1J Clin Psychiatry 2001 -1 62 Suppl 23: 45-66
TitleGenetic dissection of atypical antipsychotic-induced weight gain: novel preliminary data on the pharmacogenetic puzzle.
AbstractAtypical antipsychotics such as clozapine represent a significant improvement over typical antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia, particularly regarding extrapyramidal symptoms. Despite their benefits, use is limited by the occurrence of adverse reactions such as sedation and weight gain. This article provides a comprehensive review and discussion of obesity-related pathways and integrates these with the known mechanisms of atypical antipsychotic action to identify candidate molecules that may be disrupted during antipsychotic treatment. Novel preliminary data are presented to genetically dissect these obesity pathways and elucidate the genetic contribution of these candidate molecules to clozapine-induced weight gain. There is considerable variability among individuals with respect to the ability of clozapine to induce weight gain. Genetic predisposition to clozapine-induced weight gain has been suggested. Therefore, genetic variation in these candidate molecules may predict patient susceptibility to clozapine-induced weight gain. This hypothesis was tested for 10 genetic polymorphisms across 9 candidate genes, including the serotonin 2C, 2A, and 1A receptor genes (HTR2C/2A/1A); the histamine H1 and H2 receptor genes (H1R/H2R); the cytochrome P450 1A2 gene (CYPIA2); the beta3 and alpha,alpha-adrenergic receptor genes (ADRB3/ADRAIA); and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). Prospective weight gain data were obtained for 80 patients with schizophrenia who completed a structured clozapine trial. Trends were observed for ADRB3, ADRA1A, TNF-alpha, and HTR2C; however, replication in larger, independent samples is required. Although in its infancy, psychiatric pharmacogenetics will in the future aid clinical practice in the prediction of response and side effects, such as antipsychotic-induced weight gain, and minimize the current "trial and error" approach to prescribing.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia
2Biol. Psychiatry 2005 Sep 58: 435-9
TitlePolymorphisms in the promoter region of the alpha1A-adrenoceptor gene are associated with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder in a Spanish isolate population.
AbstractAnimal models have implicated the alpha(1)-adrenergic subtypes in cognitive functions relevant to schizophrenia, but no consensus exists with regard to the status of noradrenergic receptor populations in psychiatric patients. We focused on one alpha(1)-adrenergic subtype, the alpha(1A)-adrenergic receptor, and proposed that genetic variants within the regulatory region of this gene (ADRA1A) alter the expression of this receptor, influencing susceptibility toward schizophrenia.
This study examined this proposal by testing the hypothesis that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the promoter region of the alpha(1A)-adrenergic gene were associated with schizophrenia by performing case-control association analysis on SNPs found in a 5' upstream region, which included the putative promoter region and 5' untranslated region. Our sample consisted of 103 schizophrenia and 14 schizoaffective disorder patients and 176 control subjects. All recruits were from a Spanish population isolate of Basque origin that is characterized by low heterogeneity, which was selected with the intent that it might facilitate the identification of disease-related polymorphisms.
A total of eight SNPs (-9625 G/A, -7255 A/G, -6274 C/T, -4884 A/G, -4155 C/G, -2760 A/C, -1873 G/A, and -563 C/T) were confirmed at a rare allele frequency of >5%. Association with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder was found for the -563 C/T SNP (p = .0005 for allele and p = .007 for genotype, Bonferroni corrected) and -9625 G/A SNP (p = .02 for allele and p = .03 for genotype, Bonferroni corrected). Significant differences in the 54 haplotypes formed by these eight SNPs were also found between patients and control subjects (p = .008, Bonferroni corrected).
Because of the strength of these results and the location of these SNPs in the regulatory region of this gene, functional studies investigating the possible influence of these SNPs on receptor expression levels in schizophrenia are warranted.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia
3J Psychiatr Res 2008 Apr 42: 384-8
TitleNo association found between the promoter variants of ADRA1A and schizophrenia in the Chinese population.
Abstractschizophrenia is a chronic psychiatry disorder with a strong genetic component. A recent association study of alpha(1A)-adrenoceptor gene (ADRA1A) involving an isolated Spanish population, focusing on the promoter region of the ADRA1A, genotyped eight single SNPs at the promoter region of ADRA1A and found that two SNPs, -563G/A and -9625G/A, were associated with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders. We were interested in the two positive sites reported and selected five variants among the promoter region of ADRA1A, namely -563G/A, -9625G/A, -2760C/A, -4155G/C and a new substitution we detected between -508bp and -530bp upstream of the translation initiation site. Our sample consisted of 480 schizophrenia and 480 control subjects. All recruits were Han Chinese in Shanghai origin. However, neither individual SNP nor any haplotype was associated with schizophrenia in our study. These results suggest that the variants among the promoter of ADRA1A gene are unlikely to play a major role in the susceptibility to schizophrenia in the Chinese population.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia
4Mol. Psychiatry 2009 Jun 14: 563-89
TitleChromosome 8p as a potential hub for developmental neuropsychiatric disorders: implications for schizophrenia, autism and cancer.
AbstractDefects in genetic and developmental processes are thought to contribute susceptibility to autism and schizophrenia. Presumably, owing to etiological complexity identifying susceptibility genes and abnormalities in the development has been difficult. However, the importance of genes within chromosomal 8p region for neuropsychiatric disorders and cancer is well established. There are 484 annotated genes located on 8p; many are most likely oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes. Molecular genetics and developmental studies have identified 21 genes in this region (ADRA1A, ARHGEF10, CHRNA2, CHRNA6, CHRNB3, DKK4, DPYSL2, EGR3, FGF17, FGF20, FGFR1, FZD3, LDL, NAT2, NEF3, NRG1, PCM1, PLAT, PPP3CC, SFRP1 and VMAT1/SLC18A1) that are most likely to contribute to neuropsychiatric disorders (schizophrenia, autism, bipolar disorder and depression), neurodegenerative disorders (Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease) and cancer. Furthermore, at least seven nonprotein-coding RNAs (microRNAs) are located at 8p. Structural variants on 8p, such as copy number variants, microdeletions or microduplications, might also contribute to autism, schizophrenia and other human diseases including cancer. In this review, we consider the current state of evidence from cytogenetic, linkage, association, gene expression and endophenotyping studies for the role of these 8p genes in neuropsychiatric disease. We also describe how a mutation in an 8p gene (Fgf17) results in a mouse with deficits in specific components of social behavior and a reduction in its dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. We finish by discussing the biological connections of 8p with respect to neuropsychiatric disorders and cancer, despite the shortcomings of this evidence.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia
5Pharmacogenomics J. 2010 Feb 10: 30-9
TitleADRA1A gene is associated with BMI in chronic schizophrenia patients exposed to antipsychotics.
AbstractNoradrenaline and adrenaline are neurotransmitters of the sympathetic nervous system that interact with various adrenergic receptor (ADR) subtypes, and this regulates the basal metabolic rate, thermogenesis and efficiency of energy utilization. We examined a possible role of the gene coding for ADRA1A receptor in weight gain in schizophrenia subjects exposed to antipsychotics. A total of 401 schizophrenia in-patients treated with antipsychotics for >2 years were recruited and a final 394 DNA samples were genotyped. Their body mass indexes (BMIs) were recorded for 12 months and parameterized to be correlated in regression. Among the 58 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped, 44 valid SNPs, which had minor allele frequency > or =0.03, were analyzed in statistics. Linear regression model with age, gender, diabetes, use of typical antipsychotics and use of atypical antipsychotics as covariates, with or without gender interaction, showed evidence of associations between the ADRA1A gene and BMI. Most of the SNPs associated with BMI are located in the promoter and intron regions, and being female appeared to enhance the gene effect. Our study suggests that the ADRA1A gene is involved in weight gain among schizophrenia patients treated with antipsychotics. Further molecular dissection of the ADRA1A gene warrants better understanding on weight gain mechanisms in schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia
6Hum Psychopharmacol 2011 Aug 26: 386-91
TitleGenetic interactions in the adrenergic system genes: analysis of antipsychotic-induced weight gain.
AbstractAtypical antipsychotics (AP) have high affinity for many neurotransmitter receptors. Among these receptors, APs are antagonist at ?-adrenergic and ?-adrenergic receptors, and this pharmacological property has been postulated to be involved in the mechanism of action of these drugs with respect to both clinical response and adverse effects.
We tested the hypotheses that AP-induced weight gain is associated with genetic variation in adrenergic receptors and pathway enzymes. We analyzed nine genetic polymorphisms across seven adrenergic genes (ADRA1A, ADRA2A, ADRA2C, ADRB3, DBH, MAOA and COMT).
One hundred thirty-nine patients with schizophrenia were prospectively assessed for AP-induced weight gain. The HelixTree software (Golden Helix, Bozeman, MT, USA) was employed to detect differences in genotypic distribution between weight gainer and non-weight gainer groups. Furthermore, for the dopamine ?-hydroxylase haplotype, we were able to obtain both the molecular and the statistical phases, analyzing the phenotype considering both phases.
Weight gain was not associated with any adrenergic gene.
Our results suggest that genetic polymorphisms in the adrenergic system may not play a major role in AP-induced weight gain; however, adrenergic 2A receptor gene that produced previously the most consistent associations with this phenotype showed a significant interaction with the monoamine oxidase A in weight gainers.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia
7Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet. 2011 Mar 156: 188-97
TitleLinkage and association on 8p21.2-p21.1 in schizophrenia.
AbstractIn the past decade, we and others have consistently reported linkage to a schizophrenia (SZ) susceptibility region on chromosome 8p21. Most recently, in the largest SZ linkage sample to date, a multi-site international collaboration performed a SNP-based linkage scan (~6,000 SNPs; 831 pedigrees; 121 from Johns Hopkins (JHU)), that showed the strongest evidence for linkage in a 1?Mb region of chr 8p21 from rs1561817 to rs9797 (Z(max)?=?3.22, P?=?0.0004) [Holmans et al. 2009. Mol Psychiatry]. We have investigated this 8p21 peak region further in two ways: first by linkage and family-based association in 106 8p-linked European-Caucasian (EUC) JHU pedigrees using 1,402 SNPs across a 4.4?Mb region surrounding the peak; second, by an independent case-control association study in the genetically more homogeneous Ashkenazim (AJ) (709 cases, 1,547 controls) using 970 SNPs in a further narrowed 2.8?Mb region. Family-based association analyses in EUC pedigrees and case-control analyses in AJ samples reveal significant associations for SNPs in and around DPYSL2 and ADRA1A, candidate genes previously associated with SZ in our work and others. Further, several independent gene expression studies have shown that DPYSL2 is differentially expressed in SZ brains [Beasley et al. 2006. Proteomics 6(11):3414?3425; Edgar et al. 2000. Mol Psychiatry 5(1):85?90; Johnston-Wilson et al. 2000. Mol Psychiatry 5(2):142?149] or in response to psychosis-inducing pharmaceuticals [Iwazaki et al. 2007. Proteomics 7(7):1131?1139; Paulson et al. 2004. Proteomics 4(3):819?825]. Taken together, this work further supports DPYSL2 and the surrounding genomic region as a susceptibility locus for SZ.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia
8Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry 2012 Jan 36: 205-10
TitleAssociation of the ADRA1A gene and the severity of metabolic abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia.
AbstractPatients with schizophrenia have a higher risk of developing metabolic abnormalities and their associated diseases. Some studies found that the accumulative number of metabolic syndrome components was associated with the severity of metabolic abnormalities. The purpose of this study was to examine the roles of the ADRA1A, ADRA2A, ADRB3, and 5HT2A genes in the risk of having more severe metabolic abnormalities among patients with schizophrenia. We studied a sample of 232 chronic inpatients with schizophrenia (120 males and 112 females) to explore the associations between the four candidate genes and the severity of metabolic syndrome by accumulative number of the components. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms in the candidate genes were genotyped, including the Arg347Cys in ADRA1A, the C1291G in ADRA2A, the Try64Arg in ADRB3, and the T102C in 5HT2A. An association between the accumulative number of metabolic syndrome components and the ADRA1A gene was found after adjusting age, sex, and other related variables (p-value=0.036). Presence of the Arg347 allele in the ADRA1A gene is a risk factor for having more severe metabolic abnormalities. These findings suggest a medical attention of closely monitoring metabolic risks for schizophrenia patients with high-risk genotypes.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia
9Mol. Psychiatry 2012 Mar 17: 242-66
TitlePharmacogenetics of antipsychotic-induced weight gain: review and clinical implications.
AbstractSecond-generation antipsychotics (SGAs), such as risperidone, clozapine and olanzapine, are the most common drug treatments for schizophrenia. SGAs presented an advantage over first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs), particularly regarding avoidance of extrapyramidal symptoms. However, most SGAs, and to a lesser degree FGAs, are linked to substantial weight gain. This substantial weight gain is a leading factor in patient non-compliance and poses significant risk of diabetes, lipid abnormalities (that is, metabolic syndrome) and cardiovascular events including sudden death. The purpose of this article is to review the advances made in the field of pharmacogenetics of antipsychotic-induced weight gain (AIWG). We included all published association studies in AIWG from December 2006 to date using the Medline and ISI web of knowledge databases. There has been considerable progress reaffirming previous findings and discovery of novel genetic factors. The HTR2C and leptin genes are among the most promising, and new evidence suggests that the DRD2, TNF, SNAP-25 and MC4R genes are also prominent risk factors. Further promising findings have been reported in novel susceptibility genes, such as CNR1, MDR1, ADRA1A and INSIG2. More research is required before genetically informed, personalized medicine can be applied to antipsychotic treatment; nevertheless, inroads have been made towards assessing genetic liability and plausible clinical application.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia
10Indian J Psychol Med 2013 Jul 35: 227-40
TitleMetabolic syndrome in schizophrenia.
AbstractTo review the data with respect to prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its correlates in schizophrenia. For this review, electronic search engines PUBMED, Sciencedirect, and Google Scholar were used. Available data suggests that most of the studies have been of cross-sectional design. Prevalence rates of MetS have varied from 11% to 69% in medicated patients, and 4-26% in drug naive patients in cross-sectional evaluations. Longitudinal studies have shown the prevalence rates to range from 0% to 14% at the baseline in drug naive patients, which increase to as high as 52.4% by 3 months of antipsychotic medication treatment. The prevalence rates of MetS in patients with schizophrenia are much higher than that seen in general population or healthy controls. Though there is no causal association with any demographic or clinical variables, the risk increases with increase in age. Among antipsychotics, there seems to be an association between MetS and atypical antipsychotics like clozapine and olanzapine. Therefore, the psychiatrists should be more vigilant regarding the presence of MetS in these high risk groups. Research on biological correlates of MetS in schizophrenia is still in its primitive stage, however, these is some evidence to suggest an association of MetS with adiponectin levels, hematological indices, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and Alpha-1A adrenergic receptor (ADRA1A) gene. These areas hold promise, and targeting these with appropriate interventions may help us to prevent the occurrence of MetS in patients with schizophrenia in future.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia
11Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry 2015 Jan 56: 117-21
TitleEffects of quetiapine on DNA methylation in neuroblastoma cells.
AbstractEpigenetic regulation may be involved in the pathophysiology of mental disorders, such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, and in the pharmacological action of drugs. Characterizing the epigenetic effects of drugs is an important step to optimal treatment. We performed comprehensive and gene-specific DNA methylation analyses of quetiapine using human neuroblastoma cells. Human neuroblastoma cells were cultured with quetiapine for 8 days, and DNA methylation analysis was performed using Infinium HumanMethylation27 BeadChip. A total of 1173 genes showed altered DNA methylation. Altered DNA methylation predominantly occurred as hypomethylation within the CpG island compared to DNA isolated from non-treated cells. Gene ontology analysis revealed that these genes were related to the cellular process of intracellular protein binding. There was no common effect of quetiapine with three mood stabilizers (lithium, valproate, and carbamazepine). However, common DNA methylation changes in eight genes, including ADRA1A, which encodes adrenoceptor alpha 1A, were found with quetiapine and lithium treatments. Finally, bisulfite-sequencing analysis revealed that quetiapine decreased the DNA methylation level of the promoter region of SLC6A4, where hypermethylation with bipolar disorder and hypomethylation with mood stabilizers have been reported.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia