1Psychiatry Res 2012 Jul 198: 202-6
TitleInvestigating association of four gene regions (GABRB3, MAOB, PAH, and SLC6A4) with five symptoms in schizophrenia.
AbstractRecently, microsatellite polymorphisms have been reported to be associated with four genes, GABRB3, MAOB, PAH, and SLC6A4, and their relationships have been tested to five symptom factors: hallucinations, delusions, negative symptoms, mania, and depression. These factors were frequently present in schizophrenia spectrum disorders in the Irish Study of High Density schizophrenia Families (ISHDSF) with a proband with the diagnosis of schizophrenia (Bergen et al., 2009). Of these, GABRB3 and PAH were reported to be significantly associated with hallucinations and delusions in a 90-family subset of the ISHDSF, respectively. In this study, we tested the association of genetic markers from these four gene regions with the approximate five clinical symptoms, based upon 256 schizophrenia patients, with genotypic data obtained by higher resolution single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping. We found one GABRB3 SNP (rs1426891, 70.8kb downstream of this gene) and haplotype constructed by three SNPs (rs1426891, rs2912602, and rs2912600) were significantly associated with hallucinations in Caucasians after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing (Bonferroni corrected P: 0.032 and 0.016, respectively). Additionally, we found one haplotype constructed by two SNPs, rs5905587-rs37615860, in MAOB/NDP gene region was significantly associated with delusions in all samples tested (Bonferroni corrected P: 0.048). These results provide additional evidence that GABRB3 and MAOB/NDP gene regions might constitute risk factors for hallucinations and delusions in schizophrenia.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia
2Compr Psychiatry 2016 Apr 66: 53-8
TitleComparing how co-morbid depression affects individual domains of functioning and life satisfaction in schizophrenia.
AbstractDepression in schizophrenia is often associated with reduced life satisfaction. Yet, it is not clear how depression influences different functioning domains. The relative impact across objective and subjective quality of life (QOL) has also not been clearly compared. This study sought to examine the differences in individual QOL indicators between schizophrenia patients with and without co-morbid depression. This was completed separately for objective and subjective QOL.
57 patients with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder were classified into groups with (DP: N=31, M=45.81, SD=10.29) and without depression (NDP: N=26, M=40.54, SD=11.00) using MADRS scores. Objective and subjective QOL was assessed using Lehman's (1988) QOL Interview using five domains: daily activities and functioning, family relations, social relations, safety and health. z-scores were created for these domains (objective and subjective) based on responses from 44 healthy controls (M=39.80, SD=13.94).
Objectively, DP patients had significantly reduced social interaction frequency compared to HCs. Subjectively, DP patients had significantly poorer scores than HCs on all five domains, and additionally reported poorer satisfaction with daily activities and health compared with the NDP group.
Presence of depression in schizophrenia results in reduced self-reported life satisfaction across a broad spectrum of QOL domains. Objectively, depression resulted in decreased interactions with friends and peers, i.e. greater social isolation. The findings support the need to continue developing and implementing peer support groups in schizophrenia, a challenging task especially in the face of depression. More broadly, the assessment of depression in other illnesses is recommended.
SCZ Keywordsschizophrenia