1Drug Metab. Dispos. 2003 Jan 31: 60-6
TitleDifferences in cytochrome P450 forms involved in the metabolism of N,N-dipropyl-2-[4-methoxy-3-(2-phenylethoxy)phenyl]ethylamine monohydrochloride (NE-100), a novel sigma ligand, in human liver and intestine.
AbstractN,N-Dipropyl-2-[4-methoxy-3-(2-phenylethoxy)phenyl]ethylamine monohydrochloride (NE-100) has been developed to treat subjects with schizophrenia. This drug is mainly excreted in the form of oxidative metabolites. In the present study, identification of p450 forms involved in the metabolism was carried out using human livers and intestinal microsomes (HLM and HIM). Eadie-Hofstee plots for NE-100 disappearance in HLM were biphasic, thus indicating the involvement of at least two p450 forms. The metabolism of NE-100 was mediated with recombinant CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4. A significant correlation was observed between activities of NE-100 metabolism and dextromethorphan O-demethylation (a specific activity for CYP2D6) or testosterone 6beta-hydroxylation (a specific activity for CYP3A4) in HLM. The activity of NE-100 metabolism was inhibited by approximately 80% by an anti-CYP2D6 antibody and only by quinidine among the p450-selective inhibitors at a low substrate concentration (0.1 microM). In contrast, with a high substrate concentration (10 microM), the activity was inhibited by an anti-CYP3A4 antibody and by ketoconazole. On the other hand, in HIM, the Eadie-Hofstee plots for NE-100 disappearance were monophasic, and the metabolism was strongly inhibited by an anti-CYP3A4 antibody and by ketoconazole but not by other inhibitors used. These results strongly suggest that NE-100 has different profiles regarding metabolism between liver and intestine. During absorption, NE-100 is mainly metabolized by CYP3A4 in the intestine and thereafter by CYP2D6 in the liver in the presence of therapeutic doses.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia
2Arch. Toxicol. 2014 Mar 88: 691-9
TitleInhibition of tumour spheroid-induced prometastatic intravasation gates in the lymph endothelial cell barrier by carbamazepine: drug testing in a 3D model.
AbstractMetastatic breast cancer is linked to an undesired prognosis. One early and crucial metastatic step is the interaction of cancer emboli with adjacent stroma or endothelial cells, and understanding the mechanisms of this interaction provides the basis to define new targets as well as drugs for therapy and disease management. A three-dimensional (3D) co-culture model allowing the examination of lymphogenic dissemination of breast cancer cells was recently developed which facilitates not only the study of metastatic processes but also the testing of therapeutic concepts. This 3D setting consists of MCF-7 breast cancer cell spheroids (representing a ductal and hormone-dependent subtype) and of hTERT-immortalised lymph endothelial cell (LEC; derived from foreskin) monolayers. Tumour spheroids repel the continuous LEC layer, thereby generating "circular chemorepellent-induced defects" (CCIDs) that are reminiscent to the entry gates through which tumour emboli intravasate lymphatics. We found that the ion channel blocker carbamazepine (which is clinically used to treat epilepsy, schizophrenia and other neurological disorders) inhibited CCID formation significantly. This effect correlated with the inhibition of the activities of NF-?B, which contributes to cell motility, and with the inactivation of the mobility proteins MLC2, MYPT1 and FAK which are necessary for LEC migration. NF-?B activity and cell movement are prerequisites of CCID formation. On the other hand, the expression of the motility protein paxillin and of the NF-?B-dependent adhesion mediator ICAM-1 was unchanged. Also the activity of ALOX12 was unaffected. ALOX12 is the main enzyme synthesising 12(S)-HETE, which then triggers CCID formation. The relevance of the inhibition of CYP1A1, which is also involved in the generation of mid-chain HETEs such as 12(S)-HETE, by carbamazepine remains to be established, because the constitutive level of 12(S)-HETE did not change upon carbamazepine treatment. Nevertheless, the effect of carbamazepine on the inhibition of CCID formation as an early step of breast cancer metastasis was significant and substantial (~30 %) and achieved at concentrations that are found in the plasma of carbamazepine-treated adults (40-60 ?M). The fact that carbamazepine is a drug approved by the US Food and Drug Administration facilitates a "from-bench-to-bedside" perspective. Therefore, the here presented data should undergo scrutiny in vivo.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia
3Int Clin Psychopharmacol 2015 Mar 30: 82-8
TitlePharmacogenetics of quetiapine in healthy volunteers: association with pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and adverse effects.
AbstractQuetiapine is an atypical antipsychotic used for treatment of schizophrenia. Variability in response to this drug may be associated with pharmacogenetics. The aim of this study was to identify genetic markers related to the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and adverse effects of quetiapine. The study population comprised 79 healthy volunteers from two bioequivalence trials who were genotyped to identify polymorphisms in genes encoding enzymes, receptors, and transporters. Quetiapine plasma levels were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Prolactin plasma levels were detected by indirect chemiluminescence. Possible adverse effects were recorded throughout the study. Factors with P value of 0.1 or less in the univariate analysis were included in a multiple regression analysis (logistic regression for adverse reactions). The area under the curve and clearance of quetiapine were affected by polymorphisms in CYP1A2 and DRD3, respectively. Men had a lower quetiapine area under the curve compared with women. Prolactin iC(max) was higher in volunteers harboring polymorphisms in CYP2C19 and AGT. An association was detected between polymorphisms in CYP1A1 and CYP2C9 and somnolence. Several polymorphisms are responsible for differences in the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of quetiapine in healthy individuals.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia