1Mol. Psychiatry 2007 Dec 12: 1129-39, 1057
PMID17667961
TitleLRRTM1 on chromosome 2p12 is a maternally suppressed gene that is associated paternally with handedness and schizophrenia.
AbstractLeft-right asymmetrical brain function underlies much of human cognition, behavior and emotion. Abnormalities of cerebral asymmetry are associated with schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders. The molecular, developmental and evolutionary origins of human brain asymmetry are unknown. We found significant association of a haplotype upstream of the gene LRRTM1 (Leucine-rich repeat transmembrane neuronal 1) with a quantitative measure of human handedness in a set of dyslexic siblings, when the haplotype was inherited paternally (P=0.00002). While we were unable to find this effect in an epidemiological set of twin-based sibships, we did find that the same haplotype is overtransmitted paternally to individuals with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder in a study of 1002 affected families (P=0.0014). We then found direct confirmatory evidence that LRRTM1 is an imprinted gene in humans that shows a variable pattern of maternal downregulation. We also showed that LRRTM1 is expressed during the development of specific forebrain structures, and thus could influence neuronal differentiation and connectivity. This is the first potential genetic influence on human handedness to be identified, and the first putative genetic effect on variability in human brain asymmetry. LRRTM1 is a candidate gene for involvement in several common neurodevelopmental disorders, and may have played a role in human cognitive and behavioral evolution.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizotypy, schizotypal
2Mol. Psychiatry 2009 Aug 14: 743-5
PMID19626025
TitleSupporting evidence for LRRTM1 imprinting effects in schizophrenia.
Abstract-1
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizotypy, schizotypal
3Neuron 2009 Mar 61: 734-49
PMID19285470
TitleAn unbiased expression screen for synaptogenic proteins identifies the LRRTM protein family as synaptic organizers.
AbstractDelineating the molecular basis of synapse development is crucial for understanding brain function. Cocultures of neurons with transfected fibroblasts have demonstrated the synapse-promoting activity of candidate molecules. Here, we performed an unbiased expression screen for synaptogenic proteins in the coculture assay using custom-made cDNA libraries. Reisolation of NGL-3/LRRC4B and neuroligin-2 accounts for a minority of positive clones, indicating that current understanding of mammalian synaptogenic proteins is incomplete. We identify LRRTM1 as a transmembrane protein that induces presynaptic differentiation in contacting axons. All four LRRTM family members exhibit synaptogenic activity, LRRTMs localize to excitatory synapses, and artificially induced clustering of LRRTMs mediates postsynaptic differentiation. We generate LRRTM1(-/-) mice and reveal altered distribution of the vesicular glutamate transporter VGLUT1, confirming an in vivo synaptic function. These results suggest a prevalence of LRR domain proteins in trans-synaptic signaling and provide a cellular basis for the reported linkage of LRRTM1 to handedness and schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizotypy, schizotypal
4Laterality 2009 Jan 14: 11-6
PMID19125367
TitleUnderstanding the genetics of behavioural and psychiatric traits will only be achieved through a realistic assessment of their complexity.
AbstractFrancks et al. (2007) performed a recent study in which the first putative genetic effect on human handedness was identified (the imprinted locus LRRTM1 on human chromosome 2). In this issue of Laterality, Tim Crow and colleagues present a critique of that study. The present paper presents a personal response to that critique which argues that Francks et al. (2007) published a substantial body of evidence implicating LRRTM1 in handedness and schizophrenia. Progress will now be achieved by others trying to validate, refute, or extend those findings, rather than by further armchair discussion.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizotypy, schizotypal
5J. Neurosci. 2010 Jun 30: 7495-506
PMID20519524
TitleLRRTMs and neuroligins bind neurexins with a differential code to cooperate in glutamate synapse development.
AbstractLeucine-rich repeat transmembrane neuronal proteins (LRRTMs) were recently found to instruct presynaptic and mediate postsynaptic glutamatergic differentiation. In a candidate screen, here we identify neurexin-1beta lacking an insert at splice site 4 (-S4) as a ligand for LRRTM2. Neurexins bind LRRTM2 with a similar affinity but distinct code from the code for binding neuroligin-1 (the predominant form of neuroligin-1 at glutamate synapses, containing the B splice site insert). Whereas neuroligin-1 binds to neurexins 1, 2, and 3 beta but not alpha variants, regardless of insert at splice site 4, LRRTM2 binds to neurexins 1, 2, and 3 alpha and beta variants specifically lacking an insert at splice site 4. We further show that this binding code is conserved in LRRTM1, the family member linked to schizophrenia and handedness, and that the code is functional in a coculture hemisynapse formation assay. Mutagenesis of LRRTM2 to prevent binding to neurexins abolishes presynaptic inducing activity of LRRTM2. Remarkably, mutagenesis of neurexins shows that the binding face on neurexin-1beta (-S4) is highly overlapping for the structurally distinct LRRTM2 and neuroligin-1 partners. Finally, we explore here the interplay of neuroligin-1 and LRRTM2 in synapse regulation. In neuron cultures, LRRTM2 is more potent than neuroligin-1 in promoting synaptic differentiation, and, most importantly, these two families of neurexin-binding partners cooperate in an additive or synergistic manner. Thus, we propose a synaptic code hypothesis suggesting that neurexins are master regulators of the cooperative activities of LRRTMs and neuroligins.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizotypy, schizotypal
6Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 2011 Feb 68: 148-57
PMID21041608
TitleFamily-based analysis of genetic variation underlying psychosis-inducing effects of cannabis: sibling analysis and proband follow-up.
AbstractIndividual differences exist in sensitivity to the psychotomimetic effect of cannabis; the molecular genetic basis underlying differential sensitivity remains elusive.
To investigate whether selected schizophrenia candidate single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) moderate effects of cannabis use.
Interactions between recent cannabis use, determined by urinalysis results, and 152 SNPs in 42 candidate genes were examined in 740 unaffected siblings of 801 patients with psychosis to examine genetic moderation of the association between Structured Interview for schizotypy-Revised positive schizotypy and recent cannabis use (at-risk paradigm). The SNPs showing Bonferroni-adjusted association in the at-risk paradigm were used in a case-only analysis in the 801 patients, as well as in a case-sibling and case-control analysis (using 419 controls) focusing on genetic moderation of developmental effects of cannabis on later psychotic disorder.
The Netherlands and Flanders, Belgium.
Eight hundred one patients with psychosis and their 740 unaffected siblings.
Significant interaction between any of the selected SNPs and cannabis in the at-risk paradigm, followed by selective case-only, case-sibling, and case-control analyses.
In the unaffected siblings, 16 SNPs in 12 genes showed significant interaction at P < .05, 3 of which survived correction for multiple testing (P < .0003), situated in AKT1 (rs2494732 and rs1130233) and LRRTM1 (rs673871). Follow-up analysis supported AKT1 rs2494732 cannabis interaction in the case-only (? = 0.20; P = .007), case-sibling (interaction P = .040), and case-control (interaction P = .057) analyses, with individuals with C/C genotypes having an approximately 2-fold odds of being diagnosed with a psychotic disorder when having used cannabis. In the unaffected siblings, the AKT1 cannabis interaction explained 2.2% additional variance in schizotypy in the whole sample and 19.0% additional variance in the exposed siblings with recent cannabis use.
Genetic variation in AKT1 may mediate both short-term as well as longer-term effects on psychosis expression associated with use of cannabis, possibly through a mechanism of cannabinoid-regulated AKT1/GSK-3 signaling downstream of the dopamine D(2) receptor.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizotypy, schizotypal
7Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 2011 Feb 68: 148-57
PMID21041608
TitleFamily-based analysis of genetic variation underlying psychosis-inducing effects of cannabis: sibling analysis and proband follow-up.
AbstractIndividual differences exist in sensitivity to the psychotomimetic effect of cannabis; the molecular genetic basis underlying differential sensitivity remains elusive.
To investigate whether selected schizophrenia candidate single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) moderate effects of cannabis use.
Interactions between recent cannabis use, determined by urinalysis results, and 152 SNPs in 42 candidate genes were examined in 740 unaffected siblings of 801 patients with psychosis to examine genetic moderation of the association between Structured Interview for schizotypy-Revised positive schizotypy and recent cannabis use (at-risk paradigm). The SNPs showing Bonferroni-adjusted association in the at-risk paradigm were used in a case-only analysis in the 801 patients, as well as in a case-sibling and case-control analysis (using 419 controls) focusing on genetic moderation of developmental effects of cannabis on later psychotic disorder.
The Netherlands and Flanders, Belgium.
Eight hundred one patients with psychosis and their 740 unaffected siblings.
Significant interaction between any of the selected SNPs and cannabis in the at-risk paradigm, followed by selective case-only, case-sibling, and case-control analyses.
In the unaffected siblings, 16 SNPs in 12 genes showed significant interaction at P < .05, 3 of which survived correction for multiple testing (P < .0003), situated in AKT1 (rs2494732 and rs1130233) and LRRTM1 (rs673871). Follow-up analysis supported AKT1 rs2494732 cannabis interaction in the case-only (? = 0.20; P = .007), case-sibling (interaction P = .040), and case-control (interaction P = .057) analyses, with individuals with C/C genotypes having an approximately 2-fold odds of being diagnosed with a psychotic disorder when having used cannabis. In the unaffected siblings, the AKT1 cannabis interaction explained 2.2% additional variance in schizotypy in the whole sample and 19.0% additional variance in the exposed siblings with recent cannabis use.
Genetic variation in AKT1 may mediate both short-term as well as longer-term effects on psychosis expression associated with use of cannabis, possibly through a mechanism of cannabinoid-regulated AKT1/GSK-3 signaling downstream of the dopamine D(2) receptor.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizotypy, schizotypal
8Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2011 Jul 411: 56-61
PMID21708131
TitleBidirectional transcription from human LRRTM2/CTNNA1 and LRRTM1/CTNNA2 gene loci leads to expression of N-terminally truncated CTNNA1 and CTNNA2 isoforms.
Abstract?-Catenins (CTNNAs) are essential for the regulation of cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions in tissues. All human CTNNA genes contain antisense oriented leucine rich repeat transmembrane (LRRTM) genes within their seventh introns. Recently, a haplotype upstream of one of the human LRRTM genes, LRRTM1 that resides in CTNNA2, was shown to be associated with handedness and schizophrenia. Here, we show that both CTNNA1 and CTNNA2 contain alternative 5' exons linked to bidirectional promoters that are shared with the antisense oriented LRRTM2 and LRRTM1 genes, respectively. We demonstrate that bidirectional activity of these promoters results in alternative CTNNA1 and CTNNA2 transcripts that are expressed at high levels in the nervous system and show that N-terminally truncated CTNNA1 and CTNNA2 proteins lacking the ?-catenin interaction domain are produced from these alternative CTNNA mRNAs. In addition, our results indicate that the haplotype that affects LRRTM1 expression and is associated with schizophrenia and handedness, could also influence the expression of brain-enriched alternative transcripts of CTNNA2.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizotypy, schizotypal
9PLoS ONE 2011 -1 6: e22716
PMID21818371
TitleImpaired cognitive function and altered hippocampal synapse morphology in mice lacking Lrrtm1, a gene associated with schizophrenia.
AbstractRecent genetic linkage analysis has shown that LRRTM1 (Leucine rich repeat transmembrane neuronal 1) is associated with schizophrenia. Here, we characterized LRRTM1 knockout mice behaviorally and morphologically. Systematic behavioral analysis revealed reduced locomotor activity in the early dark phase, altered behavioral responses to novel environments (open-field box, light-dark box, elevated plus maze, and hole board), avoidance of approach to large inanimate objects, social discrimination deficit, and spatial memory deficit. Upon administration of the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801, LRRTM1 knockout mice showed both locomotive activities in the open-field box and responses to the inanimate object that were distinct from those of wild-type mice, suggesting that altered glutamatergic transmission underlay the behavioral abnormalities. Furthermore, administration of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (fluoxetine) rescued the abnormality in the elevated plus maze. Morphologically, the brains of LRRTM1 knockout mice showed reduction in total hippocampus size and reduced synaptic density. The hippocampal synapses were characterized by elongated spines and diffusely distributed synaptic vesicles, indicating the role of LRRTM1 in maintaining synaptic integrity. Although the pharmacobehavioral phenotype was not entirely characteristic of those of schizophrenia model animals, the impaired cognitive function may warrant the further study of LRRTM1 in relevance to schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizotypy, schizotypal
10Mol. Cell. Neurosci. 2013 Sep 56: 128-39
PMID23628905
TitlePredicting protein-protein interactions in the post synaptic density.
AbstractThe post synaptic density (PSD) is a specialization of the cytoskeleton at the synaptic junction, composed of hundreds of different proteins. Characterizing the protein components of the PSD and their interactions can help elucidate the mechanism of long-term changes in synaptic plasticity, which underlie learning and memory. Unfortunately, our knowledge of the proteome and interactome of the PSD is still partial and noisy. In this study we describe a computational framework to improve the reconstruction of the PSD network. The approach is based on learning the characteristics of PSD protein interactions from a set of trusted interactions, expanding this set with data collected from large scale repositories, and then predicting novel interaction with proteins that are suspected to reside in the PSD. Using this method we obtained thirty predicted interactions, with more than half of which having supporting evidence in the literature. We discuss in details two of these new interactions, LRRTM1 with PSD-95 and Src with Capg. The first may take part in a mechanism underlying glutamatergic dysfunction in schizophrenia. The second suggests an alternative mechanism to regulate dendritic spines maturation.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizotypy, schizotypal
11PLoS ONE 2014 -1 9: e89910
PMID24587117
TitleOrigin and loss of nested LRRTM/?-catenin genes during vertebrate evolution.
AbstractLeucine-rich repeat transmembrane neuronal proteins (LRRTMs) form in mammals a family of four postsynaptic adhesion proteins, which have been shown to bind neurexins and heparan sulphate proteoglycan (HSPG) glypican on the presynaptic side. Mutations in the genes encoding LRRTMs and neurexins are implicated in human cognitive disorders such as schizophrenia and autism. Our analysis shows that in most jawed vertebrates, LRRTM1, lrrtm2, and lrrtm3 genes are nested on opposite strands of large conserved intron of ?-catenin genes ctnna2, ctnna1, and ctnna3, respectively. No lrrtm genes could be found in tunicates or lancelets, while two lrrtm genes are found in the lamprey genome, one of which is adjacent to a single ctnna homolog. Based on similar highly positive net charge of lamprey LRRTMs and the HSPG-binding LRRTM3 and LRRTM4 proteins, we speculate that the ancestral LRRTM might have bound HSPG before acquiring neurexins as binding partners. Our model suggests that lrrtm gene translocated into the large ctnna intron in early vertebrates, and that subsequent duplications resulted in three lrrtm/ctnna gene pairs present in most jawed vertebrates. However, we detected three prominent exceptions: (1) the lrrtm3/ctnna3 gene structure is absent in the ray-finned fish genomes, (2) the genomes of clawed frogs contain ctnna1 but lack the corresponding nested (lrrtm2) gene, and (3) contain lrrtm3 gene in the syntenic position but lack the corresponding host (ctnna3) gene. We identified several other protein-coding nested gene structures of which either the host or the nested gene has presumably been lost in the frog or chicken lineages. Interestingly, majority of these nested genes comprise LRR domains.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizotypy, schizotypal
12Exp. Neurol. 2014 Mar 253: 126-37
PMID24382453
TitleThe PSD protein ProSAP2/Shank3 displays synapto-nuclear shuttling which is deregulated in a schizophrenia-associated mutation.
AbstractRecently, mutations in ProSAP2/Shank3 have been discovered as one of the genetic factors for schizophrenia (SCZ). Here, we show that the postsynaptic density protein ProSAP2/Shank3 undergoes activity dependent synapse-to-nucleus shuttling in hippocampal neurons. Our study shows that the de novo mutation (R1117X) in ProSAP2/Shank3 that was identified in a patient with SCZ leads to an accumulation of mutated ProSAP2/Shank3 within the nucleus independent of synaptic activity. Furthermore, we identified novel nuclear ProSAP2/Shank3 interaction partners. Nuclear localization of mutated ProSAP2/Shank3 alters transcription of several genes, among them already identified genetic risk factors for SCZ such as Synaptotagmin 1 and LRRTM1. Comparing the SCZ mutation of ProSAP2/Shank3 to the knockdown of ProSAP2/Shank3 we found some shared features such as reduced synaptic density in neuronal cultures. However, hippocampal neurons expressing the ProSAP2/Shank3 SCZ mutation furthermore show altered E/I ratio and reduced dendritic branching. Thus, we conclude that the uncoupling of ProSAP2/Shank3 nuclear shuttling from synaptic activity may represent a molecular mechanism that contributes to the pathology of SCZ in patients with mutations in ProSAP2/Shank3.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizotypy, schizotypal
13Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet. 2014 Oct 165B: 555-63
PMID25111784
TitleHypomethylation of the paternally inherited LRRTM1 promoter linked to schizophrenia.
AbstractEpigenetic effects on psychiatric traits remain relatively under-studied, and it remains unclear what the sizes of individual epigenetic effects may be, or how they vary between different clinical populations. The gene LRRTM1 (chromosome 2p12) has previously been linked and associated with schizophrenia in a parent-of-origin manner in a set of affected siblings (LOD?=?4.72), indirectly suggesting a disruption of paternal imprinting at this locus in these families. From the same set of siblings that originally showed strong linkage at this locus, we analyzed 99 individuals using 454-bisulfite sequencing, from whole blood DNA, to measure the level of DNA methylation in the promoter region of LRRTM1. We also assessed seven additional loci that would be informative to compare. Paternal identity-by-descent sharing at LRRTM1, within sibling pairs, was linked to their similarity of methylation at the gene's promoter. Reduced methylation at the promoter showed a significant association with schizophrenia. Sibling pairs concordant for schizophrenia showed more similar methylation levels at the LRRTM1 promoter than diagnostically discordant pairs. The alleles of common SNPs spanning the locus did not explain this epigenetic linkage, which can therefore be considered as largely independent of DNA sequence variation and would not be detected in standard genetic association analysis. Our data suggest that hypomethylation at the LRRTM1 promoter, particularly of the paternally inherited allele, was a risk factor for the development of schizophrenia in this set of siblings affected with familial schizophrenia, and that had previously showed linkage at this locus in an affected-sib-pair context.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizotypy, schizotypal
14Psychiatr. Genet. 2014 Apr 24: 75-80
PMID24322325
TitleSequencing of five left-right cerebral asymmetry genes in a cohort of schizophrenia and schizotypal disorder patients from Russia.
Abstractschizophrenia is a severe psychiatric disorder, affecting ?1% of the human population. The genetic contribution to schizophrenia is significant, but the genetics are complex and many aspects of brain functioning, from neural development to synapse structure, seem to be involved in the pathogenesis. A novel way to study the molecular causes of schizophrenia is to study the genetics of left-right (LR) brain asymmetry, the disease feature often observed in schizophrenic patients.
In this study, we analyzed by sequencing five candidate LR cerebral asymmetry genes in a cohort of 95 schizophrenia and schizotypal disorder patients from Saint Petersburg, Russia. The gene list included LMO4, LRRTM1, FOXP2, the PCDH11X/Y gene pair, and SRY.
We found 17 previously unreported variants in the genes LRRTM1, FOXP2, LMO4, and PCDH11X in the 3'-UTR and 5'-UTR. The variants might contribute toward an altered mRNA processing, which could lead to altered mRNA amounts in developing neurons of the brain and establishment of an incorrect LR asymmetry profile.
This is the first study in which multiple candidate genes for cerebral LR asymmetry and schizophrenia have been analyzed by sequencing. The approach to study the genetics of schizophrenia from the perspective of an LR cerebral asymmetry disturbance deserves more attention.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizotypy, schizotypal
15Psychiatr. Genet. 2014 Apr 24: 75-80
PMID24322325
TitleSequencing of five left-right cerebral asymmetry genes in a cohort of schizophrenia and schizotypal disorder patients from Russia.
Abstractschizophrenia is a severe psychiatric disorder, affecting ?1% of the human population. The genetic contribution to schizophrenia is significant, but the genetics are complex and many aspects of brain functioning, from neural development to synapse structure, seem to be involved in the pathogenesis. A novel way to study the molecular causes of schizophrenia is to study the genetics of left-right (LR) brain asymmetry, the disease feature often observed in schizophrenic patients.
In this study, we analyzed by sequencing five candidate LR cerebral asymmetry genes in a cohort of 95 schizophrenia and schizotypal disorder patients from Saint Petersburg, Russia. The gene list included LMO4, LRRTM1, FOXP2, the PCDH11X/Y gene pair, and SRY.
We found 17 previously unreported variants in the genes LRRTM1, FOXP2, LMO4, and PCDH11X in the 3'-UTR and 5'-UTR. The variants might contribute toward an altered mRNA processing, which could lead to altered mRNA amounts in developing neurons of the brain and establishment of an incorrect LR asymmetry profile.
This is the first study in which multiple candidate genes for cerebral LR asymmetry and schizophrenia have been analyzed by sequencing. The approach to study the genetics of schizophrenia from the perspective of an LR cerebral asymmetry disturbance deserves more attention.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizotypy, schizotypal
16Psychiatr. Genet. 2014 Apr 24: 75-80
PMID24322325
TitleSequencing of five left-right cerebral asymmetry genes in a cohort of schizophrenia and schizotypal disorder patients from Russia.
Abstractschizophrenia is a severe psychiatric disorder, affecting ?1% of the human population. The genetic contribution to schizophrenia is significant, but the genetics are complex and many aspects of brain functioning, from neural development to synapse structure, seem to be involved in the pathogenesis. A novel way to study the molecular causes of schizophrenia is to study the genetics of left-right (LR) brain asymmetry, the disease feature often observed in schizophrenic patients.
In this study, we analyzed by sequencing five candidate LR cerebral asymmetry genes in a cohort of 95 schizophrenia and schizotypal disorder patients from Saint Petersburg, Russia. The gene list included LMO4, LRRTM1, FOXP2, the PCDH11X/Y gene pair, and SRY.
We found 17 previously unreported variants in the genes LRRTM1, FOXP2, LMO4, and PCDH11X in the 3'-UTR and 5'-UTR. The variants might contribute toward an altered mRNA processing, which could lead to altered mRNA amounts in developing neurons of the brain and establishment of an incorrect LR asymmetry profile.
This is the first study in which multiple candidate genes for cerebral LR asymmetry and schizophrenia have been analyzed by sequencing. The approach to study the genetics of schizophrenia from the perspective of an LR cerebral asymmetry disturbance deserves more attention.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizotypy, schizotypal
17J. Hum. Genet. 2014 Jun 59: 332-6
PMID24785688
TitleThe imprinted gene LRRTM1 mediates schizotypy and handedness in a nonclinical population.
AbstractImprinted genes have been posited to have important roles in human brain development and cognition, but their effects in nonclinical populations have yet to be investigated. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the imprinted gene LRRTM1 have previously been associated with schizophrenia risk and with handedness in individuals with dyslexia. We tested the hypothesis that genetic variation (SNPs) and epigenetic variation (methylation) in this gene are associated with schizotypy and handedness in a nonclinical population. Risk alleles of the three schizophrenia-linked SNPs were associated with significantly and substantially higher levels of total schizotypy. Variation in SNP genotypes was not associated with handedness, but levels of methylation in a block of CpG sites in the putative LRRTM1 promoter region were associated with more-mixed handedness. These findings provide evidence of continuity between schizophrenia and schizotypy with regard to the psychological effects of allelic variation in this imprinted gene, and show that epigenetic variation in an imprinted gene mediates the development and expression of human handedness.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizotypy, schizotypal
18J. Hum. Genet. 2014 Jun 59: 332-6
PMID24785688
TitleThe imprinted gene LRRTM1 mediates schizotypy and handedness in a nonclinical population.
AbstractImprinted genes have been posited to have important roles in human brain development and cognition, but their effects in nonclinical populations have yet to be investigated. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the imprinted gene LRRTM1 have previously been associated with schizophrenia risk and with handedness in individuals with dyslexia. We tested the hypothesis that genetic variation (SNPs) and epigenetic variation (methylation) in this gene are associated with schizotypy and handedness in a nonclinical population. Risk alleles of the three schizophrenia-linked SNPs were associated with significantly and substantially higher levels of total schizotypy. Variation in SNP genotypes was not associated with handedness, but levels of methylation in a block of CpG sites in the putative LRRTM1 promoter region were associated with more-mixed handedness. These findings provide evidence of continuity between schizophrenia and schizotypy with regard to the psychological effects of allelic variation in this imprinted gene, and show that epigenetic variation in an imprinted gene mediates the development and expression of human handedness.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia, schizophrenic, schizotypy, schizotypal