylation, mRNA and gene targeting microRNA.
AbstractMany studies have shown decreased cortical muscarinic M1 receptors (CHRM1) in schizophrenia (Sz), with one study showing Sz can be separated into two populations based on a marked loss of CHRM1 (-75%) in -25% of people (Def-Sz) with the disorder. To better understand the mechanism contributing to the loss of CHRM1 in Def-Sz, we measured specific markers of gene expression in the cortex of people with Sz as a whole, people differentiated into Def-Sz and people with Sz that do not have a deficit in cortical CHRM1 (Non-Def-Sz) and health controls. We now report that cortical CHRM1 gene promoter methylation and CHRM1 mRNA are decrease in Sz, Def-Sz and Non-Def-Sz but levels of the micro RNA (miR)-107, a CHRM1 targeting miR, are increased only in Def-Sz. We also report in vitro data strongly supporting the notion that miR-107 levels regulate CHRM1 expression. These data suggest there is a reversal of the expected inverse relationship between gene promoter methylation and CHRM1 mRNA in people with Sz and that a breakdown in gene promoter methylation control of CHRM1 expression is contributing to the global pathophysiology of the syndrome. In addition, our data argues that increased levels of at least one miR, miR-107, is contributing to the marked loss of cortical CHRM1 in Def-Sz and this may be a differentiating pathophysiology. These latter data continue to support the hypothesis that microRNAs (miRNA) have a role in the underlying neurobiology of Sz but argue they are differentially affected in subsets of people within that syndrome.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
12Hum Psychopharmacol 2014 Jul 29: 336-41
PMID25163438
TitlePolymorphism in alpha 2A adrenergic receptor gene is associated with sialorrhea in schizophrenia patients on clozapine treatment.
AbstractClozapine-induced sialorrhea (CIS) is a common, inconvenient and socially stigmatizing adverse effect. The pathophysiology of CIS may be related to the effect of clozapine on the muscarinic and adrenergic receptors as well as the disruption of the circadian rhythms. The aim of this study was to find out if polymorphisms in muscarinic M1 and M3 receptor genes (CHRM1 and CHRM3), adrenoceptor alpha 2A gene (ADRA2A) or clock circadian regulator gene (CLOCK) are associated with CIS.
Two hundred and thirty-seven clozapine-treated Finnish schizophrenia patients were genotyped for CHRM1, CHRM3, CLOCK and ADRA2A polymorphisms, and their salivary dysfunction was assessed with two questions. Twenty-six of these patients had previously been on medication to treat CIS. Comparisons of the genotypes between patients with excessive versus non-excessive salivation were analysed. Genotype distributions between patients and control group and haplotypes were also studied.
CHRM1, CHRM3 and CLOCK polymorphisms and haplotypes were not associated with CIS. ADRA2A (rs1800544) genotype was associated with CIS (p?=?0.029). In patients with CIS, CC genotype (n?=?103) was more common than in G-allele carriers (n?=?79) (p?=?0.013, OR 2.13, 95% CI: 1.17-3.88). No differences were found in the distributions of genotypes between patients and controls.
ADRA2A genotype was associated with CIS.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
13Schizophr. Res. 2014 Sep 158: 247-54
PMID25037527
TitleAn investigation of the factors that regulate muscarinic receptor expression in schizophrenia.
AbstractWe previously identified a group of subjects with schizophrenia who, on average, have a 75% decrease in cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 1 (CHRM1) in Brodmann's area (BA) 9. To extend this finding, we determined i) if the decrease in CHRM1 was present in another functionally related CNS region (BA6), ii) whether the marked decrease in CHRM1 was accompanied by changes in levels of other CHRMs and iii) potential factors responsible for the decreased CHRM1 expression. We measured CHRM1 and CHRM3 using in situ radioligand binding with [(3)H]pirenzepine and [(3)H]4-DAMP respectively in BA6 from 20 subjects with schizophrenia who had low levels of CHRM1 in BA9 (SzLow[(3)H]PZP), 18 subjects with schizophrenia whose levels of CHRM1 were similar to controls (SzNormal[(3)H]PZP) and 20 control subjects. Levels of CHRM1, 3 and 4 mRNA were measured using qPCR and levels of the transcription factors, SP1 and SP3, were determined using Western blots. In BA6, the density of [(3)H]pirenzepine binding was decreased in subjects with SzLow[(3)H]PZP (p<0.001) compared to controls. The density of [(3)H]4-DAMP binding, levels of CHRM1, 3 and 4 mRNA and levels of SP1 and SP3 was not significantly different between the three groups. This study shows that the previously identified decrease in CHRM1 expression is not confined to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex but is present in other cortical areas. The effect shows some specificity to CHRM1, with no change in levels of binding to CHRM3. Furthermore, this decrease in CHRM1 does not appear to be associated with low levels of CHRM1 mRNA or to simply be regulated by the transcription factors, SP1 and SP3, suggesting that other mechanisms are responsible for the decreased CHRM1 in these subjects.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
14Psychiatry Res 2015 Nov 234: 182-7
PMID26481978
TitleThe effect of a muscarinic receptor 1 gene variant on grey matter volume in schizophrenia.
AbstractPrevious research has demonstrated that individuals with schizophrenia who are homozygous at the c.267C>A single nucleotide polymorphism (rs2067477) within the cholinergic muscarinic M1 receptor (CHRM1) perform less well on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) than those who are heterozygous. This study sought to determine whether variation in the rs2067477 genotype was associated with differential changes in brain structure. Data from 227 patients with established schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were obtained from the Australian schizophrenia Research Bank. Whole-brain voxel-based morphometry was performed to compare regional grey matter volume (GMV) between the 267C/C (N=191) and 267C/A (N=36) groups. Secondary analyses tested for an effect of genotype on cognition (the WCST was not available). Individuals who were homozygous (267C/C) demonstrated significantly reduced GMV in the right precentral gyrus compared to those who were heterozygous (267C/A). These preliminary results suggest that the rs2067477 genotype is associated with brain structure in the right precentral gyrus in individuals with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder. Future studies are required to replicate these results and directly link the volumetric reductions with specific cognitive processes.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
15Curr. Mol. Med. 2015 -1 15: 253-64
PMID25817858
TitlePossible involvement of muscarinic receptors in psychiatric disorders: a focus on schizophrenia and mood disorders.
AbstractA considerable body of data supports a role for the central cholinergic system in the aetiologies of schizophrenia and mood disorders. There have been breakthroughs in gaining structural data on muscarinic receptors (CHRMs), understanding their role in CNS functioning and in synthesising drugs that can specifically target each of the 5 CHRMs. This means it is opportune to consider the role of specific CHRMs in the pathophysiologies of schizophrenia and mood disorders. This review will focus on data suggesting changes in levels of CHRM1 and CHRM4 implicate these receptors in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia whereas data suggest a role for CHRM2 in mood disorders. There will be a selected reference to recent developments in understanding the roles of CHRM1, 2 and 4 in CNS function and how these predict mechanisms by which these receptors could induce the symptoms prevalent in schizophrenia and mood disorders. Finally, there will be comments on the potential advantages and problems in targeting CHRM1 and CHRM4 to treat the symptoms of schizophrenia and CHRM2 to treat the symptom of depression.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
16Curr. Pharm. Des. 2016 -1 22: 2124-33
PMID26818859
TitleThe Cholinergic System: An Emerging Drug Target for Schizophrenia.
AbstractCognitive deficits are amongst the most socially debilitating and least effectively treated symptoms of schizophrenia. The cholinergic system is a promising target for the design of novel drugs that can more effectively treat these symptoms.
We review the literature supporting the dysfunction of the cholinergic system in schizophrenia, discuss the preclinical and clinical data showing that modulating the cholinergic system could improve the symptoms of schizophrenia and review the main pharmacological strategies being investigated to treat cholinergic dysfunction in schizophrenia.
Post-mortem and neuroimaging studies suggest there are widespread reductions in cholinergic receptor signalling in the cortex as well as subcortical regions, such as the hippocampus and striatum, in individuals with schizophrenia. Potential cholinergic drug targets are being pursued to increase receptor function. These include inhibiting the activity of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase to increase synaptic acetylcholine levels, and increasing the nicotinic receptor and muscarinic receptor activity with agonists or positive allosteric modulators.
Amongst the most promising drug targets for treating schizophrenia are the ?7 nicotinic receptor and the CHRM1 and CHRM4 muscarinic receptors. The recent development of allosteric modulators that selectively target these receptors offers the potential to more effectively treat the symptoms of schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
17Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet. 2016 Mar -1: -1
PMID26954460
TitleCOMT genotype is associated with differential expression of muscarinic M1 receptors in human cortex.
AbstractCatechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) genotype has been associated with varying levels of cognitive functioning and an altered risk of schizophrenia. COMT regulates the breakdown of catecholamines, particularly dopamine, which is thought critical in maintaining cognitive function and the aetiology of schizophrenia. This hypothesis gained support from reports that the VAL allele at rs4680 was associated with poorer performance on cognitive tests and a slightly increased risk of schizophrenia. More recently, genotype at rs4818, part of a hapblock with rs4680, has been shown to impact on cognitive ability more than genotype at rs4680 but, as yet, not the risk for schizophrenia. Here, we determined if COMT genotype at rs4680 or rs4818, as well as rs165519 and rs737865, two synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with no known functional consequences, were associated with an altered risk of schizophrenia and if genotype at the four COMT SNPs was related to expression of the cortical muscarinic M1 receptor (CHRM1) because the expression of the cortical CHRM1 has been reported to be lower in schizophrenia and is important in maintaining cognitive functioning in humans. We report that the variation in gene sequence at the four COMT SNPs studied was not associated with an altered the risk of schizophrenia but genotype at rs4680 and rs4818, but not rs165519 and rs737865, were associated with varying levels of cortical CHRM1 expression in the human dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). These data are the first to suggest that levels of CHRM1 in the human DLPFC are, in part, determined by COMT gene sequence. 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
18Neuropsychopharmacology 2016 May 41: 1620-8
PMID26511338
TitleChanges in BQCA Allosteric Modulation of [(3)H]NMS Binding to Human Cortex within Schizophrenia and by Divalent Cations.
AbstractStimulation of the cortical muscarinic M1 receptor (CHRM1) is proposed as a treatment for schizophrenia, a hypothesis testable using CHRM1 allosteric modulators. Allosteric modulators have been shown to change the activity of CHRMs using cloned human CHRMs and CHRM knockout mice but not human CNS, a prerequisite for them working in humans. Here we show in vitro that BQCA, a positive allosteric CHRM1 modulator, brings about the expected change in affinity of the CHRM1 orthosteric site for acetylcholine in human cortex. Moreover, this effect of BQCA is reduced in the cortex of a subset of subjects with schizophrenia, separated into a discrete population because of a profound loss of cortical [(3)H]pirenzepine binding. Surprisingly, there was no change in [(3)H]NMS binding to the cortex from this subset or those with schizophrenia but without a marked loss of cortical CHRM1. Hence, we explored the nature of [(3)H]pirenzepine and [(3)H]NMS binding to human cortex and showed total [(3)H]pirenzepine and [(3)H]NMS binding was reduced by Zn(2+), acetylcholine displacement of [(3)H]NMS binding was enhanced by Mg(2+) and Zn(2+), acetylcholine displacement of [(3)H]pirenzepine was reduced by Mg(2+) and enhanced by Zn(2+), whereas BQCA effects on [(3)H]NMS, but not [(3)H]pirenzepine, binding was enhanced by Mg(2+) and Zn(2+). These data suggest the orthosteric and allosteric sites on CHRMs respond differently to divalent cations and the effects of allosteric modulation of the cortical CHRM1 is reduced in a subset of people with schizophrenia, a finding that may have ramifications for the use of CHRM1 allosteric modulators in the treatment of schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic