1PLoS ONE 2010 -1 5: e9401
TitleHotspots of large rare deletions in the human genome.
AbstractWe have examined the genomic distribution of large rare autosomal deletions in a sample of 440 parent-parent-child trios from the Quebec founder population (QFP) which was recruited for a study of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.
DNA isolated from blood was genotyped on Illumina Hap300 arrays. PennCNV combined with visual evaluation of images generated by the Beadstudio program was used to determine deletion boundary definition of sufficient precision to discern independent events, with near-perfect concordance between parent and child in about 98% of the 399 events detected in the offspring; the remaining 7 deletions were considered de novo. We defined several genomic regions of very high deletion frequency ('hotspots'), usually of 0.4-0.6 Mb in length where independent rare deletions were found at frequencies of up to 100 fold higher than the average for the genome as a whole. Five of the 7 de novo deletions were in these hotspots. The same hotspots were also observed in three other studies on members of the QFP, those with schizophrenia, with endometriosis and those from a longevity cohort.
Nine of the 13 hotspots carry one gene (7 of which are very long), while the rest contain no known genes. All nine genes have been implicated in disease. The patterns of exon deletions support the proposed roles for some of these genes in human disease, such as NRXN1 and PARKIN, and suggest limited roles or no role at all, for others, including MACROD2 and CTNNA3. Our results also offer an alternative interpretation for the observations of deletions in tumors which have been proposed as reflecting tumor-suppressive activity of genes in these hotspots.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia
2PLoS ONE 2013 -1 8: e51674
TitleBCL9 and C9orf5 are associated with negative symptoms in schizophrenia: meta-analysis of two genome-wide association studies.
Abstractschizophrenia is a chronic and debilitating psychiatric condition affecting slightly more than 1% of the population worldwide and it is a multifactorial disorder with a high degree of heritability (80%) based on family and twin studies. Increasing lines of evidence suggest intermediate phenotypes/endophenotypes are more associated with causes of the disease and are less genetically complex than the broader disease spectrum. Negative symptoms in schizophrenia are attractive intermediate phenotypes based on their clinical and treatment response features. Therefore, our objective was to identify genetic variants underlying the negative symptoms of schizophrenia by analyzing two genome-wide association (GWA) data sets consisting of a total of 1,774 European-American patients and 2,726 controls. Logistic regression analysis of negative symptoms as a binary trait (adjusted for age and sex) was performed using PLINK. For meta-analysis of two datasets, the fixed-effect model in PLINK was applied. Through meta-analysis we identified 25 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with negative symptoms with p<5◊10(-5). Especially we detected five SNPs in the first two genes/loci strongly associated with negative symptoms of schizophrenia (P(meta-analysis)<6.22◊10(-6)), which included three SNPs in the BCL9 gene: rs583583 showed the strongest association at a P(meta-analysis) of 6.00◊10(-7) and two SNPs in the C9orf5 (the top SNP is rs643410 with a p = 1.29 ◊10(-6)). Through meta-analysis, we identified several additional negative symptoms associated genes (ST3GAL1, RNF144, CTNNA3 and ZNF385D). This is the first report of the common variants influencing negative symptoms of schizophrenia. These results provide direct evidence of using of negative symptoms as an intermediate phenotype to dissect the complex genetics of schizophrenia. However, additional studies are warranted to examine the underlying mechanisms of these disease-associated SNPs in these genes.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia
3Front Psychiatry 2014 -1 5: 48
TitleGene-environment interactions in severe mental illness.
AbstractSevere mental illness (SMI) is a broad category that includes schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and severe depression. Both genetic disposition and environmental exposures play important roles in the development of SMI. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that the roles of genetic and environmental factors depend on each other. Gene-environment interactions may underlie the paradox of strong environmental factors for highly heritable disorders, the low estimates of shared environmental influences in twin studies of SMI, and the heritability gap between twin and molecular heritability estimates. Sons and daughters of parents with SMI are more vulnerable to the effects of prenatal and postnatal environmental exposures, suggesting that the expression of genetic liability depends on environment. In the last decade, gene-environment interactions involving specific molecular variants in candidate genes have been identified. Replicated findings include an interaction between a polymorphism in the AKT1 gene and cannabis use in the development of psychosis and an interaction between the length polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene and childhood maltreatment in the development of persistent depressive disorder. Bipolar disorder has been underinvestigated, with only a single study showing an interaction between a functional polymorphism in the BDNF gene and stressful life events triggering bipolar depressive episodes. The first systematic search for gene-environment interactions has found that a polymorphism in CTNNA3 may sensitize the developing brain to the pathogenic effect of cytomegalovirus in utero, leading to schizophrenia in adulthood. Strategies for genome-wide investigations will likely include coordination between epidemiological and genetic research efforts, systematic assessment of multiple environmental factors in large samples, and prioritization of genetic variants.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia
4Curr Behav Neurosci Rep 2014 Dec 1: 215-223
TitleGWAS, cytomegalovirus infection, and schizophrenia.
AbstractIn recent years good progress has been made in uncovering the genetic underpinnings of schizophrenia. Even so, as a polygenic disorder, schizophrenia has a complex etiology that is far from understood. Meanwhile data are being collected enabling the study of interactions between genes and the environment. A confluence of data from genetic and environmental exposure studies points to the role of infections and immunity in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. In a recent study by BÝrglum et al., a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the gene CTNNA3 was identified that may provide clues to gene-environment interactions. The carriers of the minor allele for the SNP had a 5 fold risk of later developing schizophrenia if their mothers were CMV positive, while the children not carrying the allele had no excess risk from maternal CMV. In the current paper we summarize recent advances to clarify possible mechanism of such interactions between the host genotype and infection in schizophrenia risk.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia
5Mol. Psychiatry 2014 Mar 19: 325-33
TitleGenome-wide study of association and interaction with maternal cytomegalovirus infection suggests new schizophrenia loci.
AbstractGenetic and environmental components as well as their interaction contribute to the risk of schizophrenia, making it highly relevant to include environmental factors in genetic studies of schizophrenia. This study comprises genome-wide association (GWA) and follow-up analyses of all individuals born in Denmark since 1981 and diagnosed with schizophrenia as well as controls from the same birth cohort. Furthermore, we present the first genome-wide interaction survey of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and maternal cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. The GWA analysis included 888 cases and 882 controls, and the follow-up investigation of the top GWA results was performed in independent Danish (1396 cases and 1803 controls) and German-Dutch (1169 cases, 3714 controls) samples. The SNPs most strongly associated in the single-marker analysis of the combined Danish samples were rs4757144 in ARNTL (P=3.78 ◊ 10(-6)) and rs8057927 in CDH13 (P=1.39 ◊ 10(-5)). Both genes have previously been linked to schizophrenia or other psychiatric disorders. The strongest associated SNP in the combined analysis, including Danish and German-Dutch samples, was rs12922317 in RUNDC2A (P=9.04 ◊ 10(-7)). A region-based analysis summarizing independent signals in segments of 100?kb identified a new region-based genome-wide significant locus overlapping the gene ZEB1 (P=7.0 ◊ 10(-7)). This signal was replicated in the follow-up analysis (P=2.3 ◊ 10(-2)). Significant interaction with maternal CMV infection was found for rs7902091 (P(SNP ◊ CMV)=7.3 ◊ 10(-7)) in CTNNA3, a gene not previously implicated in schizophrenia, stressing the importance of including environmental factors in genetic studies.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia
6PLoS ONE 2014 -1 9: e89910
TitleOrigin and loss of nested LRRTM/?-catenin genes during vertebrate evolution.
AbstractLeucine-rich repeat transmembrane neuronal proteins (LRRTMs) form in mammals a family of four postsynaptic adhesion proteins, which have been shown to bind neurexins and heparan sulphate proteoglycan (HSPG) glypican on the presynaptic side. Mutations in the genes encoding LRRTMs and neurexins are implicated in human cognitive disorders such as schizophrenia and autism. Our analysis shows that in most jawed vertebrates, lrrtm1, lrrtm2, and lrrtm3 genes are nested on opposite strands of large conserved intron of ?-catenin genes ctnna2, ctnna1, and CTNNA3, respectively. No lrrtm genes could be found in tunicates or lancelets, while two lrrtm genes are found in the lamprey genome, one of which is adjacent to a single ctnna homolog. Based on similar highly positive net charge of lamprey LRRTMs and the HSPG-binding LRRTM3 and LRRTM4 proteins, we speculate that the ancestral LRRTM might have bound HSPG before acquiring neurexins as binding partners. Our model suggests that lrrtm gene translocated into the large ctnna intron in early vertebrates, and that subsequent duplications resulted in three lrrtm/ctnna gene pairs present in most jawed vertebrates. However, we detected three prominent exceptions: (1) the lrrtm3/CTNNA3 gene structure is absent in the ray-finned fish genomes, (2) the genomes of clawed frogs contain ctnna1 but lack the corresponding nested (lrrtm2) gene, and (3) contain lrrtm3 gene in the syntenic position but lack the corresponding host (CTNNA3) gene. We identified several other protein-coding nested gene structures of which either the host or the nested gene has presumably been lost in the frog or chicken lineages. Interestingly, majority of these nested genes comprise LRR domains.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia
7PLoS ONE 2015 -1 10: e0116696
TitleInfection and inflammation in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: a genome wide study for interactions with genetic variation.
AbstractInflammation and maternal or fetal infections have been suggested as risk factors for schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BP). It is likely that such environmental effects are contingent on genetic background. Here, in a genome-wide approach, we test the hypothesis that such exposures increase the risk for SZ and BP and that the increase is dependent on genetic variants. We use genome-wide genotype data, plasma IgG antibody measurements against Toxoplasma gondii, Herpes simplex virus type 1, Cytomegalovirus, Human Herpes Virus 6 and the food antigen gliadin as well as measurements of C-reactive protein (CRP), a peripheral marker of inflammation. The subjects are SZ cases, BP cases, parents of cases and screened controls. We look for higher levels of our immunity/infection variables and interactions between them and common genetic variation genome-wide. We find many of the antibody measurements higher in both disorders. While individual tests do not withstand correction for multiple comparisons, the number of nominally significant tests and the comparisons showing the expected direction are in significant excess (permutation p=0.019 and 0.004 respectively). We also find CRP levels highly elevated in SZ, BP and the mothers of BP cases, in agreement with existing literature, but possibly confounded by our inability to correct for smoking or body mass index. In our genome-wide interaction analysis no signal reached genome-wide significance, yet many plausible candidate genes emerged. In a hypothesis driven test, we found multiple interactions among SZ-associated SNPs in the HLA region on chromosome 6 and replicated an interaction between CMV infection and genotypes near the CTNNA3 gene reported by a recent GWAS. Our results support that inflammatory processes and infection may modify the risk for psychosis and suggest that the genotype at SZ-associated HLA loci modifies the effect of these variables on the risk to develop SZ.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia