1Proteomics 2012 Jun 12: 1815-29
TitleRoles of interferon-gamma and its target genes in schizophrenia: Proteomics-based reverse genetics from mouse to human.
AbstractA decreased production of interferon gamma (IFNG) has been observed in acute schizophrenia. In order to explore the possible relationship between IFNG and schizophrenia, we attempted to analyze the differentially expressed proteins in the brains of interferon-gamma knockout (IFNG-KO) mice. Five upregulated and five downregulated proteins were identified with 2D gels and MALDI-TOF/TOF MS analyses in IFNG-KO mouse brain. Of the identified proteins, we focused on creatine kinase brain (CKB) and triose phosphate isomerase 1 (TPI1). Consistent with the proteomic data, reverse transcriptase-mediated PCR, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry analyses confirmed that the levels of gene expressions of Ckb and Tpi1 were downregulated and upregulated, respectively. When we analyzed the genetic polymorphisms of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of their human orthologous genes in a Korean population, the promoter SNPs of CKB and TPI1 were weakly associated with schizophrenia. In addition, IFNG polymorphisms were associated with schizophrenia. These results suggest that IFNG and proteins affected by IFNG may play a role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia
2Mol. Biol. Rep. 2013 Oct 40: 5607-14
TitleGenetic variants in transforming growth factor-? gene (TGFB1) affect susceptibility to schizophrenia.
AbstractImmense body of evidence indicates that dysfunction of immune system is implicated in the etiology of schizophrenia. The immune theory of schizophrenia is supported by alterations in cytokine profile in the brain and peripheral blood. Given the strong genetic background of schizophrenia, it might be assumed that aberrant production of cytokines might be the consequence of genetic factors. This study aimed at investigating the association between schizophrenia susceptibility and selected functional polymorphisms in genes encoding cytokines including: interleukin-2 (IL2 -330T>G, rs2069756), interleukin-6 (IL-6 -174G>C, rs1800795), interferon-? (IFNG +874T>A, rs2430561) as well as for the first time transforming growth factor-?1 (TGFB1 +869T>C, rs1800470 and +916G>C, rs1800471). We recruited 151 subjects with schizophrenia and 279 controls. There was a significant difference in the genotype distribution and allelic frequency of the TGFB1 +869T>C between patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls (p < 0.05). The risk of schizophrenia was more than two-fold higher in carriers of T allele (CT+TT genotypes) than individuals with CC genotype. Given documented gender differences in incidence of schizophrenia, we conducted separate analyses of male and female participants. We have shown that the association was significant in females, while in males it reached a trend toward statistical significance. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first report showing the association between TGFB1 +869T>C polymorphism and schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia
3J Neuroinflammation 2016 -1 13: 105
TitlePro-inflammatory cytokines and their epistatic interactions in genetic susceptibility to schizophrenia.
AbstractIn schizophrenia, genetic background may provide a substrate for intrinsic maldevelopment of the brain through environmental influences, by recruiting neurotrophic factors and cytokines, to trigger the changes that lead to impaired neuronal functions. Cytokines being the key regulators of immune/inflammatory reactions are also known to influence the dopaminergic, noradrenergic, and serotonergic neurotransmission. Therefore, functional polymorphisms in cytokine genes may result in imbalances in the pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine production.
We screened polymorphisms in pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine genes using a case-control association study in a South Indian population. The role of allele, genotype, haplotype, and diplotypes of these cytokine genes and their epistatic interactions were assessed in contributing to the risk of developing schizophrenia. Meta-analysis for the reported associations was also monitored for global significance.
The pro-inflammatory cytokine gene polymorphisms in IL1Ars1800587, IL6rs1800796, TNFArs361525, and IFNGrs2069718 were associated with schizophrenia. The study also provides significant evidence for strong epistatic interactions among pro-inflammatory cytokine genes IL6 and IFNG in the development of schizophrenia. In silico analysis suggested that associated risk variants were indicative of altered transcriptional activity with higher production of IL1?, IL-6, TNF-?, and IFN-? cytokines. Meta-analysis indicated heterogeneity among study population while IL1Ars1800587 was found to be globally significant.
It is important to identify the nature of inflammatory response that can be amplified by the environment, to influence either Th1 response or Th2 response. The associated functional variants in the study are involved with increased expression resulting in higher production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1?, IL-6, TNF-?, and IFN-?. The interaction of immunological stressors with these high producer alleles of pro-inflammatory cytokines may suggest that even a lower threshold may be sufficient to induce a resultant chronic effect on the psycho-social and environmental stressors that may result in the development and pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Understanding environmental factors that influence the expression of these pro-inflammatory cytokine genes or their interaction can possibly help in dissecting the phenotypic variation and therapeutic response to antipsychotics in schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia