1Mol. Psychiatry 2001 Mar 6: 186-92
PMID11317221
TitleStructure and polymorphisms of the human metabotropic glutamate receptor type 2 gene (GRM2): analysis of association with schizophrenia.
AbstractMetabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) belong to the class of GTP-binding protein coupled receptors and consist of eight different subtypes. The subtype 2 metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR2) gene (GRM2) is one of the possible candidate genes for schizophrenia. Phencyclidine (PCP)-induced increase in glutamate efflux and schizophrenia-like behavioral abnormalities were reduced by pretreatment of the mGluRII agonist LY354740 in rats and its effects are mediated via mGluR2. To evaluate involvement of the mGluR2 gene in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, we isolated the human mGluR2 gene and determined the transcription initiation site, the entire nucleotide sequence and the chromosomal localization. The hmGluR2 gene spans 13 kb with six exons, including one non-coding exon. The gene was mapped to chromosome 3 p12-p11 by Radiation Hybrid Panel analysis. We screened polymorphisms in the coding exons of the mGluR2 gene, using the SSCP procedure. The thirteen polymorphisms identified included ten missense, one silent mutation and two one-base substitutions in the 5'-untranslated region. We genotyped 213 Japanese schizophrenics and 220 controls to study the association of polymorphisms in the mGluR2 gene with schizophrenia. As we found no statistically significant differences in allele frequencies of each polymorphism, these polymorphisms apparently do not play a major role in schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
2Mol. Psychiatry 2001 Mar 6: 186-92
PMID11317221
TitleStructure and polymorphisms of the human metabotropic glutamate receptor type 2 gene (GRM2): analysis of association with schizophrenia.
AbstractMetabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) belong to the class of GTP-binding protein coupled receptors and consist of eight different subtypes. The subtype 2 metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR2) gene (GRM2) is one of the possible candidate genes for schizophrenia. Phencyclidine (PCP)-induced increase in glutamate efflux and schizophrenia-like behavioral abnormalities were reduced by pretreatment of the mGluRII agonist LY354740 in rats and its effects are mediated via mGluR2. To evaluate involvement of the mGluR2 gene in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, we isolated the human mGluR2 gene and determined the transcription initiation site, the entire nucleotide sequence and the chromosomal localization. The hmGluR2 gene spans 13 kb with six exons, including one non-coding exon. The gene was mapped to chromosome 3 p12-p11 by Radiation Hybrid Panel analysis. We screened polymorphisms in the coding exons of the mGluR2 gene, using the SSCP procedure. The thirteen polymorphisms identified included ten missense, one silent mutation and two one-base substitutions in the 5'-untranslated region. We genotyped 213 Japanese schizophrenics and 220 controls to study the association of polymorphisms in the mGluR2 gene with schizophrenia. As we found no statistically significant differences in allele frequencies of each polymorphism, these polymorphisms apparently do not play a major role in schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
3J. Neurochem. 2006 Feb 96: 1139-48
PMID16417579
TitleAlternative splicing of human metabotropic glutamate receptor 3.
AbstractThe metabotropic glutamate receptor 3 (GRM3, mGluR3) is important in regulating synaptic glutamate. Here, we report the existence of three splice variants of GRM3 in human brain arising from exon skipping events. The transcripts are expressed in prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum, and in B lymphoblasts. We found no evidence for alternative splicing of GRM2. The most abundant GRM3 variant lacks exon 4 (GRM3Delta4). In silico translation analysis of GRM3Delta4 predicts a truncated protein with a conserved extracellular ligand binding domain, absence of a seven-transmembrane domain, and a unique 96-amino acid C-terminus. When expressed in rat hippocampal neurons, GRM3Delta4 is translated into a 60 kDa protein. Immunostaining and cell fractionation data indicate that the truncated protein is primarily membrane-associated. An antibody developed against the GRM3Delta4 C-terminus detects a protein of approximately 60 kDa in human brain lysates and in B lymphoblasts, suggesting translation of GRM3Delta4 in vivo. The existence of the GRM3Delta4 isoform is relevant in the light of the reported association of non-coding single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in GRM3 with schizophrenia, and with the potential of GRM3 as a therapeutic target for several neuropsychiatric disorders.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
4Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2008 Oct 18: 768-72
PMID18614340
TitleFurther evidence for a functional role of the glutamate receptor gene GRM3 in schizophrenia.
AbstractIn recent years, evidence has been accumulating indicating a major role of glutamate in the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Of particular importance in this regard are the metabotropic glutamate receptors (GRM). Thus, a recently published trial of the amino acid analogue LY2140023, which exerts its effects through the activation of the glutamate receptors GRM3/GRM2, showed an improvement of positive and negative symptoms comparable to treatment with olanzapine. A functional variant of GRM3 has been described which modulates synaptic glutamate levels. We assessed whether this functional variant rs6465084 is related to schizophrenia in a large sample of patients and controls. We found an increased frequency of the A allele (p=0.027) and the AA genotype (p=0.024) in schizophrenia patients. Moreover, in an assessment of schizophrenia endophenotypes, patients of the AA genotype performed poorly in the digit symbol test, a measure of attention (p=0.008). Our results provide further evidence for the potential importance of the glutamate receptor GRM3 in schizophrenia, and indicate that the novel antipsychotic LY2140023 may actually be targeting a pathogenic pathway of schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
5Synapse 2008 Nov 62: 842-50
PMID18720515
TitleAltered hippocampal expression of glutamate receptors and transporters in GRM2 and GRM3 knockout mice.
AbstractGroup II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR2 and mGluR3, also called mGlu2 and mGlu3, encoded by GRM2 and GRM3, respectively) are therapeutic targets for several psychiatric disorders. GRM3 may also be a schizophrenia susceptibility gene. mGluR2-/- and mGluR3-/- mice provide the only unequivocal means to differentiate between these receptors, yet interpretation of in vivo findings may be complicated by secondary effects on expression of other genes. To address this issue, we examined the expression of NMDA receptor subunits (NR1, NR2A, NR2B) and glutamate transporters (EAAT1-3), as well as the remaining group II mGluR, in the hippocampus of mGluR2-/- and mGluR3-/- mice, compared with wild-type controls. mGluR2 mRNA was increased in mGluR3-/- mice, and vice versa. NR2A mRNA was increased in both knockout mice. EAAT1 (GLAST) mRNA and protein, and EAAT2 (GLT-1) protein, were reduced in mGluR3-/- mice, whereas EAAT3 (EAAC1) mRNA was decreased in mGluR2-/- mice. Transcripts for NR1 and NR2B were unchanged. The findings show a compensatory upregulation of the remaining group II metabotropic glutamate receptor in the knockout mice. Upregulation of NR2A expression suggests modified NMDA receptor signaling in mGluR2-/- and mGluR3-/- mice, and downregulation of glutamate transporter expression suggests a response to altered synaptic glutamate levels. The results show a mutual interplay between mGluR2 and mGluR3, and also provide a context in which to interpret behavioral and electrophysiological results in these mice.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
6J. Psychopharmacol. (Oxford) 2008 May 22: 308-22
PMID18541626
TitleThe group II metabotropic glutamate receptor 3 (mGluR3, mGlu3, GRM3): expression, function and involvement in schizophrenia.
AbstractGroup II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) comprise mGluR2 (mGlu2; encoded by GRM2) and mGluR3 (mGlu3; encoded by GRM3) and modulate glutamate neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity. Here we review the expression and function of mGluR3 and its involvement in schizophrenia. mGluR3 is expressed by glia and neurons in many brain regions and has a predominantly presynaptic distribution, consistent with its role as an inhibitory autoreceptor and heteroceptor. mGluR3 splice variants exist in human brain but are of unknown function. Differentiation of mGluR3 from mGluR2 has been problematic because of the lack of selective ligands and antibodies; the available data suggest particular roles for mGluR3 in long-term depression, in glial function and in neuroprotection. Some but not all studies find genetic association of GRM3 polymorphisms with psychosis, with the risk alleles also being associated with schizophrenia-related endophenotypes such as impaired cognition, cortical activation and glutamate markers. The dimeric form of mGluR3 may be reduced in the brain in schizophrenia. Finally, preclinical findings have made mGluR3 a putative therapeutic target, and now direct evidence for antipsychotic efficacy of a group II mGluR agonist has emerged from a randomised clinical trial in schizophrenia. Together these data implicate mGluR3 in aetiological, pathophysiological and pharmacotherapeutic aspects of the disorder.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
7Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry 2010 May 34: 639-44
PMID20211215
TitleAssociation analysis of GRM2 and HTR2A with methamphetamine-induced psychosis and schizophrenia in the Japanese population.
AbstractAbnormalities in glutaminergic neural transmission have been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. A recent study reported that alterations in the 5-HT2A-mGluR2 complex may be involved in neural transmission in the schizophrenic cortex. In addition, methamphetamine-induced psychosis is thought to be similar to schizophrenia. Therefore, we conducted a case-control study with Japanese samples (738 schizophrenia patients, 196 methamphetamine-induced psychosis patients, and 802 controls) to evaluate the association and interaction between GRM2, HTR2A and schizophrenia.
We selected three 'tagging SNPs' in GRM2, and two biologically functional SNPs in HTR2A (T102C and A1438G), for the association analysis.
We detected a significant association between methamphetamine-induced psychosis and GRM2 in a haplotype-wise analysis, but not HTR2A. We did not detect an association between GRM2 or HTR2A and schizophrenia. In addition, no interactions of GRM2 and HTR2A were found in methamphetamine-induced psychosis or schizophrenia. We did not detect any novel polymorphisms in GRM2 when we performed a mutation search using methamphetamine-induced psychosis samples.
Our results suggested that GRM2 may play a role in the pathophysiology of methamphetamine-induced psychosis but not schizophrenia in the Japanese population. A replication study using larger samples or samples of other populations will be required for conclusive results.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
8Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry 2010 May 34: 639-44
PMID20211215
TitleAssociation analysis of GRM2 and HTR2A with methamphetamine-induced psychosis and schizophrenia in the Japanese population.
AbstractAbnormalities in glutaminergic neural transmission have been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. A recent study reported that alterations in the 5-HT2A-mGluR2 complex may be involved in neural transmission in the schizophrenic cortex. In addition, methamphetamine-induced psychosis is thought to be similar to schizophrenia. Therefore, we conducted a case-control study with Japanese samples (738 schizophrenia patients, 196 methamphetamine-induced psychosis patients, and 802 controls) to evaluate the association and interaction between GRM2, HTR2A and schizophrenia.
We selected three 'tagging SNPs' in GRM2, and two biologically functional SNPs in HTR2A (T102C and A1438G), for the association analysis.
We detected a significant association between methamphetamine-induced psychosis and GRM2 in a haplotype-wise analysis, but not HTR2A. We did not detect an association between GRM2 or HTR2A and schizophrenia. In addition, no interactions of GRM2 and HTR2A were found in methamphetamine-induced psychosis or schizophrenia. We did not detect any novel polymorphisms in GRM2 when we performed a mutation search using methamphetamine-induced psychosis samples.
Our results suggested that GRM2 may play a role in the pathophysiology of methamphetamine-induced psychosis but not schizophrenia in the Japanese population. A replication study using larger samples or samples of other populations will be required for conclusive results.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
9Neuropsychopharmacology 2011 Dec 36: 2616-28
PMID21832989
TitleFractionation of spatial memory in GRM2/3 (mGlu2/mGlu3) double knockout mice reveals a role for group II metabotropic glutamate receptors at the interface between arousal and cognition.
AbstractGroup II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR2 and mGluR3, encoded by GRM2 and GRM3) are implicated in hippocampal function and cognition, and in the pathophysiology and treatment of schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders. However, pharmacological and behavioral studies with group II mGluR agonists and antagonists have produced complex results. Here, we studied hippocampus-dependent memory in GRM2/3 double knockout (GRM2/3(-/-)) mice in an iterative sequence of experiments. We found that they were impaired on appetitively motivated spatial reference and working memory tasks, and on a spatial novelty preference task that relies on animals' exploratory drive, but were unimpaired on aversively motivated spatial memory paradigms. GRM2/3(-/-) mice also performed normally on an appetitively motivated, non-spatial, visual discrimination task. These results likely reflect an interaction between GRM2/3 genotype and the arousal-inducing properties of the experimental paradigm. The deficit seen on appetitive and exploratory spatial memory tasks may be absent in aversive tasks because the latter induce higher levels of arousal, which rescue spatial learning. Consistent with an altered arousal-cognition relationship in GRM2/3(-/-) mice, injection stress worsened appetitively motivated, spatial working memory in wild-types, but enhanced performance in GRM2/3(-/-) mice. GRM2/3(-/-) mice were also hypoactive in response to amphetamine. This fractionation of hippocampus-dependent memory depending on the appetitive-aversive context is to our knowledge unique, and suggests a role for group II mGluRs at the interface of arousal and cognition. These arousal-dependent effects may explain apparently conflicting data from previous studies, and have translational relevance for the involvement of these receptors in schizophrenia and other disorders.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
10Neuropharmacology 2012 Mar 62: 1204-20
PMID21557953
TitleMouse models of genetic effects on cognition: relevance to schizophrenia.
AbstractCognitive dysfunction is a core feature of schizophrenia. Growing evidence indicates that a wide variety of genetic mutations and polymorphisms impact cognition and may thus be implicated in various aspects of this mental disorder. Despite differences between human and rodent brain structure and function, genetic mouse models have contributed critical information about brain mechanisms involved in cognitive processes. Here, we summarize discoveries of genetic modifications in mice that impact cognition. Based on functional hypotheses, gene modifications within five model systems are described: 1) dopamine (D1, D2, D3, D4, D5, DAT, COMT, MAO); 2) glutamate (GluR-A, NR1, NR2A, NR2B, GRM2, GRM3, GLAST); 3) GABA (?(5), ?(2), ?(4), ?GABA(A), GABA(B(1)), GAT1); 4) acetylcholine (nAChR?2, ?7, CHRM1); and 5) calcium (CaMKII-?, neurogranin, CaMKK?, CaMKIV). We also consider other risk-associated genes for schizophrenia such as dysbindin (DTNBP1), neuregulin (NRG1), disrupted-in-schizophrenia1 (DISC1), reelin and proline dehydrogenase (PRODH). Because of the presumed importance of environmental factors, we further consider genetic modifications within the stress-sensitive systems of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the endocannabinoid systems. We highlight the missing information and limitations of cognitive assays in genetically modified mice models relevant to schizophrenia pathology.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
11Nat. Neurosci. 2012 Sep 15: 1245-54
PMID22864611
TitleHDAC2 regulates atypical antipsychotic responses through the modulation of mGlu2 promoter activity.
AbstractHistone deacetylases (HDACs) compact chromatin structure and repress gene transcription. In schizophrenia, clinical studies demonstrate that HDAC inhibitors are efficacious when given in combination with atypical antipsychotics. However, the molecular mechanism that integrates a better response to antipsychotics with changes in chromatin structure remains unknown. Here we found that chronic atypical antipsychotics downregulated the transcription of metabotropic glutamate 2 receptor (mGlu2, also known as GRM2), an effect that was associated with decreased histone acetylation at its promoter in mouse and human frontal cortex. This epigenetic change occurred in concert with a serotonin 5-HT(2A) receptor-dependent upregulation and increased binding of HDAC2 to the mGlu2 promoter. Virally mediated overexpression of HDAC2 in frontal cortex decreased mGlu2 transcription and its electrophysiological properties, thereby increasing psychosis-like behavior. Conversely, HDAC inhibitors prevented the repressive histone modifications induced at the mGlu2 promoter by atypical antipsychotics, and augmented their therapeutic-like effects. These observations support the view of HDAC2 as a promising new target for schizophrenia treatment.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
12Gene 2013 Feb 515: 163-6
PMID23149219
TitleEvaluation of hypermethylation and expression pattern of GMR2, GMR5, GMR8, and GRIA3 in patients with schizophrenia.
AbstractEmerging evidence suggests a role of dysfunction of glutamatergic neurotransmission and its receptors in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia (SCZ). This study evaluated whether the promoter hypermethylation and RNA expression pattern of GMR2 (glutamate metabotropic receptor), GMR5, GMR8, and GRIA3 (glutamate receptor, ionotropic alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid) are associated with the risk of schizophrenia between schizophrenia patients and healthy controls.
Methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MS-PCR) was used to estimate the promoter hypermethylation of GMR2, GMR5, GMR8, and GRIA3 genes on 81 isolated genomic DNA samples from the peripheral blood of individuals with schizophrenia and 71 healthy control subjects. In addition, real-time reverse transcription-PCR was used to estimate mRNA levels in 34 blood samples of healthy controls and cases.
The methylation of GRM2 and GRM5 greatly decreased the risk of schizophrenia in comparison to the reference unmethylated pattern [OR=0.38, 95% CI; 0.144-1.035, p=0.05; OR=0.06, 95% CI; 0.007-0.54.10, p=0.01], respectively. The methylation of GRIA3 highly increased the risk of schizophrenia, but non-significant (OR=2.3, 95% CI; 0.51-10.42). The outcomes of the expression analysis revealed a statistically significant difference between the cases (n=17) and healthy controls (n=17) regarding the relative gene expression of GRM2, GRM5, and GRIA3 (p=0.0001).
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first evidence showing that the promoter methylation of the GMR2 and GMR5 genes greatly decreased the risk of schizophrenia, and the expression level of the GRM2, GRM5, and GRIA3 genes increased significantly in patients in comparison to healthy controls. These outcomes suggest that there is a need for more attention to be paid to the effect of epigenetic variations in the development of SCZ in further investigations.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
13BMC Neurosci 2013 -1 14: 102
PMID24053122
TitleDecreased striatal dopamine in group II metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGlu2/mGlu3) double knockout mice.
AbstractGroup II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGlu2 and mGlu3, encoded by GRM2 and Grm3) have been the focus of attention as treatment targets for a number of psychiatric conditions. Double knockout mice lacking mGlu2 and mGlu3 (mGlu2/3-/-) show a subtle behavioural phenotype, being hypoactive under basal conditions and in response to amphetamine, and with a spatial memory deficit that depends on the arousal properties of the task. The neurochemical correlates of this profile are unknown. Here, we measured tissue levels of dopamine, 5-HT, noradrenaline and their metabolites in the striatum and frontal cortex of mGlu2/3-/- double knockout mice, using high performance liquid chromatography. We also measured the same parameters in mGlu2-/- and mGlu3-/- single knockout mice.
mGlu2/3-/-mice had reduced dopamine levels in the striatum but not in frontal cortex, compared to wild-types. In a separate cohort we replicated this deficit and, using tissue punches, found it was more prominent in the nucleus accumbens than in dorsolateral striatum. Noradrenaline, 5-HT and their metabolites were not altered in the striatum of mGlu2/3-/- mice, although the noradrenaline metabolite MHPG was increased in the cortex. In mGlu2-/- and mGlu3-/- single knockout mice we found no difference in any monoamine or metabolite, in either brain region, compared to their wild-type littermates.
Group II metabotropic glutamate receptors impact upon striatal dopamine. The effect may contribute to the behavioural phenotype of mGlu2/3-/- mice. The lack of dopaminergic alterations in mGlu2-/- and mGlu3-/- single knockout mice reveals a degree of redundancy between the two receptors. The findings support the possibility that interactions between mGlu2/3 and dopamine may be relevant to the pathophysiology and therapy of schizophrenia and other disorders.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
14Neuropharmacology 2014 Nov 86: 311-8
PMID25150943
TitleEvaluation of 5-HT2A and mGlu2/3 receptors in postmortem prefrontal cortex of subjects with major depressive disorder: effect of antidepressant treatment.
AbstractSeveral studies have demonstrated alterations in serotonin 5-HT2A (5-HT2AR) and glutamate metabotropic mGlu2 (mGlu2R) receptors in depression, but never in the same sample population. Recently it has been shown that both receptors form a functional receptor heterocomplex that is altered in schizophrenia. The present study evaluates the gene expression and protein density of 5-HT2AR and mGlu2/3R in the postmortem prefrontal cortex of subjects with major depressive disorder (n=14) compared with control subjects (n=14) in a paired design. No significant differences between subjects with depression and controls in the relative mRNA levels of the genes HTR2A, GRM2 and GRM3 were observed. The 5-HT2AR density evaluated by [(3)H]ketanserin binding was significantly lower in antidepressant-treated subjects (Bmax=31317fmol/mg protein; p<0.05) compared to controls (Bmax=36012fmol/mg protein) but not in antidepressant-free subjects (Bmax=39416fmol/mg protein; p>0.05). In rats, chronic treatment with citalopram (10mg/kg/day) and mirtazapine (5mg/kg/day) decreased mRNA expression and 5-HT2AR density whereas reboxetine (20mg/kg/day) modified only mRNA expression. The mGlu2/3R density evaluated by [(3)H]LY341495 binding was not significantly different between depression and control subjects. The present results demonstrate no changes in expression and density of both 5-HT2AR and mGlu2/3R in the postmortem prefrontal cortex of subjects with major depressive disorder under basal conditions. However, antidepressant treatment induces a decrease in 5-HT2AR density. This finding suggests that 5-HT2AR down-regulation may be a mechanism for antidepressant effect.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
15PLoS ONE 2015 -1 10: e0125523
PMID25950516
TitleDeletion of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors 2 and 3 (mGlu2 & mGlu3) in Mice Disrupts Sleep and Wheel-Running Activity, and Increases the Sensitivity of the Circadian System to Light.
AbstractSleep and/or circadian rhythm disruption (SCRD) is seen in up to 80% of schizophrenia patients. The co-morbidity of schizophrenia and SCRD may in part stem from dysfunction in common brain mechanisms, which include the glutamate system, and in particular, the group II metabotropic glutamate receptors mGlu2 and mGlu3 (encoded by the genes GRM2 and Grm3). These receptors are relevant to the pathophysiology and potential treatment of schizophrenia, and have also been implicated in sleep and circadian function. In the present study, we characterised the sleep and circadian rhythms of GRM2/3 double knockout (GRM2/3-/-) mice, to provide further evidence for the involvement of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors in the regulation of sleep and circadian rhythms. We report several novel findings. Firstly, GRM2/3-/- mice demonstrated a decrease in immobility-determined sleep time and an increase in immobility-determined sleep fragmentation. Secondly, GRM2/3-/- mice showed heightened sensitivity to the circadian effects of light, manifested as increased period lengthening in constant light, and greater phase delays in response to nocturnal light pulses. Greater light-induced phase delays were also exhibited by wildtype C57Bl/6J mice following administration of the mGlu2/3 negative allosteric modulator RO4432717. These results confirm the involvement of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors in photic entrainment and sleep regulation pathways. Finally, the diurnal wheel-running rhythms of GRM2/3-/- mice were perturbed under a standard light/dark cycle, but their diurnal rest-activity rhythms were unaltered in cages lacking running wheels, as determined with passive infrared motion detectors. Hence, when assessing the diurnal rest-activity rhythms of mice, the choice of assay can have a major bearing on the results obtained.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics
16Schizophr. Res. 2016 Apr -1: -1
PMID27130562
TitleMetabotropic glutamate receptor 3 (mGlu3; mGluR3; GRM3) in schizophrenia: Antibody characterisation and a semi-quantitative western blot study.
AbstractMetabotropic glutamate receptor 3 (mGlu3, mGluR3), encoded by GRM3, is a risk gene for schizophrenia and a therapeutic target. It is unclear whether expression of the receptor is altered in the disorder or related to GRM3 risk genotype. Antibodies used to date to assess mGlu3 in schizophrenia have not been well validated.
To characterise six commercially available anti-mGlu3 antibodies for use in human brain, and then conduct a semi-quantitative study of mGlu3 immunoreactivity in schizophrenia.
Antibodies tested using Grm3(-/-) and GRM2(-/-)/3(-/-) mice and transfected HEK293T/17 cells. Western blotting on membrane protein isolated from superior temporal cortex of 70 patients with schizophrenia and 87 healthy comparison subjects, genotyped for GRM3 SNP rs10234440.
One (out of six) anti-mGlu3 antibodies was fully validated, a C-terminal antibody which detected monomeric (~100kDa) and dimeric (~200kDa) mGlu3. A second, N-terminal, antibody detected the 200kDa band but also produced non-specific bands. Using the C-terminal antibody for western blotting in human brain, mGlu3 immunoreactivity was found to decline with age, and was affected by pH and post mortem interval. There were no differences in monomeric or dimeric mGlu3 immunoreactivity in schizophrenia or in relation to GRM3 genotype. The antibody was not suitable for immunohistochemistry.
These data highlight the value of knockout mouse tissue for antibody validation, and the need for careful antibody characterisation. The schizophrenia data show that involvement of GRM3 in the disorder and its genetic risk architecture is not reflected in total membrane mGlu3 immunoreactivity in superior temporal cortex.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizophrenics