|1||Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet. 2008 Oct 147B: 1089-100|
|Title||Association analysis of schizophrenia on 18 genes involved in neuronal migration: MDGA1 as a new susceptibility gene.|
|Abstract||Several lines of evidence support the theory of schizophrenia (SZ) being a neurodevelopmental disorder. The structural, cytoarchitectural and functional brain abnormalities reported in patients with SZ, might be due to aberrant neuronal migration, since the final position of neurons affects neuronal function, morphology, and formation of synaptic connections. We have investigated the putative association between SZ and gene variants engaged in the neuronal migration process, by performing an association study on 839 cases and 1,473 controls of Scandinavian origin. Using a gene-wide approach, tagSNPs in 18 candidate genes have been genotyped, with gene products involved in the neuron-to-glial cell adhesion, interactions with the DISC1 protein and/or rearrangements of the cytoskeleton. Of the 289 markers tested, 19 markers located in genes MDGA1, RELN, ITGA3, DLX1, SPARCL1, and ASTN1, attained nominal significant P-values (P < 0.05) in either a genotypic or allelic association test. All of these genes, except transcription factor DLX1, are involved in the adhesion between neurons and radial glial cells. Eight markers obtained nominal significance in both tests, and were located in intronic or 3'UTR regions of adhesion molecule MDGA1 and previously reported SZ candidate RELN. The most significant result was attained for MDGA1 SNP rs9462341 (unadjusted association results: genotypic P = 0.00095; allelic P = 0.010). Several haplotypes within MDGA1, RELN, ITGA3, and ENAH were nominally significant. Further studies in independent samples are needed, including upcoming genome wide association study results, but our data suggest that MDGA1 is a new SZ susceptibility gene, and that altered neuronal migration is involved in SZ pathology.|
|2||Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry 2009 Dec -1: -1|
|Title||WITHDRAWN: Common polymorphisms in the MDGA1 gene are associated with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia in the Chinese Han population.|
|Abstract||This article has been withdrawn at the request of the authors. The Publisher apologizes for any inconvenience this may cause. The full Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy.|
|3||Schizophr. Res. 2011 Feb 125: 194-200|
|Title||The MDGA1 gene confers risk to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.|
|Abstract||The structural, cytoarchitectural and functional brain abnormalities reported in patients with mental disorders may be due to aberrant neuronal migration influenced by cell adhesion molecules. MDGA1, like Ig-containing cell adhesion molecules, has several cell adhesion molecule-like domains. Moreover, Kahler et al. (2008) reported that the MDGA1 gene was a schizophrenia susceptibility gene in Scandinavian population. To further investigate whether the MDGA1 gene is a shared risk factor of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder in Chinese Han population, we conducted this study.|
We recruited 1135 unrelated schizophrenia patients, 1135 unrelated bipolar disorder patients, 1135 unrelated major depressive disorder patients and 1135 unrelated controls of Chinese Han origin. A total of eleven common SNPs were genotyped using TaqManŽ technology.
The genotype frequency of rs11759115 differed significantly between schizophrenia patients and controls. The C-C haplotype of rs11759115-rs7769372 was also positively associated with schizophrenia (permutated p=0.046). Rs1883901 was found to be positively associated with bipolar disorder (allele: permutated p=0.0085; genotype: permutated p=0.0009; OR=1.31 [95%CI=1.12-1.52]). The A-G-G haplotype of rs1883901-rs10807187-rs9462343 was also positively associated with bipolar disorder with a global p value of 0.0391 after permutations. No individual SNP or haplotype was associated with major depressive disorder after permutations.
The MDGA1 gene may confer risk to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder in Chinese Han population.
|4||J. Cell Biol. 2013 Feb 200: 321-36|
|Title||Interaction between autism-linked MDGAs and neuroligins suppresses inhibitory synapse development.|
|Abstract||Rare variants in MDGAs (MAM domain-containing glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchors), including multiple protein-truncating deletions, are linked to autism and schizophrenia, but the function of these genes is poorly understood. Here, we show that MDGA1 and MDGA2 bound to neuroligin-2 inhibitory synapse-organizing protein, also implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders. MDGA1 inhibited the synapse-promoting activity of neuroligin-2, without altering neuroligin-2 surface trafficking, by inhibiting interaction of neuroligin-2 with neurexin. MDGA binding and suppression of synaptogenic activity was selective for neuroligin-2 and not neuroligin-1 excitatory synapse organizer. Overexpression of MDGA1 in cultured rat hippocampal neurons reduced inhibitory synapse density without altering excitatory synapse density. Furthermore, RNAi-mediated knockdown of MDGA1 selectively increased inhibitory but not excitatory synapse density. These results identify MDGA1 as one of few identified negative regulators of synapse development with a unique selectivity for inhibitory synapses. These results also place MDGAs in the neurexin-neuroligin synaptic pathway implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders and support the idea that an imbalance between inhibitory and excitatory synapses may contribute to these disorders.|