1Pharmacogenet. Genomics 2008 Apr 18: 317-23
TitlePathway-based association analysis of genome-wide screening data suggest that genes associated with the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor signaling pathway are involved in neuroleptic-induced, treatment-resistant tardive dyskinesia.
AbstractNeuroleptic-induced tardive dyskinesia (TD) is an involuntary movement disorder that develops in patients who have undergone long-term treatment with antipsychotic medications, and its etiology is unclear. In this study, a genome-wide association screening was done to identify the pathway(s) in which genetic variations influence susceptibility to neuroleptic-induced TD.
Screening with Sentrix Human-1 Genotyping BeadChip (Illumina, San Diego, California, USA) was done for 50 Japanese schizophrenia patients with treatment-resistant TD and 50 Japanese schizophrenia patients without TD. A total of 40 573 single nucleotide polymorphisms that were not in linkage disequilibrium with each other and were located in the exonic and intronic regions of 13 307 genes were analyzed. After gene-based corrections, P values for allelic associations were subjected to canonical pathway-based analyses with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software (Ingenuity Systems, Inc., Redwood City, California, USA).
Eight genes (ABAT, ALDH9A1, GABRA3, GABRA4, GABRB2, GABRAG3, GPHN, and SLC6A11) contained polymorphisms with gene-based corrected allelic P values of less than 0.05. They were aggregated significantly in 33 genes belonging to the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor signaling pathway (P=0.00007, corrected P=0.01). Associations were replicated in an independent sample of 36 patients with TD and 136 patients without TD for polymorphisms in SLC6A11 (GABA transporter 3) (P=0.0004 in the total sample), GABRB2 (beta-2 subunit of GABA-A receptor) (P=0.00007 in the total sample), and GABRG3 (gamma-3 subunit of GABA-A receptor) (P=0.0006 in the total sample).
The results suggest that the GABA receptor signaling pathway may be involved in genetic susceptibility to treatment-resistant TD, at least in a subgroup of Japanese patients with schizophrenia. The present results suggest that benzodiazepines may be considered as possible treatment option for TD.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic
2Nord J Psychiatry 2014 Feb 68: 123-8
TitleGaba transporter SLC6A11 gene polymorphism associated with tardive dyskinesia.
AbstractGamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) insufficiency has been reported to be related to the tardive dyskinesia (TD) susceptibility. Inada et al. (Pharmacogenet Genomics 2008;18:317-23) identified eight genes belonging to GABA receptor signaling pathway that may be involved in TD susceptibility by genome-wide screening and they replicated associations in an independent sample for polymorphisms in SLC6A11 (GABA transporter 3), GABRG3 (c-3 subunit of GABA-A receptor) and GABRB2 (?-2 subunit of GABA-A receptor). In this study, we tried to replicate their finding in a larger Korean sample and find if any of the genes was associated with the susceptibility to TD.
We selected three polymorphisms in SLC6A11 (rs4684742), GABRG3 (rs2061051) and GABRB2 (rs918528) from the previous study. We carried out a case-control study (105 TD and 175 non-TD schizophrenic patients) to identify the association between the three candidate polymorphisms and susceptibility to TD and their epistatic interactions by using the multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) algorithm.
Among the three variants, SCL6A11 genotypes distribution showed a significant difference between the TD and non-TD patients (P = 0.049). However, GABRG3 and GABRB2 genotype distributions were not associated with TD (P = 0.268 and P = 0.976, respectively). Further, our analyses provided significant evidence for gene-gene interactions (SCL6A11, GABRG3 and GABRB2) in the development of TD. The odds ratio increased to 2.53 (CI = 1.515-4.217, P = 0.0003) when the genetic susceptibility to TD was analyzed with the three genes considered altogether through MDR approach.
These results suggest that GABA receptor signaling pathway was associated with the increased susceptibility to TD in Korean schizophrenic patients.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic